German submarine U-995

  (Redirected from U-995)

German submarine U-995 is a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. She was laid down on 25 November 1942 by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg, Germany, and commissioned on 16 September 1943 with Oberleutnant zur See Walter Köhntopp in command.

U-995 Type VIIC/41 at the Laboe Naval Memorial
U-995 Type VIIC/41 at the Laboe Naval Memorial
History
Nazi Germany
NameU-995
Ordered14 October 1941
BuilderBlohm & Voss, Hamburg
Yard number195
Laid down25 November 1942
Launched22 July 1943
Commissioned16 September 1943
FateSurrendered on 9 May 1945
Norway
NameKaura
AcquiredOctober 1948
Commissioned1 December 1952
Decommissioned1965
StatusMuseum ship at Laboe Naval Memorial since October 1971
General characteristics
Class and typeType VIIC/41 submarine
Displacement
  • 759 tonnes (747 long tons) surfaced
  • 860 t (846 long tons) submerged
Length
Beam
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Draught4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion
Speed
  • 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
  • 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range
  • 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth
  • 230 m (750 ft)
  • Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement4 officers, 40–56 enlisted
Armament
Service record (Kriegsmarine)
Part of:
Identification codes: M 55 095
Commanders:
Operations:
  • 9 patrols:
  • 1st patrol:
  • a. 18 – 23 May 1944
  • b. 30 June – 1 July 1944
  • 2nd patrol:
  • a. 3 – 28 July 1944
  • b. 30 July – 2 August 1944
  • c. 17 – 19 August 1944
  • d. 23 – 24 August 1944
  • e. 26 August 1944
  • 3rd patrol:
  • a. 29 August – 11 September 1944
  • b. 12 – 14 September 1944
  • 4th patrol:
  • 25 September – 3 October 1944
  • 5th patrol:
  • 14 October – 11 November 1944
  • 6th patrol:
  • 30 November – 9 December 1944
  • 7th patrol:
  • 11 December 1944 – 7 January 1945
  • 8th patrol:
  • 2 February – 6 March 1945
  • 9th patrol:
  • a. 13 – 25 March 1945
  • b. 26 – 28 March 1945
Victories:
  • 3 merchant ships sunk
    (1,560 GRT)
  • 1 warship sunk
    (105 tons)
  • 1 auxiliary warship sunk
    (633 GRT)
  • 1 merchant ship total loss
    (7,176 GRT)

DesignEdit

German Type VIIC/41 submarines were preceded by the heavier Type VIIC submarines. U-995 had a displacement of 759 tonnes (747 long tons) when at the surface and 860 tonnes (850 long tons) while submerged.[1] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[1]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph).[1] When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-995 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, and three anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[1]

ArmamentEdit

FLAK weaponryEdit

U-995 was mounted with a single 3.7 cm Flak M42 gun on the LM 42U mount. The LM 42U mount was the most common mount used with the 3.7 cm Flak M42U. The 3.7 cm Flak M42U was the marine version of the 3.7 cm Flak and was also used by the Kriegsmarine on other Type VII and Type IX U-boats.

Additionally, the boat was armed with a pair of twin Flak 38 20mm "Flakzwilling" mounts immediately adjacent to the 37mm gun mount.

SonarEdit

Passive sonarEdit

U-995 was fitted with a Royal Norwegian Navy design Balkongerät sometime during the 1960s and then removed sometime between 4 November 1971 and 13 March 1972.[2]

Service historyEdit

The boat's career began with training at 5th Flotilla on 16 September 1943, followed by active service on 1 June 1944 as part of the 13th Flotilla. She later transferred to 14th Flotilla on 1 March 1945.

WolfpacksEdit

U-995 took part in five wolfpacks, namely:

  • Dachs (1 – 5 September 1944)
  • Zorn (26 September – 1 October 1944)
  • Panther (16 October – 10 November 1944)
  • Stier (11 December 1944 – 6 January 1945)
  • Hagen (17 – 21 March 1945)

FateEdit

At the end of the war, on 8 May 1945, U-995 was stricken at Trondheim, Norway. She was surrendered to the British on 9 December[4] and then transferred to Norwegian ownership in October 1948. On 1 December 1952 U-995 became the Norwegian submarine Kaura (Norwegian K class) and in 1965 she was stricken from service by the Royal Norwegian Navy. She then was offered to the West German government for the ceremonial price of one Deutsche Mark. The offer was refused; however, the boat was saved by the German Navy League, DMB. U-995 became a museum ship at Laboe Naval Memorial in October 1971.

Summary of raiding historyEdit

Date Ship Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[5]
5 December 1944 Proletarij   Soviet Union 1,123 Sunk
21 December 1944 Reshitel'nyj   Soviet Union 20 Sunk
26 December 1944 RT-52 Som   Soviet Union 417 Sunk
29 December 1944 T-883 (No 37)   Soviet Navy 633 Sunk
2 March 1945 BO-224   Soviet Navy 105 Sunk
20 March 1945 Horace Bushnell   United States 7,176 Total loss

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

Other surviving U-boatsEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Gröner, Jung & Maass 1991, pp. 43–46.
  2. ^ Wetzel, Eckard. U-995. Motorbuch Verlag; Erw. N.-A. edition (1 November 2004). ISBN 978-3613024250.
  3. ^ a b This drawing is based foremost on the internal framing of the Type VIIC and photographs of U-995's. Its dimensions and attachment points are based principally on the external framing of the Type VIIC.
  4. ^ Blair, p. 819.
  5. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-995". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 March 2015.

BibliographyEdit

  • Clay Blair : Hitler's U-Boat War Vol II (1998). ISBN 978-0-394-58839-1
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. Vol. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). Vol. IV. Hamburg; Berlin; Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 54°24′45″N 10°13′44″E / 54.41250°N 10.22889°E / 54.41250; 10.22889