Tyro was the daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, and she married Cretheus but loved Enipeus. Tyro gave birth to Pelias and Neleus, the twin sons of Poseidon. With Cretheus she had Aeson, Pheres, and Amythaon. In some accounts, Tyro had a daughter named Phalanna who gave her name to city of Phalanna in Thessaly.
|Tyro's family tree|
Her father, Salmoneus, was the brother of Athamas and Sisyphus. Tyro was married to her uncle Cretheus, whom she bore three sons, Aeson, Amythaon, and Pheres. However, she loved the river god Enipeus, who refused her advances. One day, Poseidon, filled with lust for Tyro, disguised himself as Enipeus and from their union was born Pelias and Neleus, twin boys. Tyro exposed her sons on a mountain to die, but they were found by a herdsman who raised them as his own. When the twins reached adulthood, they found Tyro and killed her stepmother, Sidero, for having mistreated their mother (Salmoneus married Sidero when Alcidice, his wife and the mother of Tyro, died). Sidero hid in a temple to Hera but Pelias killed her anyway, causing Hera's undying hatred of Pelias – and her glorious patronage of Jason and the Argonauts in their long quest for the Golden Fleece. Pelias' half brother Aeson, the son of Tyro and Cretheus, was the father of Jason. Soon after, Tyro married Sisyphus, her paternal uncle and had two children. It was said that their children would kill Salmoneus, so Tyro killed them in order to save her father.
"And by the beach-run, Tyro,
Twisted arms of the sea-god,
Lithe sinews of water, gripping her, cross-hold,
And the blue-gray glass of the wave tents them,
Glare azure of water, cold-welter, close cover."
In a later Canto (74) Pound connects her to Alcmene, imprisoned in the world of the dead, but in a later paradisal vision he sees her "ascending":
thick smoke, purple, rising
bright flame now on the altar
the crystal funnel of air
out of Erebus, the delivered,
Tyro, Alcmene, free now, ascending
[...] no shades more (Canto 90)
- Homer (2009-01-16) [c 800 BCE]. "Book XI: The visit to the dead. 235–260". The Odyssey. Translated by Samuel Butler (10th ed.). Project Gutenberg. EBook #1727. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, 175
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.68.2–3
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Φάλαννα
- Homer, Odyssey 11. 236–7, but Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 30 (Merkelbach-West) says she fought with Salmoneus and was rescued by Zeus and led to the house of Cretheus, where she was raised. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.9.8 confirms this.
- Hamilton, Edith (1969) . "Brief Myths Arranged Alphabetically". Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes (Renewal ed.). New York: Mentor Books. p. 313. ISBN 0-451-62803-9.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1.9.8 adds that Pelias refused thereafter to honor Hera
- Hyginus, Fabulae 60 & 239
- Pound, Ezra. The Cantos. New York: New Directions, 1998.
- Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1989. Vol. 3. Books 4.59–8. Online version at Bill Thayer's Web Site
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica. Vol 1-2. Immanel Bekker. Ludwig Dindorf. Friedrich Vogel. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1888–1890. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- Hesiod, Catalogue of Women from Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica translated by Evelyn-White, H G. Loeb Classical Library Volume 57. London: William Heinemann, 1914. Online version at theio.com
- Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, edited by August Meineike (1790-1870), published 1849. A few entries from this important ancient handbook of place names have been translated by Brady Kiesling. Online version at the Topos Text Project.