Type 38 rifle

The Type 38 rifle (三八式歩兵銃, sanhachi-shiki hoheijū) is a bolt-action service rifle that was used by the Empire of Japan predominantly during the Second Sino-Japanese War and Second World War.[6] The design was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1905 (the 38th year of the Meiji period, hence "Type 38"). Due to a lack of power in its 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka cartridge, it was partially replaced during the war with the Type 99 rifle, but both rifles saw usage until the end of the war.[7]

Type 38 rifle
Type 38 rifle.png
Type 38 rifle from the collections of the Swedish Army Museum
TypeService/bolt-action rifle
Place of originEmpire of Japan
Service history
In service1906–1945 (Japan)
Used bySee Users
WarsMexican Revolution[1]
Mexican Border War[2]
World War I
Russian Civil War
Second Sino-Japanese War
World War II
Chinese Civil War
Indonesian National Revolution
Malayan Emergency
Korean War
First Indochina War
Vietnam War[citation needed]
Production history
No. built3,579,200[3]
VariantsCarbine & cavalry carbine
Mass4.19 kg (9 lb 4 oz)[4]
3.3 kg (7 lb 4 oz) (carbine)
Length1,275 mm (50.2 in)[4]
966 mm (38.0 in) (carbine)
Barrel length797 mm (31.4 in)
487 mm (19.2 in) (carbine)

Cartridge6.5×50mm Arisaka
7.62×39mm (post-war Chinese modified)[5]
ActionBolt action
Rate of fire10-15 rounds per minute[4]
Muzzle velocity762 m/s (2,500 ft/s) Type 38 cartridge[4]
Effective firing range366–457 m (400–500 yd) (with iron sight)[4]
Maximum firing range2.37 km (1.47 mi) (6.5×50mm Arisaka)[4]
Feed system5-round magazine

History and developmentEdit

The Imperial Japanese Army introduced the Type 30 rifle in 1897. However, the weapon had numerous shortcomings, which were highlighted by combat experience in the early stages of the Russo-Japanese War. These included bursting cartridges, a poorly designed lock in which excess gunpowder tended to accumulate, burning the face of the shooter, frequent misfires, jamming, difficulty in cleaning, and cartridge extraction. Major Kijiro Nambu undertook a redesign of the Type 30, which was introduced in 1906. Nambu reduced the number of parts making up the Type 30's bolt from nine to six and at that same time simplified manufacture and disassembly of the bolt without the need for tools.[8] A dust cover was added because of experiences in the Russo-Japanese War that left rifles inoperable from dust.[9] The weapon was produced in several locations:

  • Tokyo Arsenal from 1906 to 1932; 2,029,000 units (est.)[10]
  • Kokura Arsenal from 1933 to 1941: 494,700 units (est.)[10]
  • Nagoya arsenal from 1932 to 1942: 312,500 units (est.)[10]
  • Jinsen (in what is now Incheon) arsenal from 1942 to 1942: 13,400 units (est.)[10]
  • Hoten (was called Mukden Arsenal before the Japanese took it over.[11] In what is now Shenyang) arsenal from 1937 to 1944: 148,800 units (est.)[10]

In 1939, the Type 38 rifle manufactured by these arsenals cost 75.9 yen per unit.[12] By 1940 more than three million Type 38s had been issued to the Imperial Japanese Army. However, a concern that the 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka cartridge did not compare favorably to the ammunition used by the other great powers in the war led to the introduction of a further generation of rifles in 1939, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Designated the Type 99 rifle, this new rifle used the more powerful 7.7×58mm Arisaka cartridge already in use with the Type 92 heavy machine gun and the Type 97 light machine gun. However, not all units received the new weapon, and the mixture of types with incompatible cartridges led to considerable logistics issues during World War II.[citation needed]

Description and variant typesEdit

The Type 38 rifle used the 6.5×50mm Arisaka cartridge. This cartridge produces little recoil when fired. However, while on par with the Norwegian and Italian 6.5 mm military cartridges of the time, the 6.5×50mm was not as powerful as several others in use by other nations. The Type 38 at 128 cm (50.4 in) was the longest rifle of the war, due to the emphasis on bayonet training for the Japanese soldier of the era, whose average height was 160 centimeters (5 ft 3 in).[13] The rifle was even longer when the 40 cm (15.75 inches) Type 30 bayonet was fixed. The Type 38 was fairly heavy, at about 4.25 kg.

Post-war inspection of the Type 38 by the U.S. military and the National Rifle Association of America found that the Type 38's receiver was the strongest bolt action of any nation's[14] and capable of handling more powerful cartridges.

Nomenclature note: In the West, Japanese equipment is commonly referred to as "Type XX", rather than "Model XX". In the case of a firearm, "model" is a more accurate interpretation of the SHIKI (式) character, but the word "type" has become well-established by collectors for decades.

Type 38 carbineEdit

Intended for use by cavalry, engineers, and other roles where a full sized rifle would be a hindrance, the Type 38 carbine was introduced into service at the same time as the standard Type 38. Its barrel was 487 millimeters (19.2 in), overall length 966 millimeters (38.0 in), and weight 3.3 kilograms (7.3 lb). The carbine lacked a bayonet and the cost in 1939 was 67.9 yen per unit.[12] It was produced in a number of locations:

  • Tokyo Arsenal from 1906 to 1931; 210,000 units (est.)[15]
  • Kokura arsenal from 1938 to 1941: 49,500 units (est.)[15]
  • Nagoya arsenal from 1935 to 1942: 206,000 units (est.)[15]
  • Hoten/Mukden arsenal from 1938 to 1944: 52,300 units (est.)[15]

Type 44 carbineEdit

Similar to the Type 38 carbine from the middle band back. The Type 44 cavalry carbine is almost entirely different from the middle band forward with an under-folding bayonet, metal nosecap, stacking hook to the left side of the nosecap and wide front sight guards. This model was introduced in 1911. There are three variations of this rifle. Each variation based entirely on the nosecap size and the spacing of the nosecap screws. They have a unique storage compartment in the buttstock for a cleaning rod. These additional features increased the cost of the carbine to 86.2 yen per unit by 1939.[12]

Type 97 sniper rifleEdit

As with the standard Type 38, but with a rifle scope with 2.5x magnification, the Type 97 was introduced in 1937. The scope was offset to allow loading by stripper clip and bolt handle slightly bent down. Some 14,000 were produced.

Type 38 short rifleEdit

In the late 1930s to the early 1940s, an unknown number of Type 38 rifles were converted into short rifles at Nagoya Arsenal, that did all rebuilds of Type 38 and Type 44 rifles and carbines.[16] The barrels were shortened to 635 mm (25.0 in) from the standard 794 mm (31.3 in) barrel and the stock shortened to match the barrel while the handguard retained its original length.[17] The end result is a Type 38 which is similar in size to the Arisaka Type 99 short rifle. There is no consistency to serial numbers or arsenal marks as the rifles were converted from existing stock. Although total production is unknown, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 were converted.[18]

Chinese six/five infantry rifleEdit

Chinese copy of the Japanese Type 38 at the Taiyuan Arsenal in the very late 1920s to early 1930s for the warlord of Shansi province, General Yen Hsi-shan. The receiver is marked 六五步槍 or "six-five rifle". Estimated to have been 108,000 made.[19]

Type 918 rifleEdit

These copies of the Type 38 rifles are believed to have been manufactured at the South Manchuria Army Arsenal (also known as the 918 Arsenal), but very little is known about them. Chinese sources state that these rifles were made in China for Japan, but for whom it is not known. It does not bear the Japanese Imperial Chrysanthemum, but instead has a heart symbol and under it written "918 Type" (九一八式). It is also not known if these were made before or right after the surrender of Japanese forces. It has an under-folding bayonet similar to the Japanese Type 44. The 918 stamped on top of the receivers stands for the date of September 18, 1931; the date of the Mukden Incident.[20]

North China Type 19 carbineEdit

A relatively crude mix of the Type 38 and Type 99 that is believed to have been made mostly in the Chinese city of Tientsin and may have been intended for puppet troops. The Type 19 is in 6.5 Japanese, unlike its predecessor, the North China Type 30 carbine copy which is in 8mm Mauser. Like the North China Type 30 , it has a cherry blossom on the receiver instead of the Japanese Imperial Chrysanthemum, and says "North China Type 19" (北支一九式) above the cherry blossom unlike the North China Type 30. The 19 may mean the 19th year of Showa Era or 1944. The true military designation is unknown. Approximately 43,000 carbines are thought to have been produced.[21]

Siamese Type 66 long rifleEdit

Siam (Thailand) ordered 50,000 Type 38 rifles in 1924 from the Tokyo Army Arsenal chambered in their Type 66 8x52r cartridge. The receiver is marked with the Siamese Charkra with "Type 66" (แบบ ๖๖) written under it. Not only was the caliber changed, but the sights, bayonet and cleaning rod are different than the Japanese version. Almost all parts, including screws cannot be interchanged with the Japanese Type 38.[22]

Thai Type 83 rifleEdit

Unlike the Siamese Type 66 (แบบ ๖๖), this rifle is a standard Japanese Type 38 in 6.5x50sr that was sent as aid from Japan to Thailand in 1940. These were taken straight from assembly lines at Nagoya and Kokura arsenals, after the Japanese Imperial Chrysanthemum was canceled out by zeros along the petals. In Thailand they called it the Type 83 (แบบ ๘๓). These rifles were issued to second-line troops to free up rifles in their main caliber from front line duties for the Franco-Thai War.[23] Later in the 1950s, some of these rifles had their barrels and stocks cut down to short rifle length with many of those being rechambered for .30-06 Type 88 cartridge and becoming Type Type 83/88s (แบบ ๘๓/๘๘).[24] Very few of these rifles were imported into the United States because of the Gun Control Act of 1968 restricting former military arms from entering the country.[25]

Thai Type 91 police carbineEdit

Made after World War II, these carbines were made in Thailand at the Royal Thai Arsenals in Bangkok from Type 38 parts for a handy carbine for police. The stock and barrel was cut down. The stocks were cut out like a M1 carbine stock and used M1 carbine slings and oilers. Some bolts were turned down, some not. Some had the Royal Thai Police symbol stamped on the receiver with "91" (๙๑) stamped above it and some received the Siamese Charkra stamped on the receiver. They all retained their original Japanese caliber of 6.5x50sr.[26]

Mexican Model 1913 rifle and carbineEdit

Ordered in mid 1913 by the Huerta government in the standard Mexican military caliber, 7×57mm Mauser, for 50,000 rifles and later for another 25,000 carbines from the Tokyo Artillery Arsenal. They were made to fit the Mexican Mauser model 1895, 1902 or 1910 bayonets. Due to the Mexican Revolution, Japan instead sold them to Russia.[27] Arisaka rifles designed for Mexican use had three interlocking circles on the receiver, the rest had the Mexican crest under "Republica Mexicana".[28]

Estonian KL .303Edit

Estonian conversion of the standard Type 38 to the .303 British cartridge, intended for usage by second line troops of the Estonian Defence League. A total of 24,000 rifles were rebored during 1929-1934.[29]

7.62x39 conversionEdit

After World War II, Type 38s captured from the IJA were converted to use the 7.62×39mm cartridge by the People's Republic of China since the PLA was being equipped with AK and SKS rifles in that caliber.[5]

Two versions of the converted Type 38s consisted of rifles with just a SKS barrel or of a SKS barrel with a front stock cap and folding bayonet.[5]


Finnish Civil War White Guard soldiers were equipped with 6.5 mm M/1905 (Type 38 Arisaka) rifles.



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  4. ^ a b c d e f Allan and Macy. p.16
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  • Allan, Francis C.; Macy, Harold W. (2007). The Type 38 Arisaka: A Study of the Japanese Rifles and Carbines Based Upon the Type 38 Ariska Action, Their Variations and History. USA: AK Enterprises. ISBN 978-0-9614814-4-5.
  • Daugherty III, Leo J. (2002). Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–1945: Training, Techniques and Weapons. Staplehurst: Spellmount: Stackpole Company. ISBN 1-86227-162-3.
  • Hatcher, Julian S. (1966). Hatcher's Notebook. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Company.
  • Honeycutt Jr., Fred L.; Anthony, F. Patt. (2006). Military Rifles of Japan. USA: Stackpole Company. ISBN 0-9623208-7-0.
  • Daugherty III, Leo J. (2002). Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–1945: Training, Techniques and Weapons. Staplehurst: Spellmount: Stackpole Company. ISBN 1-86227-162-3.
  • Allan, Francis C.; Macy, Harold W. (2021). The Type 38 Arisaka Revised Edition: A Study of the Japanese Rifles and Carbines Based Upon the Type 38 Ariska Action, Their Variations and History. USA: AK Enterprises. ISBN 978-09614814-4-5.

External linksEdit