Type 212 submarine
The German Type 212 class (German: U-Boot-Klasse 212 A), also Italian Todaro class, is a diesel-electric submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German and Italian navies. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP) system using Siemens proton exchange membrane (PEM) compressed hydrogen fuel cells. The submarines can operate at high speed on diesel power or switch to the AIP system for silent slow cruising, staying submerged for up to three weeks with little exhaust heat. The system is also said to be vibration-free, extremely quiet and virtually undetectable.
|Builders:||Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH (HDW) - Fincantieri SpA|
|Preceded by:||Type 206 submarine (Germany), Sauro class submarine (Italy)|
|Cost:||€280-560 million |
|Beam:||6.80 metres (22 ft 4 in)|
|Draught:||6.40 metres (21 ft 0 in)|
|Installed power:||1 x MTU-396 16V (2,150 kW); 1 x Siemens Permasyn electric motor Type FR6439-3900KW (2,850 kW)|
|Range:||8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph)|
|Endurance:||3 weeks without snorkeling, 12 weeks overall|
|Complement:||5 officers, 22 men|
|Sensors and |
|CSU 90 (DBQS-40FTC), Sonar: ISUS90-20, Radar: Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 I-band nav.,|
|Electronic warfare |
|EADS FL 1800U suite|
|Armament:||6 x 533 millimetres (21 in) torpedo tubes (in 2 forward pointing groups of 3) with 13 DM2A4, Black Shark torpedo, IDAS missiles and 24 external naval mines (optional)|
Type 212 is the first fuel cell propulsion system equipped submarine series.
The final programme started in 1994 as the two navies of Germany and Italy began working together to design a new conventional submarine, respectively to operate in the shallow and confined waters of the Baltic Sea and in the deeper waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The two different requirements were mixed into a common one and, because of significant updates to the design, the designation has been changed to Type 212A since then.
On 22 April 1996 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) gave the start to the cooperation for building four vessels for German Navy and four vessels for Italian Navy. Its main aim was the construction of identical boats and the start of a collaboration in logistic and life-cycle support for the two navies.
The German government placed an initial order of four Type 212A submarines in 1998. The German Submarine Consortium built them at the shipyards of HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH (TNSW) of Emden. Different sections of the submarines were constructed at both sites at the same time and then half of them were shipped to the respective other yard so that both HDW and Thyssen Nordseewerke assembled two complete submarines each.
The German Navy ordered two additional, improved submarines in 2006, to be delivered from 2012 on. They will be 1.2 meters longer to give additional space for a new reconnaissance mast.
On 21 April 2008 the Italian Navy ordered the optional second batch of submarine, in the same configuration of the original ones. Some upgrading should involve materials and components of commercial derivation, as well as the software package of the CMS. The intention is to keep the same configuration of the first series and reduce maintenance costs.
Poland announced in December 2013 they will not buy, but only lease, two U212-A's, on account of not meeting "requirements of tactical and technical equipment developed by the military, including in particular the propulsion system, missile weapons and rescue system".
In October 2016, during the celebration of the commissioning of U36, the German Navy announced the intent to procure another batch of two U212A within the next decade.
In February 2017, it was announced that the Royal Norwegian Navy will procure four submarines based on Type 212. Initial plans envisaged service entry between 2025 and 2028. However, the Norwegian 2020 Defence Plan later envisaged service entry "around 2030".This "CD" (Common Design) variant of the Type 212 will consist of six submarines, with the German Navy ordering two new boats alongside the four Norwegian vessels.
Partly owing to the "X" arrangement of the stern planes, the Type 212 is capable of operating in as little as 17 metres of water, allowing it to come much closer to shore than most contemporary submarines. This gives it an advantage in covert operations, as SCUBA-equipped commandos operating from the boat can surface close to the beach and execute their mission more quickly and with less effort.
A notable design feature is the prismatic hull cross-section and smoothly faired transitions from the hull to the sail, improving the boat's stealth characteristics. The ship and internal fixtures are constructed of nonmagnetic materials, significantly reducing the chances of it being detected by magnetometers or setting off magnetic naval mines.
Although hydrogen–oxygen propulsion had been considered for submarines as early as World War I, the concept was not very successful until recently due to fire and explosion concerns. In the Type 212 this has been countered by storing the fuel and oxidizer in tanks outside the crew space, between the pressure hull and outer light hull. The gases are piped through the pressure hull to the fuel cells as needed to generate electricity, but at any given time there is only a very small amount of gas present in the crew space.
Currently, the Type 212A is capable of launching the fiber optic-guided DM2A4 Seehecht ("Seahake") heavyweight torpedoes, the WASS BlackShark torpedoes and short-range missiles from its six torpedo tubes, which use a water ram expulsion system. Future capability may include tube-launched cruise missiles.
The short-range IDAS missile (based on the IRIS-T missile), primarily intended for use against air threats as well as small or medium-sized sea- or near land targets, is currently being developed by Diehl BGT Defence to be fired from Type 212's torpedo tubes. IDAS is fiber-optic guided and has a range of approx. 20 km. Four missiles fit in one torpedo tube, stored in a magazine. First deliveries of IDAS for the German Navy were scheduled from 2014 on.
A 30 mm auto-cannon called Muräne (moray) to support diver operations or to give warning shots is being considered, too. The cannon, probably a version of the RMK30 built by Rheinmetall, will be stored in a retractable mast and can be fired without the boat emerging. The mast will also be designed to contain three Aladin UAVs for reconnaissance missions. This mast is likely to be mounted on the second batch of Type 212 submarines for the German Navy.
In April 2006, the German Navy's U-32 sailed from the Baltic Sea to Rota, Spain in a journey lasting two weeks, covering 1,500 nautical miles (2,800 km; 1,700 mi) without surfacing or snorkelling.
The Italian Navy's S 527 Scirè was deployed, for over five months in 2009, to the U.S. for CONUS 2009 exercise with United States Navy.
The Italian Navy's S 526 Todaro, between 1 September 2012 and 13 February 2013, for the first time was deployed to the Aden Gulf, Arabic Sea, Oman Gulf and Indian Ocean.
In 2013, while on the way to participate in naval exercises in U.S. waters, the German Navy's U-32 established a new record for non-nuclear submarines with 18 days in submerged transit without snorkelling.
On 15 October 2017, the German Navy's U-35 suffered damage to its rudder fins while conducting dives off the Norwegian coast.
List of boatsEdit
|S181||U-31||1 July 1998||20 March 2002||19 October 2005|
|S182||U-32||11 July 2000||4 December 2003||19 October 2005|
|S183||U-33||30 April 2001||September 2004||13 June 2006|
|S184||U-34||December 2001||July 2006||3 May 2007|
|S185||U-35||21 August 2007||15 November 2011||23 March 2015|
|S186||U-36||19 August 2008||6 February 2013||10 October 2016|
|S 526||Salvatore Todaro||3 July 1999||6 November 2003||29 March 2006|
|S 527||Scirè||27 May 2000||18 December 2004||19 February 2007|
|S 528||Pietro Venuti||9 December 2009||9 October 2014||6 July 2016|
|S 529||Romeo Romei||2012||4 July 2015||11 May 2017|
|2020||2024||Approved and financed in 2019 (U212 NFS)|
|2021||2025||Approved and financed in 2019 (U212 NFS)|
|2025||Approved in 2019 as option (U212 NFS)|
|2026||Approved in 2019 as option (U212 NFS)|
|Royal Norwegian Navy|
- Displacement: 1,450 tonnes surfaced, 1,830 tonnes submerged
- Length: 56 m (183.7 ft), 57.2 m (187.66 ft) (2nd batch)
- Beam: 7 m (22.96 ft)
- Draft: 6 m (19.68 ft)
- Speed: 20 knots (37 km/h) submerged, 12 knots surfaced
- Depth: over 700 m (2,300 ft)
- 8,000 nautical miles (14,800 km, or 9,196 miles) at 8 knots (15 km/h)
- Endurance: 3 weeks without snorkeling, 12 weeks overall
- STN Atlas DBQS40 sonar suite:
- TAS-3 passive low-frequency towed array sonar (deployed from sail)
- FAS-3 passive low-, and medium-frequency hull-mounted flank array sonar
- MOA 3070 mine detection sonar
- Riva Calzoni periscope masts and snorkeling systems
- Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 I band navigation radar
- EADS FL 1800U ESM suite
- WASS hydrophones
- Avio GAUDI autopilot and hydraulic systems
- Kongsberg MSI-91 combat system
- STN Atlas DBQS40 sonar suite:
- Crew complement: 23–27 (incl. 5 officers)
- "TKMS baut sechs neue U-Boote in Kiel" [TKMS builds six new U-boats in Kiel] (in German). 3 February 2017.
- "MTU 16V 396 diesel engine". Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
- Holger Naaf: Die Brennstoffzelle auf U 212 A (PDF, German). Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, Wehrtechnische Dienststelle für Schiffe und Marinewaffen Eckernförde, 23. September 2008.
- "Uboote Klasse 212A". Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Deutsche Marine TV-Interview" (in German). Retrieved 17 April 2007.
- "Dette er ubåtsjefens våte drøm - nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- "Classe Todaro page at Marina Militare website". Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Tom Bristow (29 November 2013). "Poland gives thumbs down to German subs". The Local.
- Nachrichtenfernsehen, n-tv. "Bundeswehr bekommt neue U-Boote".
- Berg Bentzrød, Sveinung (3 February 2017). "Forsvaret kjøper nye ubåter fra Tyskland" [The Armed Forces are purchasing new submarines from Germany]. Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aftenposten AS. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- DiGiulian, Tony. "Torpedoes of Germany Post-World War II". www.navweaps.com.
- "Diehl BGT IDAS missile". Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- Erprobung des Lenkflugkörpers IDAS, german
- Thomas, Doug (2008). "Submarine Developments: Air-Independent Propulsion" (PDF). Canadian Naval Review.
- Naming ceremony of fuel cell submarine “U36” for the German Navy in Kiel, ThyssenKrupp press release, 15 May 2013.
- Roblin, Sebastien (2017). "Germany Does Not Have One Working Submarine". The National Interest. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "Fincantieri delivers The submarine "Romeo Romei"" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 11 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
- Gaeth, Klaus. "marine-portraits.de - DEUTSCHE MARINE - UBOOTE KLASSE 212A - Auswahlseite". www.marine-portraits.de.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type 212 submarine.|
- German Bundeswehr official Type 212A web page
- naval-technology.com — U212/U214 Attack Submarines, Germany
- German Type 212A deal bolsters submarine force Jane's Navy International, 28 September 2006
- Todaro (S 526) Marina Militare website