Type 209 submarine

The Type 209 is a class of diesel-electric attack submarine developed exclusively for export by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft of Germany. The original variant (Type 209/1100) was designed in the late 1960s. The class is exclusively designed for export market. Despite not being operated by the German Navy, five variants of the class (209/1100, 209/1200, 209/1300, 209/1400 and 209/1500) have been successfully exported to 13 countries, with 61 submarines being built and commissioned between 1971 and 2008.

Egyptian Navy's Type 209-1400mod submarine.jpg
S41 (861), a Type 209/1400mod submarine of the Egyptian Navy, during sea trials.
Class overview
Builders:
Operators: See below
Preceded by: Type 206
Succeeded by: Type 214
Subclasses:
In commission: 1971–present
Planned: 64
Completed: 61
Cancelled: 3
Active: 58
Laid up: 2
Lost: 1
General characteristics
Type: Type 209/1500 submarine
Displacement: 1,810 t (1,780 long tons) submerged
Length: 64.4 m (211 ft 3 in)
Beam: 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in)
Draft: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in)
Propulsion: Diesel-electric, 4 diesels, 1 shaft, 4,500 kW (6,100 shp)
Speed:
  • 11.5 kn (21.3 kilometres per hour; 13.2 miles per hour) surfaced
  • 22.5 kn (41.7 km/h; 25.9 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 11,000 nmi (20,000 km; 13,000 mi) at 19 km/h (10 kn) surfaced
  • 8,000 nmi (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 19 km/h (10 kn) snorkeling
  • 400 nmi (740 km; 460 mi) at 7 km/h (4 kn) submerged
Endurance: 50 days[2]
Test depth: 500 m (1,600 ft)
Complement: 36
Armament:

DevelopmentEdit

In the early 1970s, many navies began to need replacements for World War II-era submarines, aging United States GUPPY conversions, and British units transferred postwar.[3] During this time, few western submarine designs were available for export as most were large, expensive, sophisticated and difficult to operate, and designed for the Cold War. Several designs originally built for specific nations were available including the French Daphné, British Oberon, and the Soviet Foxtrot-class submarines.[4] The design, designated by the German Ministry of Defense as the "Type 209" provided a solution providing the combination of size, performance, relative ease of operation for small or inexperienced navies, reasonable price and economy of operation.[5]

DesignEdit

The submarine was designed by Ingenieurkontor Lübeck (IKL) headed by Ulrich Gabler and is largely based on previous German submarine designs (in particular the Type 206) with increased equipment. The design is single hulled and allows the commanding officer to see the entire submarine from the bow to stern while standing at the periscope.[4] Four 120-cell batteries are located forward and aft of the command center in the lower deck and make up about 25% of the boat's displacement.[3] Two main ballast tanks with forward and aft trim tanks allow the boat to dive. They are powered by four MTU diesels and four AEG generators.[5] The AEG electric motor is attached directly to a five- or seven-bladed propeller.

ArmamentsEdit

Type 209 submarines are armed with eight bow 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes and 14 torpedoes. The Type 209/1200s used by Greece and South Korea, and the Type 209/1400s used by Turkey are also armed with Sub-Harpoon missiles.[6] Boats used by South Korea can be armed with 28 mines in place of torpedoes and Harpoon missiles; while the Indian boats can carry 24 mines externally.[7]

The class can be armed with a variety of torpedo models depending upon the country. The majority of boats carry SUT - Surface and Underwater Target (Greece, India, Indonesia, South Africa, South Korea) or the SST - Special Surface Target (Argentina, Peru, Turkey's 209/1200s, Venezuela) torpedoes. The boats can also carry the Mark 24 Tigerfish (Brazil, Turkey's Preveze class 209/1400), DM2A3 (Colombia), Blackshark (Chile), A184 mod. 3 (Ecuador),[7] DM2A4 (Turkey's Gür class 209/1400) and Mark 37 (Argentina).

Brazil's boats will receive new integrated combat systems from Lockheed Martin to enable use of the Mark 48 torpedo.[8] Successful tests of the new combat system occurred on Tapajó in December 2011.[9]

VariantsEdit

Five variants of this submarine have been produced: Type 209/1100, Type 209/1200, Type 209/1300, Type 209/1400 and Type 209/1500. The U-209PN ordered by the Portuguese Navy is actually a Type 214.[10] The first three Dolphin-class submarines built for the Israeli Navy are based on the Type 209 although heavily modified and enlarged.

Several modifications have occurred in the class resulting in these variants including the fitting of newer diesel engines. New air conditioning and electronics features have been added to accommodate orders from South America. The displacement in some variants has increased by nearly 50% in order to install new equipment, modernize accommodations, and extend range.[11]

The team of Ingenieurkontor Lübeck (IKL) and Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) proposed an enlarged Type 209 submarine, the Type 2000, for the Collins-class submarine program.[12] The proposed design was roughly 500 tons more than the Type 209/1500s for India and lost to the Type 471 from Kockums, an enlarged Västergötland-class submarine.

The Thomson class built for the Chilean Navy has escape hatches fitted in the torpedo and engine room. An additional aft hatch is fitted in the sail with access to the machinery.[13] The boats are fitted with higher masts to compensate for regional ocean wave conditions.

 
Tikuna of the Brazilian Navy starting diving

The Tupi class built by the Brazilian Navy is a modified Type 209/1400. The boat is 0.85 m (2 ft 9 in) longer and fitted with higher power diesels, different electric motors, batteries, electronics and sensors.

The Shishumar class built for and by India is unique for having an IKL-designed integrated escape sphere. The sphere has accommodations for the entire crew with an eight-hour air supply.[14]

The Sabalo class built for Venezuela was slightly lengthened during a modernization at HDW in the early 1990s. The increased length is due to the addition of a new sonar dome that is similar to the model found on the German Type 206.[1]

Between 2004 and 2006, the Indonesian Type 209/1300 ( Cakra-class) submarine Cakra underwent a refurbishment by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering in South Korea. The refurbished submarine featured new batteries, overhauled engines, and modernized combat systems.[15] In 2009, Daewoo won another order to refurbish Nanggala, which was completed in early 2012.[16] During the two refurbishments, the submarines' existing STN Atlas-Elektronik CSU 3-2 sonar suites were replaced with L-3 ELAC Nautik's LOPAS 8300 passive sonar system and Kongsberg MSI-90U MK2 CMS.[17]

It is also possible to upgrade these submarines with the latest air-independent propulsion (AIP) systems. The first ships to receive this upgrade were to be three ships of the Greek Poseidon class Type 209/1200 under the Neptune II upgrade program.[18] They were to be upgraded by cutting the boat in half aft of the control room and adding a 6 m (19 ft 8 in) plug with a 120 kW Siemens AIP system to the ship.[13][19] The program was canceled in 2009 due to cancellation of the Archimedes Project (Type 214), but not before Okeanos (S118) completed the upgrade.[20] After the Archimedes Project settlement was reached, it was decided that instead of upgrading the remaining two Type 209s, two additional Type 214 ships were to be ordered, but that deal was cancelled by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft.[21][22] Turkish Navy's AIP upgrade of Atılay class (209 Type 1200) was also shelved in favor of acquiring new Type 214 subs.[23]

Chang Bogo upgrades/variantEdit

The South Korean Chang Bogo-class submarines (Hangul: 장보고급 잠수함, Hanja: 張保皐級潛水艦) have reportedly been heavily upgraded in the 21st century,[24] which if undertaken was supposed to include domestic hull stretch augmentation from 1,200 tons to 1,400 tons and installment of domestically developed Torpedo Acoustic Counter Measures (TACM).[25] Some upgrades could have been affected or altered due to Korean economic problems of the late 1990s, which modified other plans to acquire nine 1,500-ton AIP-equipped boats or upgrade six 1200 boats to 1,500-tons AIP-equipped boats,[25][26][27] although the more ambitious plan to acquire nine 1,800-ton Type 214 AIP submarines was preserved and put under progress, not unaided by the quick recovery of the South Korean economy in 1999,[28] which will reportedly be wrapped up in 2018 when all submarines of the type are scheduled to be commissioned. LIG Nex1 began producing TACM for unspecified submarine types of the ROKN as well, which finished development in 2000.[29][30] Outfitting of the submarines with Sub-Harpoon launching capability was a part of the upgrade,[25] and seems to have been carried out on several submarines by 2008.[7][31][32] They can equip the White Shark heavy torpedo,[29][33][34] and can possibly equip submarine-launched Hae Sung anti-ship missiles later on.[35][36] AIP and flank-array sonars are planned for future modernizations.[37]

In December 2011, Daewoo won a contract to build Indonesia three 1,400-ton Chang Bogo class (the Nagapasa-class) submarines for $1.07 billion.[38] Construction of the submarines will start in January 2012 for delivery by 2015 and 2016, for commissioning in the first half of 2018. They'll be equipped with torpedoes and guided missiles.[39] The submarines are described to be Korea's original model, bigger and more advanced than Indonesia's refurbished Type 209/1300.[40] Initially the offered submarines were going to be in-service ROKN submarines.[41] The sale will be done without the involvement of German companies.[42] South Korea is currently the only country outside Germany independently offering the Type 209 for sale. Indonesia was also offered two license built Type 209 submarines manufactured by a group of Turkish (SSM - Undersecretariat for Defense Industries) and German companies (HDW/ThyssenKrupp), a deal reported to be valued at $1 billion.[43] SSM was also offering the leases of Type 209 submarines until new submarines could be completed.[42] The offer has since been superseded by the DSME submarine contract. The three new submarines would be equipped with the Kongsberg MSI-90U MK2 combat systems, Indra's Pegaso RESM system and Aries-S LPI radar.[44]

 
South Africa's Charlotte Maxeke with Britain's HMS Portland in 2014

ServiceEdit

 
Argentine submarine ARA Salta
 
Starboard view of Turkish submarine TCG Batıray

Countries operating the Type 209 include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Greece, India, Indonesia, Peru, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey and Venezuela. All Type 209s remain in service except for ARA San Luis which was stricken in 1997 after an incomplete overhaul, Glavkos decommissioned in 2011, TCG Saldıray decommissioned in 2014, TCG Atılay decommissioned in 2016, and KRI Nanggala which was sunk in 2021. Iran had an order for six Type 209 submarines that was cancelled by Grand Ayatolla Khomeini in 1979, following the Iranian Revolution.[45]

The first user was the Hellenic Navy which purchased four Type 209/1100 and four Type 209/1200 submarines.

The largest operator of the Type 209 is the Turkish Navy which operates six Type 209/1200 submarines (commissioned between 1976 and 1989) and eight Type 209/1400 submarines (commissioned between 1994 and 2007). At present, the Turkish Navy is also the largest operator of German designed submarines in the world.

Three new Type 209/1400 submarines were delivered to South Africa in 2006, costing $285 million each.

Type 209s are often supplemented with other submarine designs or are scheduled to be replaced by them. Argentina received two TR-1700-class submarines (Santa Cruz class) during the 1980s. Ten Kilo-class submarines were purchased by India in the 1980s and 1990s ( Sindhughosh class), along with the Akula-class submarine INS Chakra in 2011. Two Scorpène-class submarines have been commissioned by Chile, while Brazil has four and India has six ships ordered or under construction. Nine Type 214 submarines (Son Won-il class) are commissioned, building, or planned by South Korea to supplement its force, while Greece is replacing its aging Glavkos class with four Type 214 submarines (Papanikolis class), and Turkey will be replacing early Atılay-class ships with six Type 214 submarines.[46]

During the Falklands War the Argentinian Type 209/1200 submarine San Luis performed a war patrol. While on their way to the area assigned the fire control computer went out of order. The vessel continued on to the combat area, and managed to fire at least 3 wire guided SST-4 mod0 torpedoes at the British fleet. The torpedoes suffered from various issues, with the guide wire cut a minute after launch and the torpedoes going off the assigned course. After the war testing revealed that the torpedoes' electric gyroscopes had reversed polarity, which resulted in a complete refit of the entire Argentinean torpedo stock, and a conversion of a portion of this stock from Mod0 to Mod1, performed by the firm which produced these weapons (AEG). Beside the torpedo issue, San Luis patrolled mostly undetected.[47][48]

 
S41 (861) attack submarine heading to its home port in Alexandria.

Egypt initially ordered two Type-209/1400mod submarines in 2011 and later ordered two more in 2014.[49] The shipbuilder TKMS started building the first submarine S41 (861) in March 2012, the vessel was launched in December 2015 after 57 months of construction work.[50] The Egyptian Navy received the S41 in December 2016, the second submarine S42 was launched during the same month.[51][52] In April 2017, The S41 arrived at its home port in Alexandria and officially entered service, after a long journey from Kiel. Before reaching its naval base, the S41 conducted its first naval exercise with other units from the Egyptian Navy, ensuring its readiness to join the fleet.[53] The Egyptian submarines have 8 x 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes and are able to carry and launch up to 14 missiles and torpedoes, in addition to deploying naval mines. They will be fitted with SeaHake mod 4 torpedoes and UGM-84L Harpoon Block II missiles.[54][55]

Technical specificationsEdit

1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Displacement (submerged) 1,207 t 1,285 t 1,390 t 1,586 t 1,810 t
Dimensions 54.1 × 6.2 × 5.9 m 55.9 × 6.3 × 5.5 m 59.5 × 6.2 × 5.5 m 61.2 × 6.25 × 5.5 m 64.4 × 6.5 × 6.2 m
Pressure Hull Diameter 6.8 m
Propulsion Diesel-electric, 4 diesels, 1 shaft
5,000 shp 6,100 shp (4,500 kW)
4 x 120-cell batteries 4 x 132-cell batteries
Speed (surface) 11 knots (20 km/h) 11.5 knots
Speed (submerged) 21.5 knots 22 knots 22.5 knots
Range (surface) 11,000 nmi (20,000 km) at 10 knots (20 km/h)
Range (snorkel) 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at 10 knots (20 km/h)
Range (submerged) 400 nmi (700 km) at 4 knots (7 km/h)
Endurance 50 days[2]
Maximum depth 500 m
Armament

8 x 533 mm torpedo tubes

Crew 31 33 30 36

OperatorsEdit

Operator Class name Type Notes
1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
  Argentine Navy Salta class 1(1*) ARA Salta (S-31) underwent midlife upgrades from 1988 to 1995 and 2004 to 2005.
(*) ARA San Luis (S-32) stricken in 1997 after incomplete overhaul.
  Brazilian Navy Tupi class 4(1*) (*) Tikuna (S-34) is a modified Type 209/1400.
Additional modified Type 209/1400 Tapuia (S-35) cancelled.
All Type 209's will be fitted with new combat systems capable of using the Mk.48 torpedo.[8]
  Chilean Navy Thomson class 2 SS Simpson (SS-21) is scheduled for refit and upgrade in ASMAR, Chile this year.
SS Thomson (SS-20) refit and upgrade was completed in early 2009, this works include integration of SUBTICS combat management system and BlackShark torpedoes.
  Colombian National Navy Pijao class 2 Both scheduled to be upgraded between 2009 and 2011 in the state-owned shipyard COTECMAR, with the assistance of HDW.[56]
  Ecuadorian Navy Shyri class 2 SS Shyri (S101) is under modernization in ASMAR, Chile 2009-2012; was slightly damaged after the tsunami in Talcahuano.
SS Huancavilca (S102) is under modernization in ASMAR, Chile November 15, 2011 with completion in 2014.[57]
  Egyptian Navy Type 209/1400mod 4 S41 (861) officially entered service in April 2017.[53]
S42 (864) was handed over to the Egyptian Navy in August 2017.[58]
S43 (867) was received by the Egyptian Navy in April 2020.[59] [60]
  Hellenic Navy Glavkos class
Poseidon class
3(1*) 4 Glavkos class overhauled under the Neptune I program from 1993 to 2000.
Poseidon-class Neptune II upgrade program cancelled, but not before Okeanos (S118) completed the upgrade.[20]
(*) Glavkos (S-110) was decommissioned on 9 June 2011.
  Indian Navy Shishumar class 4 Option for two additional Indian built boats not taken up after several reviews.[61]
Equipped with integrated escape sphere for full crew.
Underwent midlife refits from 1999 to 2005, talks underway with HDW for additional upgrades.[62]
  Indonesian Navy Cakra class
Nagapasa class
2(1*) 3 KRI Cakra was refitted by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, South Korea between 2004 and 2006.
KRI Nanggala refit contract was awarded to Daewoo in 2009 and completed in 2012.[16]
Indonesia has awarded DSME a contract for three 1,400 ton Chang Bogo-class (locally known as Nagapasa-class) submarines in December 2011. The third vessel was commissioned in April 2021.
(*) KRI Nanggala was sunk on 21 April 2021.
  Republic of Korea Navy Chang Bogo class 9 Further information in #Chang Bogo upgrades/variant section
  Peruvian Navy Islay class
Angamos class
2 4 Both 209/1100 (Islay class) were locally upgraded in 2008.
Upgrade of the 209/1200 (Angamos class) is in process.
  South African Navy Heroine class 3 Commissioned between 2006 and 2008 replacing Daphné-class boats.
  Turkish Naval Forces Atılay class
Preveze class
Gür class
4(2*) 8 Atılay-class mid-life refit with AIP propulsion cancelled. Early Atılay-class ships will be replaced by Type 214 submarines starting in 2020.[46]
Modernization for Doğanay (S-351) and Dolunay (S-352) will include new periscopes, ESM, and Inertial Navigation Systems.[63]
(*) 2 Atılay class, Atılay (S-347) and Saldıray (S-348) was decommissioned in 2016 and 2014 respectively.[64][65]
  Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela Sabalo class 2 Sabalo modernized in the state-owned shipyard DIANCA from 2004–2011, included new computer, engineering, mast, and snorkel systems.

Individual boatsEdit

Country Class name Type Pennant Name Commissioned Decommissioned
  Argentina Salta class 1200 S-31 Salta 1974
  Argentina Salta class 1200 S-32 San Luis 1974 23 April 1997
  Brazil Tupi class 1400 S-30 Tupi 1989
  Brazil Tupi class 1400 S-31 Tamoio 1994
  Brazil Tupi class 1400 S-32 Timbira 1996
  Brazil Tupi class 1400 S-33 Tapajó 1999
  Brazil Tupi class 1400mod S-34 Tikuna 2005
  Chile Thomson class 1400L SS-20 Thomson 1984
  Chile Thomson class 1400L SS-21 Simpson 1984
  Colombia Pijao class 1200 S-28 Pijao 1975
  Colombia Pijao class 1200 S-29 Tayrona 1975
  Ecuador Shyri class 1300 S101 Shyri 1977
  Ecuador Shyri class 1300 S102 Huancavilca 1978
  Egypt Type 209/1400mod 1400mod 861 S41 2017
  Egypt Type 209/1400mod 1400mod 864 S42 2017
  Egypt Type 209/1400mod 1400mod 867 S43 2020
  Egypt Type 209/1400mod 1400mod S44
  Greece Glavkos class 1100 S-110 Glavkos 1971 9 June 2011
  Greece Glavkos class 1100 S-111 Nirefs 1972
  Greece Glavkos class 1100 S-112 Triton 1972
  Greece Glavkos class 1100 S-113 Protefs 1972
  Greece Poseidon class 1200 S-116 Poseidon 1979
  Greece Poseidon class 1200 S-117 Amfitriti 1979
  Greece Poseidon class 1200AIP S-118 Okeanos 1979
  Greece Poseidon class 1200 S-119 Pontos 1979
  India Shishumar class 1500 S44 Shishumar 1986
  India Shishumar class 1500 S45 Shankush 1986
  India Shishumar class 1500 S46 Shalki 1992
  India Shishumar class 1500 S47 Shankul 1994
  Indonesia Cakra class 1300 401 Cakra 1981
  Indonesia Cakra class 1300 402 Nanggala 1981 On 21 April 2021, missing during a torpedo drill in the waters north of Bali. Wreckage found 24 April 2021.
  Indonesia Nagapasa class 1400 403 Nagapasa 2017
  Indonesia Nagapasa class 1400 404 Ardadedali 2018
  Indonesia Nagapasa class 1400 405 Alugoro 2021
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-061 Chang Bogo 1993
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-062 Lee Chun 1994
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-063 Choe Museon 1996
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-065 Park Wi 1996
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-066 Lee Jongmoo 1996
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-067 Jung Woon 1998
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-068 Yi Sun-sin 2000
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-069 Na Dae-yong 2000
  South Korea Chang Bogo class 1200 SS-071 Yi Eokgi 2001
  Peru Angamos class 1200 SS-31 Angamos ex-Casma 1980
  Peru Angamos class 1200 SS-32 Antofagasta 1980
  Peru Angamos class 1200 SS-33 Pisagua ex-Blume 1982
  Peru Angamos class 1200 SS-34 Chipana ex-Pisagua 1983
  Peru Islay class 1100 SS-35 Islay 1975
  Peru Islay class 1100 SS-36 Arica 1975
  South Africa Heroine class 1400mod S101 Manthatisi 2005
  South Africa Heroine class 1400mod S102 Charlotte Maxeke 2007
  South Africa Heroine class 1400mod S103 Queen Modjadji 2008
  Turkey Atılay class 1200 S-347 Atılay 1976 30 November 2016[64]
  Turkey Atılay class 1200 S-348 Saldıray 1977 14 November 2014[65]
  Turkey Atılay class 1200 S-349 Batıray 1978
  Turkey Atılay class 1200 S-350 Yıldıray 1981
  Turkey Atılay class 1200 S-351 Doğanay 1984
  Turkey Atılay class 1200 S-352 Dolunay 1989
  Turkey Preveze class T1.1400 S-353 Preveze 1994
  Turkey Preveze class T1.1400 S-354 Sakarya 1995
  Turkey Preveze class T1.1400 S-355 18 Mart 1998
  Turkey Preveze class T1.1400 S-356 Anafartalar 1999
  Turkey Gür class T2.1400 S-357 Gür 2003
  Turkey Gür class T2.1400 S-358 Çanakkale 2005
  Turkey Gür class T2.1400 S-359 Burakreis 2006
  Turkey Gür class T2.1400 S-360 Birinci İnönü 2007
  Venezuela Sabalo class 1300 S-31 Sabalo 1976
  Venezuela Sabalo class 1300 S-32 Caribe 1977

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

  Media related to Type 209 submarine at Wikimedia Commons