Tylopilus

Tylopilus is a genus of over 100 species of mycorrhizal bolete fungi separated from Boletus. Its best known member is the bitter bolete (Tylopilus felleus), the only species found in Europe. More species are found in North America, such as the edible species T. alboater. Australia is another continent where many species are found. All members of the genus form mycorrhizal relationships with trees. Members of the genus are distinguished by their pinkish pore surfaces.

Tylopilus
Tylopilus felleus 060914c.jpg
Tylopilus felleus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Division:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Tylopilus

P.Karst. (1881)
Type species
Tylopilus felleus
(Bull.) P.Karst. (1881)
Synonyms[5]

TaxonomyEdit

The genus was first defined by Petter Adolf Karsten in 1881.[6] The type species, Tylopilus felleus, was originally described in 1788 as a species of Boletus by French mycologist Pierre Bulliard.[7] Tylopilus means "bumpy or swollen pileus",[8] from the Greek tylos "bump" and pilos "hat".[9]

Molecular analysis indicates the genus, like other large genera within the Boletales, is polyphyletic.[10] A lineage of Tylopilus chromapes (now Harrya chromapes and related species) has been shown to be only distantly related to other members of Tylopilus. Hence T. chromapes is now the type species of the new genus Harrya and, related to it, several Australian species moved to Australopilus.[11] T. valens was also moved to its own genus, Pseudoaustroboletus.[12]

DescriptionEdit

Fruit bodies of the genus Tylopilus are encountered as large stout bolete mushrooms, which generally arise from the ground or occasionally from wood. They have stout stipes, which do not have a ring.[8] A key field character which distinguishes them from members of the genus Boletus is the presence of their pink-tinged pores (though these may be white when young).[13] The "pink pore" feature is a polyphyletic morphology that does not unite the Tylopilus species using traditional morphological characters (Smith and Thiers or Singer's concepts). The spore print manifests various shades of pinkish-brown, through reddish-brown and even chocolate brown.[8]

EdibilityEdit

Many species have a bitter taste and are thus inedible,[8] taste being a key feature in identification of this genus.[13] The black velvet bolete (T. alboater) is a good edible, but is often ignored.[8]

SpeciesEdit

As of August 2015, Index Fungorum lists 111 valid species of Tylopilus.[14] About 40 are found in western North America.[8] A large number have been recorded from Australia, with 26 aligned with existing taxa and another 15 not assignable. Members of the genus are also abundant in South America, particularly in forests with trees of the genus Dicymbe in Guyana, as well as Central America and elsewhere across tropical regions around the world.[15] All are mycorrhizal.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Murrill WA (1909). "The Boletaceae of North America – 1". Mycologia. 1 (1): 4–18 (see p. 15). doi:10.2307/3753167.
  2. ^ Bataille F. (1908). "Quelques champignons intéressants des environs de Besançon" [Rare mushrooms in the vicinity of Besançon]. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle du Doubs (in French). 15: 23–61.
  3. ^ Beck G. (1923). "Versuch einer systematischen Gliederung der Gattung Boletus L. em". Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde (in German). 2 (7): 141–49.
  4. ^ Snell WH (1942). "New proposals relating to the genera of the Boletaceae". Mycologia. 34 (4): 403–11. doi:10.2307/3754982.
  5. ^ "Tylopilus P. Karst. 1881". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  6. ^ Karsten PA (1881). "Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum". Revue mycologique, Toulouse. 3 (9): 16–19.
  7. ^ Bulliard JBF (1788). Herbier de la France (in French). 8. Paris: Chez l'auteur, Didot, Debure, Belin. plate 379.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Bessette AR, Bessette A, Roody WC (2000). North American Boletes: A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-8156-0588-9.
  9. ^ Nilson S, Persson O (1977). Fungi of Northern Europe 1: Larger Fungi (Excluding Gill-Fungi). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. pp. 102–03. ISBN 0-14-063005-8.
  10. ^ Binder M, Hibbett DS (2006). "Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales" (PDF). Mycologia. 98 (6): 971–81. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.971. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2011.
  11. ^ Halling RE, Nuhn M, Osmundson T, Fechner N, Trappe JM, Soytong K, Arora D, Hibbett DS, Binder M (2012). "Affinities of the Boletus chromapes group to Royoungia and the description of two new genera, Harrya and Australopilus". Australian Systematic Botany. 25: 418–31. doi:10.1071/SB12028.
  12. ^ Li Y-C, Li F, Zeng N-K, Cui Y-Y, Yang ZL (2014). "A new genus Pseudoaustroboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) from Asia as inferred from molecular and morphological data". Mycological Progress. 13. doi:10.1007/s11557-014-1011-1. 1011.
  13. ^ a b Kuo, Michael (March 2005). "The genus Tylopilus". Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  14. ^ Kirk PM. "Species Fungorum (version 26th August 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life". Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  15. ^ Watling R. (2001). "Australian Boletes: Their Diversity and Possible Origins". Australian Systematic Botany. 14 (3): 407–16. doi:10.1071/SB99031.
  16. ^ Takahashi H. (2002). "Two new species and one new combination of Agaricales from Japan". Mycoscience. 43 (5): 397–403. doi:10.1007/s102670200058.
  17. ^ Takahashi H. (2007). "Five new species of the Boletaceae from Japan". Mycoscience. 48 (2): 90–9. doi:10.1007/s10267-006-0332-6p.

External linksEdit