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Assyrian fighter in the 1890s from the Tyare tribe.

Ṭyārē or Tyari (Syriac: ܛܝܪܐ‎) is an Assyrian tribe of ancient origins and a historical district within Hakkari, Turkey. The area was traditionally divided into Upper and Lower Tyare--each consisting of several Assyrian villages. Today, the district mostly sits in around the town of Çukurca.[1][2] Historically, the largest village of the region was known as Ashitha.

Before 1915, Tyare was home to Assyrians from the Tyare tribe as well as a minority of Kurds. Following the Assyrian genocide, Ṭyārāyē, along with other Assyrians residing in the Hakkari highlands, were forced to leave their villages in southeast Anatolia and fled to join their fellow Assyrian brethren in modern-day northern Iraq (Sarsink, Sharafiya, Barwari, Araden), northeastern Syria (Tel Tamer and Al Hasakah), Armenia, Georgia and, from the late 20th century, to western countries.

EtymologyEdit

Tyare may be a variation of the ancient "Autiyara".[3] An inscription by the Persian King Darius (521-486 BC) states that his forces defeated one of his enemies in the Assyrian district of "Autiyara" which is probably the Christian Assyrian "Ṭiyārē" in the mountains a short distance form Nineveh where Assyrians known as "Ṭyārāyē" meaning the people of Tyare live.

In Classical Syriac the word Tyare is the plural form of a sheepfold, or grazing area. Indeed, the Assyrians of Tyare were renowned even amongst neighboring Kurds and Armenians for their yogurt, cheese and other dairy products mostly made from sheep or goat's milk. They were also famous for their textiles, which again were spun and woven from sheep's wool. They also made woolen felt for their characteristic pointed caps, and felt was also used for bedding.

These industries have continued to some extent in their rural settlements in Northern Iraq and North East Syria. One anecdote mentions that, on the flight of Assyrians from Urmia, Iran to Bakuba, Iraq in 1918, the Tyare Assyrians reached the end of the thousand mile trek with more sheep than when they had originally set out.

DialectEdit

Sample of the Tyare dialect. Notice the usage of [θ], [ð] and [aw], and also the analytic approach regarding possession (otax'd deyeh, "bedroom of his").

Like Jīlū, the Tyare dialect is a very distinct Assyrian Neo-Aramaic dialect. Unlike the Jilu, Baz and Gawar dialects (which are very similar to each other), this one is more "thick". It is, in a way, a sort of a "working class" accent of the Assyrian dialects. Dialects within Tyare, and especially the Western group, have more in common with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic than with Iraqi Koine (similar to General Urmian).

Many Tyare speakers can switch back and forth from Tyare to "Assyrian Standard" (or "Iraqi Koine") when conversing with Assyrian speakers of other dialects. Some speakers tend to adopt a form of verb conjugation that is closer to the Iraqi Koine or Urmian Standard. This is attributed to the growing exposure to Assyrian Standard-based literature, media, and its use as a liturgical language by the Assyrian Church of the East. Furthermore, it is customary for Assyrian artists to generally sing in Iraqi Koine for them to be intelligible and have widespread recognition. Songs in Tyare dialects are usually of the folk-dance music genre and would attract certain audiences.[4] For an English accent comparison, the difference between the Tyari dialect and Iraqi Koine can be compared to the difference between Cockney English and Received Pronunciation.

Examples
English Assyrian Standard Tyare dialect Classical Syriac Notes
Going (gerund) bərxāšā or bixāšā bizālā or zālā ʾĕzālā (ܐܸܙܵܠܵܐ) Jilu and Baz speakers also use the latter word.
They went xəšlun zəlun[citation needed] ʾĕzal(un) (ܐܸܙܲܠܘ) Jilu and Baz speakers may use the latter as well.
Talking/speaking (gerund) hāmzūmē mṣāwōṯē or
maxkōyē (Halmon dialect)
mmallālū (ܡܡܲܠܵܠܘܼ, infin.)
Cooking (gerund, transitive) mbāšū mbāšō mḇaššālū (ܡܒܲܫܵܠܘܼ, infin.)
Come! (imperative singular) ṯā, , šā or hayyō (ܬܵܐ, masc.), tāy (ܬܵܝ, fem.)
Drink! (imperative plural) štīmun štēmū or štō štaw (ܫܬܲܘ, masc.), štāyên (ܫܬܵܝܹ̈ܝܢ, fem.)
See! (imperative masc. singular) gašeq or xzī xzī ḥzī (ܚܙܝܼ)
Look/watch! (imperative masc. singular) xor ḥor (ܚܘܿܪ)
I (masc.) don't know le yaṭṭin lā yaḏḏin lā yāḏaʿ-nā (ܠܵܐ ܝܵܕܲܥ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ)
I (masc.) like/enjoy māxbin ʿājib-lī or bāsim-lī bāsem-lī (ܒܵܣܸܡ ܠܝܼ) The standard form may be used by some, depending on the context.
I (masc.) love māxbin mḥabbeḇ-nā (ܡܚܲܒܸܒ݂ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ)
House tā ā ("ṯ" in "math") or šā baytā (ܒܲܝܬܵܐ), const. bêṯ (ܒܹܝܬ݂) bēṯā is common in Lower Tyare (i.e. Ashitha, Geramon, Mnbelatha, etc.), bēšā in Upper Tyare (Walto, Lizan, Bneromta, etc.).
Boy, son brū brō brō (ܒܪܘܿܢܵܐ, lit. "little son")
Stomach kīsā kāsā or čāsā karsā (ܟܲܪܣܵܐ)
Eye aynā ēnā ʿaynā (ܥܲܝܢܵܐ), const. ʿên (ܥܹܝܢ)
Head hair kō kaw saʿrā (ܣܲܥܪܵܐ) Also featured among Jilu speakers.
Good/fine ṣpāyī, spāy tāzā or ṭāwā (masc.) ṭāḇā (ܛܵܒ݂ܵܐ, masc.)
Your (masc.) will pux fux ṣeḇyānāḵ (ܨܸܒ݂ܝܵܢܵܟ݂) From Arabic kayf (كيف). /f/ is not found in native words; it may sometimes be realized as [p].
Three ṭlā (masc./fem.) ṭlāṯā (masc.), ṭulluṯ (fem.) tlāṯā (ܬܠܵܬ݂ܵܐ, masc.), tlāṯ (ܬܠܵܬ݂, fem.) A distinction between masculine and feminine numerals is maintained in Tyare while lost in other dialects.
Four ār (masc./fem.) ar (masc.), ar (fem.) ʾarbʿā (ܐܲܪܒܥܵܐ, masc.), ʾarbaʿ (ܐܲܪܒܲܥ, fem.)
For/to ṭlā lə- (-ܠ), la- (-ܠܲ)
For/to me qātī ṭlālī (ܠܝܼ)
At me allī ibbī (ܒܝܼ)
Afterwards bəxartā bēgā or obenā bāṯarken (ܒܵܬܲܪܟܸܢ)
Others xīnē xēnē or xrēnē ḥrānē (ܐ݇ܚܪ̈ܵܢܹܐ) (singular ḥrēnā, ܐ݇ܚܪܹܢܵܐ) Xēnē is also common among Jilu and Baz speakers.
This (fem.) ayā aye or ayāneh hāḏē (ܗܵܕܹܐ) The standard form may be used by some, depending on the context.
His (possessive adjective/pronoun) dīyū dīyēh or dīḏēh dīlēh (ܕܝܼܠܹܗ) As in bab'et deyeh ("his father"), whereas Urmian Koine is bābū (literally "father-his"). May be used in other Hakkari dialects such as Nochiya, Baz and Jelu.
Her(s) (possessive adjective/pronoun) dīyō dīyāh or dīḏāh dīlāh (ܕܝܼܠܵܗ̇)
Our(s) (possessive adjective/pronoun) dīyan dīyēnī or dīḏan (Mazra'D Romta and Belatha) dīlan (ܕܝܼܠܲܢ) The standard form may be used by some, depending on the context. May also be present in other Hakkari dialects.
Here lāxā āxxā hārkā (ܗܵܪܟܵܐ), tnān (ܬܢܵܢ)
Hither, to here lāxxā lḵā (ܠܟ݂ܵܐ)
She's at or she's... (present tense auxiliary verb) dūlāh... hōlāh... hī-ī (ܗܝܼܝܼ)
Here/there [he/she] is! (interjection) dūlāh (fem.), dūlēh (masc.) hōlāh (fem.), hōlēh (masc.) hī-ī (ܗܝܼܝܼ, fem.), hū-yū (ܗܘܼܝܘܼ, masc.)
I'm at or I am... (present tense auxiliary verb) dun... hon... ʾĕnā-nā (ܐܸܢܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܐ)
There isn't/aren't līt or līten līṯ, leṯ or lībā[citation needed] layt (ܠܲܝܬ) The standard form may be used by some, depending on the context.
Self gānā jānā nap̄šā (ܢܲܦ݂ܫܵܐ), garmā (ܓܲܪܡܵܐ), yāṯā (ܝܵܬ݂ܵܐ) An Iranian loanword (cf. Persian جان jân), Urmian speakers may also use "j". The standard form may be used by some Tyare subtribes.
Who? mānī? ēnī? man? (ܡܲܢ)
What? mūdī? mō? or mōḏī? ("ḏ" in "that") mōn? (ܡܘܿܢ) Interchangeable. Those with "thicker" dialects may use the latter form.
Never abad čuhgā lā mṯōm (ܠܵܐ ܡܬ݂ܘܿܡ) The standard form (from Arabic أبد ʾabad) may be used by some, depending on the context.
No one hičxā, ečxā āpxā lā nāš (ܠܵܐ ܐ݇ܢܵܫ)

SuffixesEdit

Although possessive affixes (beti - "my house") are more convenient and common among Assyrian speakers, those with Tyare and Barwari dialects take a more analytic approach regarding possession, just like modern Hebrew and English.[5] The following are periphrastic ways to express possession, using the word bĕtā ("house") as a base:

  • my house: bĕtā it dēyi ("house of mine")
  • your (masc., sing.) house: bĕtā it dēyūx ("house of yours")
  • your (fem., sing.) house: bĕtā it dēyax
  • your (plural) house: bĕtā it dēyĕxū ("house of yours")
  • 3rd person (masc., sing.): bĕtā it dēyeh ("house of his")
  • 3rd person (fem., sing.): bĕtā it dēyō ("house of hers")
  • 3rd person (plural): bĕtā it dēyĕhĕ ("house of theirs")

ConsonantsEdit

The Lower Tyare dialect, being conservative, generally retains interdental fricative allophones ([θ] and [ð]) of alveolar stops (/t/ and /d/, respectively). This is a feature present in ancient Aramaic (see begadkefat). Examples:

  • "Village": māṯā (like "math" said in Received Pronunciation) in Lower Tyare becomes mātā in Iraqi Koine.
  • "Hand": īḏā in Tyare becomes īdā in Iraqi Koine.

In Upper Tyare, [θ] is not present in native words. Instead, it becomes a voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ] after front vowels and a voiceless alveolar stop [t] everywhere else. Examples:

  • "Dead" (masc. singular): mīṯā in Lower Tyare, mīšā in Upper Tyare, and mītā in Iraqi Koine.
  • "Chicken": kṯēṯā in Lower Tyare, ktēšā in Upper Tyare, and ktētā in Iraqi Koine.

In some words of foreign origin, [f] may be retained instead of [p]--this is a feature also present in Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo. Furthermore, a [l] after a voiceless stop may be perseveratively assimilated by some speakers, namely those with a "thicker" accent from Ashita, where, letlī ("I don't have") becomes lettī, and priqlāh ("it's over") would become priqqāh.

VowelsEdit

  • The schwa (/ə/), heard in the Standard Assyrian pronunciations of words like xəškā ("darkness"), bərqā ("lightning") and dədwā ("housefly"), is switched to the near-close front unrounded vowel [ɪ] in the Tyare dialects. This distinct vowel shift gives the dialect a stronger, "uneducated" sound to outside ears.
  • The [o] in words like tō ("bull") is diphthongized, so it will have an [aw] sound instead (taw).
  • The [u] in the standard Assyrian pronunciation, as in mū ("what"), is retained as [o] (i.e. mōḏī).
  • /a/, as commonly uttered in words like nāšā ("man") and nā ("river") is usually more back [ɑ] in the Tyare dialects.[6][verification needed]
  • /i/, as heard in kī ("rock"), may be realized as [e] in the Tyare dialects.

VillagesEdit

ClothingEdit

  • About the national dress worn by the Tyare men in the Bakuba camp, Brigadier-General Austin wrote; "Fine upstanding fellows they are, ...their legs, encased in long loose baggy trousers of a greyish hue originally, but so patched all over with bits of blue, red, green and other colors that their pants are veritable patch work. A broad cloth, "Kammar band," or waist band, is folded several times round the trunk of the body, and a short cut-away jacket of amazing colors, worn over a thin cotton variegated shirt. The head-dress consists of conical felt cap as depicted in frescoes of Assyrians of thousands of years ago, and which has survived to this day."[8]
  • "There are 115 guests today. Among them are a number of Tyare men, whose wild looks, combined with the splendour of their dress and arms, are of great interest. Their jackets are one mass of gold embroidery, their shirts, with hanging sleeves, are striped satin; their trousers, of sailor cut, are silk, made from the cocoons of their own silkworms, woven with broad crimson stripes on a white ground, on which is a zigzag pattern; and their handsome jackboots are of crimson leather. With their white or red peaked felt hats and twisted silk pagris or head-cloths, their rich girdles, jewelled daggers, and inlaid pistols, they are very imposing." [9]

Famous Tyare AssyriansEdit

Bishops and priestsEdit

Assyrian SingersEdit

Assyrian tribal leadersEdit

  • Malik Ismael (Upper Tyare)
  • Malik Khoshaba (Lizan)
  • Rais Khiyo Odisho (Chammānāyā)
  • Rais Zadoq Enwiya (Bé-Odishkā)
  • Malik Barkho (Bé-Allatha)
  • Malik Yaqo
  • Hormiz Malik Chikko (Dadoshnāyā)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.aina.org/maps/eastern/map_assyria_amadiya.jpg
  2. ^ Assyrian villages in Hakkari
  3. ^ Olmstead, Albert T. (1970). History of the Persian Empire. University of Chicago Press, p. 114
  4. ^ Solomon, Zomaya S. (1997). Functional and other exotic sentences in Assyrian Aramaic, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, XI/2:44-69.
  5. ^ Solomon, Zomaya S. (1994). Basic sentence structure in Assyrian Aramaic, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, VIII/1:83-107
  6. ^ Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6.
  7. ^ Assyrians Of The Van District During The Rule Of Ottoman Turks. M.Y.A . Lilian. 1914.
  8. ^ Brigadier-Gen. H.H. Austin (1920). The Baqubah Refugee Camp. The Faith Press, London.
  9. ^ Bird, Isabella (1891). Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan, including a summer in the Upper Karun region and a visit to the Nestorian rayahs. John Murray, London.