Twentieth century studies in neuroscience
Twentieth century studies in neuroscience is an article detailing important and seminal studies and undertakings of scientists and doctors working in the field of neuroscience during the twentieth century.
Camillo Golgi, whose scientific career commenced during 1869, and Ramon y Cajal (Cajal discovered the neuron as the basic structure of the nervous system), are considered the founders of twentieth century neuroscience, both sharing the Nobel prize during 1906 for their studies and discoveries in this field.
The discovery of the brain having a capacity for re-organisation and change which is dependent on age, i.e. that there is a critical period to which plasticity of the brain has as a limitation for continuation of this plasticity, was made current by a proponent in the field, Margaret Kennard, who experimented on monkeys during the 1930-40s.
Pitts and McCulloch were producing studies from at least 1947 onwards, contributing to the field of pattern recognition, which was at that time not yet fully born. Donald Hebb published his work Organization of Behaviour during 1949.
Sherrington, Papez and MacLean had identified many of the brainstem and limbic system functions mainly due to preparations from laboratory animals by 1950.
The Neuroscience Research program, an inter-university and international organisation, was founded during 1962 by Francis Schmitt, thus giving rise for the first time to the use of the word neuroscience, a factor which indicates the beginnings of an emergence of a distinct discipline within medicine and allied sciences, of uniting the multi-disciplinary scientific study of the brain to understand human behaviour.
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