Turvashas

The Turvashas (Sanskrit: तुर्वश, Turvaśa) were one of the five major peoples[1] (panchajana, panchakrishtya or panchamanusha) mentioned in the Rigveda. [2] The Turvashas had a tribal union with the Yadu tribe, and were frequently described together.[3][4] The Turvashas were a partly Indo-Aryan-acculturated Indus tribe.[5] By the time of the arrival of the Puru and Bharata tribes, the Yadu-Turvashas were settled in Punjab.[6] By the time of the Shatapatha Brahmana (7th-6th centuries BCE),[7][8] the Turvashas are linked to the Panchalas. [6]

Early Vedic Culture (1700-1100 BCE).png

EtymologyEdit

The name Turvaśa is of Indo-Aryan and Indo-Iranian origin.[9]

RigvedaEdit

Alfred Ludvig first conjectured that Turvīti and Vayya could have been connected with the Turvasha tribe, a notion that is still considered only speculation according to Witzel.[10][11]

In Mandalas 4 and 5 of the Rigveda, the god Indra is stated to have saved the Yadu-Turvashas from drowning when they crossed rivers.[12][13]

In Mandala 6, the Yadu-Turvashas are stated to have been "brought from far away" by Indra.[14][15]

The Yadu-Turvashas are treated relatively positively in Mandalas 5, 6, and 8,[16] and are stated to be the occasional allies and enemies of the Puru-Bharatas.[12]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jamison, Stephanie; Brereton, Joel (2014). The Rigveda: The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780199370184.
  2. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Delhi: Pearson Education. p. 187. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0.
  3. ^ Witzel, Michael (2001). "Autochthonous Aryans?: The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 7: 7.
  4. ^ Erdosy & Witzel 1995, p. 204
  5. ^ Witzel, Michael (1999). "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan: (Ṛgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 5: 3, 33.
  6. ^ a b Erdosy & Witzel 1995, p. 236.
  7. ^ "Early Indian history: Linguistic and textual parametres." in The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, edited by G. Erdosy (1995), p. 136
  8. ^ Jan N. Bremmer (2007). The Strange World of Human Sacrifice. Peeters Publishers. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-90-429-1843-6. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  9. ^ Witzel, Michael (1999). "Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India. Data for the linguistic situation, c. 1900-500 B.C." (PDF). Harvard Oriental Series Opera Minora. 3: 19.
  10. ^ Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1995) [1912]. Vedic index of names and subjects. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 317. ISBN 81-208-1332-4.
  11. ^ Erdosy & Witzel 1995, p. 234
  12. ^ a b Erdosy & Witzel 1995, p. 235.
  13. ^ Jamison & Brereton 2014, p. 605, 695.
  14. ^ Erdosy & Witzel 1995, p. 222, 262.
  15. ^ Jamison & Brereton 2014, p. 829.
  16. ^ Erdosy & Witzel 1995, p. 237.

Sources citedEdit

  • Erdosy, George; Witzel, Michael (1995). Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity. The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Rgvedic history: poets, chieftains and politics. De Gruyter.