TurkStream (Turkish: TürkAkım or Türk Akımı, Russian: Турецкий поток) is a natural gas pipeline running from the Russian Federation to Turkey. It runs from Russkaya compressor station near Anapa in Russia's Krasnodar Region, crossing the Black Sea and ending at Kıyıköy on the Turkish Thrace coast, where it connects to other pipelines. TurkStream replaced the cancelled South Stream project.
Map of TurkStream
|From||Russkaya compressor station near Anapa, Krasnodar Krai, the Russian Federation|
|Passes through||Black Sea|
|To||Lüleburgaz, Kırklareli Province, Turkey|
|Length||1,090 km (680 mi)|
|Maximum discharge||31.5×109 m3/a (1.11×1012 cu ft/a)|
Following the shootdown of a Russian fighter jet by Turkey in November 2015, the project was temporarily halted. However, Russia–Turkey relations were restored in summer 2016 and the intergovernmental agreement for TurkStream was signed in October 2016. Construction started in May 2017 and was completed in November 2018.
The first direct gas pipeline between Russia and Turkey was the Blue Stream, commissioned in 2005. In 2009, Putin proposed a Blue Stream II line parallel to Blue Stream under the Black Sea. The Blue Stream II project did not carry through and the South Stream project took the lead, until it was abandoned in 2014. The TurkStream (then named Turkish Stream) project was announced by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 1 December 2014, during his state visit to Turkey.
In November 2015, after the Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown, Russia's Economic Development Minister stated that the TurkStream gas pipeline project falls under the restrictive measures against Turkey. Talks on the project were unilaterally suspended by the Russian side. On 5 December 2015, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said Turkey terminated the TurkStream project, on the grounds of Russian "non-compliance" with Turkish demands surrounding the project. In late July 2016, following a reconciliation meeting in Moscow, both sides brought the project back to the table. On 10 October 2016, Russia and Turkey officially signed the intergovernmental agreement in Istanbul, confirming commitment in the execution of the project.
Contract with an offshore contractor Allseas for laying the first line was signed on 8 December 2016 and for the second line on 20 February 2017. Laying of the first line in the Russian offshore section started on 7 May 2017. On 6 March 2018, the company announced that it has installed more than half of the offshore pipeline. As of 6 September, it was about 81% finished, and as of 19 November it was fully completed.
In November 2018, the Kremlin announced the visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to the Turkish city of Istanbul on 19 November to attend the ceremony of ending construction of the TurkStream gas pipeline.
In November 2018, Serbia announced its preparation for construction of second leg of the pipeline. The project is expected to start operations by end of 2019.
The pipeline begins at the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa. It runs approximately 910 kilometres (570 mi) offshore. The landing point in Turkey is Kıyıköy, a village in the district of Vize in Kırklareli Province at northwestern Turkey. From there, 180-kilometre-long (110 mi) pipeline will run to Lüleburgaz.
The pipeline has two lines with a total capacity of 31.5 billion cubic metres per annum (1.11 trillion cubic feet per annum) of natural gas. Both lines are using pipes with an outer diameter of 32 inches (810 mm). Its estimated total cost is €11.4 billion.
The project is implemented by South Stream Transport B.V., a subsidiary of Gazprom, which was originally established for implementation of the South Stream project. In the near-shore areas the pipeline was laid by the pipe-laying vessel Audacia. For the deep part of the Black Sea the pipe-laying vessel Pioneering Spirit was used. The pipeline was installed in water depths up to 7,220 feet (2,200 m).
Turkey is expected to consume about 15.75 billion cubic metres per annum (556 billion cubic feet per annum), the rest of the gas is planned be brought to the Greek–Turkish border to be exported by connecting pipelines to Europe. However, there are concerns that there is not enough capacity to transport this amount from the Greek–Turkish border further to Europe. According to the European Commissioner for Energy Maroš Šefčovič the proposed pipeline exceeds demands of possible customers. The planned follow-on projects to bring Russian gas from TurkStream into Europe include the Tesla Pipeline, to run from Greece to Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Hungary, ending at the Baumgarten gas hub in Austria; and Eastring, planned to carry gas north via Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Slovakia. Early 2016, Gazprom signed a Memorandum of Understanding with DEPA SA for natural gas deliveries to Europe via Interconnector Turkey–Greece–Italy, a southern route to run from Greece to Italy.
In May 2018, Gazprom and BOTAS announced an agreement to construct the land portion of the Euro-bound Turkish stream pipeline, whereas deep water portion’s construction is to be completed by Gazprom. The first gas flow is expected to start in December 2019.
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