The Turing Institute was an Artificial Intelligence laboratory based in Glasgow, Scotland between 1983 and 1994. The company undertook basic and applied research, working directly with large companies across Europe, the United States, and Japan developing software as well as providing training, consultancy and information services.
The Institute was formed in June 1983 by Donald Michie, Peter Mowforth and Tim Niblett. The Institute was named after Alan Turing who Donald Michie had worked with at Bletchley Park during the Second World War.
The organisation grew out of the Machine Intelligence Research Unit at Edinburgh University with a plan to combine research in Artificial Intelligence with technology transfer to industry. In 1983, Sir Graham Hills was instrumental in the Institute moving to Glasgow where, with support from the Scottish Development Agency it formed a close working relationship with Strathclyde University. Lord Balfour (Chairman) and Shirley Williams joined the board along with a growing team of researchers and AI specialists. Notable amongst these was Stephen Muggleton who was responsible for work developing Inductive Logic Programming.
Professor Jim Alty moved his Man Machine Interaction (HCI) group (later the Scottish HCI Centre) to the Turing Institute in 1984. The move included a significant expansion of the Postgraduate school at the Institute. Jim Alty joined the Turing Institute Board and became Chief Executive. The HCI Centre and the Institute collaborated on a wide range of projects.
Training and resource centreEdit
In 1984, following the UK Government Alvey Report on AI, the Institute became an Alvey Journeyman centre for the UK. Under the guidance of Judith Richards, companies such as IBM (see:John Roycroft), Burroughs, British Airways, Shell, and Unilever seconded researchers to develop new industrial AI applications. The Turing Institute Library was formed in 1983 and grew by selling access by subscription to its Information Services. The library developed a large searchable electronic database of content from most of the main AI research and Development centres around the world. Library affiliates logged into the system by dial-up and received weekly summaries of newly added items that could be ordered or downloaded as abstracts. The publisher Addison-Wesley developed a close working relationship and published the Turing Institute Press series of books.
Throughout its existence, the Institute organised ran a wide range of workshops and International conferences. Notable amongst these were the Turing Memorial Lecture Series whose speakers included Tony Hoare, Herbert Simon, and John McCarthy. Major conferences included The British Association (147th conference in 1985), BMVC'91, IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control (1992)  and the Machine Intelligence Series.
Research and DevelopmentEdit
The Institute won research funding from the Westinghouse Corporation after it developed a machine learned rule-based system to improve the efficiency of a nuclear power plant. The research funding was used to launch the Freddy 3 advanced robotics project  aimed at studying robot learning and robot social interaction. Barry Shepherd developed much of the Freddy 3 software infrastructure. Tatjana Zrimec used the system to investigate how playing robots could develop structured knowledge about their world  while Claude Sammut used the system to investigate machine learning and control  and helped develop Reinforcement Learning. Ivan Bratko made several visits to the Turing Institute undertaking research in machine learning and Advanced Robotics.
The Institute undertook several projects for the US military (e.g. Personnel Allocation for the US Office of Naval Research), credit card scoring for a South African Bank  and seed sorting for Scottish Agricultural Sciences Agency. Other large projects included the ESPRIT Machine Learning Toolbox developing CN2  and Electrophoretic Gel analysis with Unilever.
In 1984 the Institute worked under contract from Radian Corp to develop code for the Space Shuttle auto-lander. The code was developed with an inductive rule generator, Rulemaster, using training examples from a NASA simulator. A similar approach was later used by Danny Pearce to develop qualitative models to control and diagnose satellites for ESA as well as optimising gas flow in the North Sea for Enterprise Oil. Similar approaches based on pole-balancing automata  were used to control submersible vehicles  and develop a control system for helicopters carrying sling loads. Stephen Muggleton and his group developed Inductive Logic Programming and was involved in the practical use of machine learning for the generation of expert knowledge. Applications included the discovery of rules for protein folding (with Ross King)  and drug design  as well as systems such as CIGOL that were capable of discovering new concepts and hypotheses.
In 1986, Jim Alty's HCI group won a major ESPRIT 1 contract to investigate the use of Knowledge Based systems in Process Control Interfaces called GRADIENT (Graphical Intelligent Dialogues, P600). (with Gunnar Johannsen of Kassel University), Peter Elzer (Clausthal University) and Asea Brown Boveri) to create intelligent interfaces for process control operators. This work had a major impact on process control interface design. The initial pilot phase report (Alty, Elzer et al., 1985) was widely used and cited. Many research papers were produced  A follow-on large ESPRIT research project was PROMISE (Process Operators Multimedia Intelligent Support Environment) working with DOW Benelux (Netherlands), Tecsiel (Italy) and Scottish Power (Scotland).
In 1987, the Turing Institute won a project to build a large, scalable, network-available user-manual for S.W.I.F.T. The worldwide-web-like system was launched in 1988. Its success as a global hypertext resource for its users led to SWIFT sponsoring the Turing Memorial series of Lectures. The close working relationship came to an end, in part, when a key member of the SWIFT team, Arnaud Rubin, was killed by a terrorist bomb on Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie.
One of the strongest business relationships the Institute had was with Sun Microsystems. Sun funded a series of projects where the key Institute Personnel were Tim Niblett and Arthur van Hoff. Several projects concerned the development of new user-interface tools and environments (e.g. GoodNews, HyperNews and HyperLook).
HyperLook was written in PostScript and PDB,[clarification needed] an ANSI C to PostScript compiler developed at the Institute, and it ran on Sun's NeWS Windowing System. Don Hopkins, while studying at the Turing Institute, ported SimCity to Unix with HyperLook as its front-end.
Arthur van Hoff left the Institute in 1992 and joined Sun Microsystems where he authored the Java 1.0 compiler, the beta version of the HotJava browser and helped with the design of the Java language.
Throughout the 1980s, the Turing Institute Vision Group developed multi-scale tools and applications. A series of 3D industrial applications were developed and deployed using the Multi-Scale Signal Matching (MSSM) technology, specifically:
- 3D head modelling
- Robot navigation
- Real time robot camera stereo vergence
- Terrain Modelling
- Scene of Crime capture of 3D footprints for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
- Maxillofacial reconstruction and Denture cast digital archiving with Glasgow Dental School.
- Brain model labelling with Guys Hospital
- Hyper-resolution methods to improve CCTV image quality for Strathclyde Police
- High-speed target tracking for the UK Ministry of Defence
- Virtual backgrounds and camera photogrammetry for BBC broadcast TV.
- 3D car body shape reconstruction from wax models; Ford Motor Company, Dearbourn, USA.
- With Sun Microsystems using a stereo pair of miniature cameras to create and re-project a normalised straight-on view for teleconferencing.
Various other robot projects were undertaken at the Turing Institute where key researchers included Paul Siebert, Eddie Grant, Paul Grant, David Wilson, Bing Zhang and Colin Urquhart (e.g. ).
From 1989 onwards, the company faced financial difficulties that caused it to close in 1994.
- Lamb, John (August 1985). Making Friends with Intelligence. The New Scientist. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Howe, Jim. "ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AT EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY : A PERSPECTIVE". Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "The Turing Institute". Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- "Professor Jim Alty". Debretts. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Information, Reed Business (2 July 1987). "Cooperation creates products for profit". New Scientist: 47. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- McKee, Sean (1990). Mathematical Methods for Industrial Problems. p. 70. ISBN 9067641227. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "World First for Scotland in Computer Intelligence". Glasgow Herald. 8 May 1984. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Peter Butcher. "LinkedIn profile". Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Wilkinson, Julia (1986). "Database in Artificial Intelligence". Online Information Review. 10 (5): 307–315. doi:10.1108/eb024224. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Watson, Ian (August 1989). "New AI Information Service" (PDF). Computer-Aided Engineering Journal. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Tyugu, Enn. Knowledge Based Programming. Turing Institute Press. ASIN 020117815X.
- Alen, Shapiro. Structured Induction in Expert Systems. Turing Institute Press. ASIN 0201178133.
- Muggleton, Stephen (1990). Inductive Acquisition of Expert Knowledge. Turing Institute Press. ISBN 9780201175615.
- Muggleton, Stephen. "Inductive Logic Programming". Turing Institute Press. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- J.L., Alty; Coombs, M.J. (1984). Expert Systems: Concepts and Examples. Manchester, UK: NCC Publications. ISBN 0 85012 399 2.
- Alty, M.J. & Coombs (1984). "Expert Systems: An Alternative Paradigm" (PDF). International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. 20: 21–44. doi:10.1016/S0020-7373(84)80004-8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "Letter to Professor H.A. Simon". Turing Institute. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Mowforth (Ed.), Peter (1991-10-07). BMVC 91. Springer - Verlag. ISBN 9783540197157. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control. Computer Society Press of the IEEE. July 1992. ISBN 9780780305465. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Michie, Donald. "Machine Intelligence Series". Turing Institute Press. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Clark, Peter (October 1994). "Applications of Machine Learning" (PDF). EWSL. p. 1. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Blackburn, J. F. (1986). "The Turing Institute" (pdf). Defence Technical Information Center. US Office of Naval Research. p. 327. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- Kaynak, Okyay (August 1992). Developing hypermedia front-ends for robot teleoperation tasks. NATA ASI. pp. 74–94. ISBN 9783540569930. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Zrimec, Tatjana (1993). "Learning by an autonomous agent in the pushing domain". ACM. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Sammut, Claude (1991). "Controlling a black-box simulation of a spacecraft". AI Magazine (AAAI). Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Sammut, Claude. "Reinforcement Learning". University of New South Wales. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Mowforth, Peter (1987). "AI and Robotics; Flexibility and Integration" (PDF). Cambridge University. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Pat Langley; Herbert A. Simon (November 1995). "Applications of Machine Learning and Rule Induction" (PDF). Proceedings of the ACM. ACM. p. 59. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Machine vision for statutory seed certification". UK Government (DEFRA). Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Clark, Peter; Robin Boswell (1991). "Rule induction with CN2: some recent improvements" (PDF). Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference (EWSL-91): 151–163. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Graner, Nicolas. "The Machine Learning Toolbox Consultant" (PDF). Robert Gordon University. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- van Hoff, Arthur. "Semi-automatic analysis of two-dimensional electrophoretic gels". The Turing Institute. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Muggleton, Stephen. "Machine intelligibility and the duality principle". Oxford University: 8. CiteSeerX .
- Donald Michie (1990-04-26). The Superarticulacy Phenomenon. University of Cambridge. p. 427. ISBN 9780521359443. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Sadagopan, S. (1997-01-01). Management Information Systems (pdf). PHI. p. 169. ISBN 9788120311800. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Michie, Donald (1994). Rolf Herken, ed. The fifth Generation's Ubridged Gap. Springer-Verlag. pp. 434–435. ISBN 3-211-82637-8.
- Pearce, Danny (1991). "Knowledge Base Validation" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Pearce, Danny (1992). "Induction of on-board fault management for remote and autonomous systems" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Michie, Donald. "Building Symbolic Representations of Intuitive Real-time Skills from Performance Data". Pennsylvania State University. CiteSeerX .
- "Annual Review of Activities" (pdf). GEC Avionics. 1985. p. 5.
- Hayes-Michie, Jean; Michie, Donald (1998). "Simulator-mediated acquisition of a dynamic control skill" (PDF). AI & Society. Springer Verlag. 12: 71. doi:10.1007/BF01179779. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Muggleton, Stephen (1990). Inductive Acquisition of Expert Knowledge. Turing Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-201-17561-5.
- Muggleton, Stephen; King R. D.; Sternberg M. J. E. (1992). "Protein Secondary Structure Prediction using logic-based machine learning". Protein Engineering. 5 (7): 647–657. PMID 1480619. doi:10.1093/protein/5.7.647.
- King, R. D.; Muggleton S.; Lewis R. A.; Sternberg R.J.E. (1992). "Drug Design by Machine Learning". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89 (23): 11322–11326. PMC . PMID 1454814. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.23.11322.
- Muggleton, Stephen. "A strategy for constructing new predicates in first order logic" (PDF). Imperial College, London. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- The Project Synopses Advanced Information Processing. European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology. 4. Directorate General XIll Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation Commission of the European Communities. 1988. pp. 38–39.
- Alty, G. & Johannsen (1989). "Knowledge Based Dialogue for Dynamic Systems" (PDF). Automatica. 25 (6): 829–840. doi:10.1016/0005-1098(89)90051-4. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Johannsen, J.L. & Alty (1991). "Knowledge Engineering for Industrial Expert Systems" (PDF). Automatica. 27 (1): 97–114. doi:10.1016/0005-1098(91)90009-Q. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Alty, J.L.; Bergan, M.; Craufurd, P.; Dolphin, C (1993). "Experiments using multimedia interfaces in process control: some initial results". Computers and Graphics. 17 (3): 205–218. ISSN 0097-8493. doi:10.1016/0097-8493(93)90069-L. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Niblett, Tim; Van Hoff A. (September 1989). "Programmed Hypertext and SGML". The Turing Institute. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Turings Legacy: even bigger than you think; a brief history". British Computer Society. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Pearce, Danny. "HyperNeWS: an interactive interface design tool". IEEE. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Dion, Marc (May 1993). "Evaluation of HardSys/HardDraw." (pdf). Defence Research Establishment, Ottawa. p. 7. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "HyperLook Manual Collection".
- "PDB – ANSI-C to PostScript compiler".
- Hopkins, Don. "HyperLook (aka HyperNeWS (aka GoodNeWS))". ART. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Hopkins, Don. "HyperLook SimCity Manual". DUX Software. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- van Hoff, Arthur. "JAOO". Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- van Hoff, Arthur. "Arthur van Hoff". CrunchBase. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Mowforth, Peter; Jan Jelinek; Jin Zhengping (February 1987). "An appropriate representation for early vision". Pattern Recognition Letters. 5 (2): 175–182. doi:10.1016/0167-8655(87)90038-9. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Mowforth, Peter; Jin Zhengping (February 1986). "Implementation for noise suppression in images". Image and Vision Computing. 4 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1016/0262-8856(86)90005-3.
- Jin, Zhengping; Peter Mowforth (January 1989). "A discrete approach to signal matching". Research Memo TIRM-89-036. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Shapiro, Jonathan; Peter Mowforth (1990). "Data fusion in 3D through surface tracking". IEA/AIE '90 Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Industrial and engineering applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems. 1: 163–168. ISBN 0897913728. doi:10.1145/98784.98815. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Undbekken, Ketil (1991). Design of an anthropomorphic robot head (PDF). Glasgow3: Springer. pp. 387–391. ISBN 3-540-19715-X.
- Mowforth, Peter (December 1992). "Data Conversion for GIS" (pdf). IAPR Workshop 1992. Machine Vision Association. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Mowforth, Peter; Ashraf Ayoub, Joseph Jin, Kersheed Moos, Tim Niblett, Paul Siebert, Colin Urquhart and David Wray (July 1995). "A Three-Dimensional Imaging System for Clinical Applications" (PDF). Medical Electronics. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Mowforth, Peter; Jin Zhengping (1989). "Model Based Tissue Differentiation in MR Brain Images" (PDF). Alvey Vision Conference. 5244c: 67–71. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Thomas, Graham. "A versatile camera position measurement systems for virtual reality TV production". BBC. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Cockshot, Paul. "Parallel Vision Stereo Algorithm" (pdf). Glasgow University. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Mowforth, Peter; Paul Siebert; Jin Zhengping; Colin Urquhart (September 1990). "A head called Richard" (PDF). Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference: 361–365. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Grant, Paul; Peter Mowforth (1989). "Economical and Cautious Approaches to Local Path Planning for a Mobile Robot" (PDF). Proceedings of the Alvey Vision Conference: 297–300. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Grant, Edward. "Array tactile sensing : integration, calibration and application". The Turing Institute. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Willard, Tim (1991-07-17). "No Relay Race on This Olympic Field". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- "Column 468: The Turing Institute". UK Parliament. Retrieved 11 December 2013.