Tur'an (Arabic: طرعان, Hebrew: תֻּרְעָן) is a local council in the Northern District of Israel. It is located at the foot of Mount Tur'an and the Tur'an Valley, near the main road from Haifa to Tiberias, and about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of Nazareth. In 2018 it had a population of 14,036 are predominantly Arab citizens of Israel, of whom 88.5% are Muslim and 11.5% Christian. 
|• ISO 259||Ṭurˁan, Turˁan|
Abu Baker Sadic Mosque, Tur'an, 2011
|Grid position||185/242 PAL|
|• Type||Local council (from 1959)|
|Name meaning||Possibly from "an outlet of water", Syriac form|
Pottery and building remains from the Iron Age I have been excavated in the village. Apparently Tur'an was at that time (10-9th centuries B.C.E.) surrounded by a city wall. Apparently it was of a considerable size in the late tenth to the mid-ninth centuries BCE.
The village was known in the Roman and Byzantine periods (Mishnaic and Talmudic times, respectively) as Tir'an. It was a Jewish village whose inhabitants probably converted to Islam by the end of the early Islamic Arab period (7th-10th centuries) in Palestine.
In 1517, Tur'an was with the rest of Palestine incorporated into the Ottoman Empire after it was captured from the Mamluks, and by 1596, it appeared in the Ottoman tax registers as being in the nahiya of Tabariyya, part of Sanjak Safad. It had a population of 48 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, olive trees, fruit trees, goats and/or beehives; a total of 5,410 akçe.
In 1848, William F. Lynch described Tur'an as "quite a fortification." The French explorer Victor Guérin visited Tur'an in 1870, and estimated it had 350 Muslims and 200 "Greeks". In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described it as "A stone village, partly built of basalt, containing about 300 inhabitants, half Christian, half Moslem.[..] The village is situated al the foot of the hills, and is surrounded by groves of olives. There is a good spring to the north-west."
A population list from about 1887 showed that Tor'an had about 600 inhabitants; mixed Christians and Muslims.
British Mandate eraEdit
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Tur'an had a population of 768; 542 Muslims and 226 Christians. Of the Christians, 52 were Orthodox and 174 were Melkite. The population had increased in the 1931 census to 961; 693 Muslims and 268 Christians, in a total of 188 occupied houses.
In the 1945 statistics the population was 1,350; 1,010 Muslims and 340 Christians, with 29,743 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 1,153 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 11,909 for cereals, while 34 dunams were built-up land.
State of IsraelEdit
On 18 July 1948 the Israeli captured Tur'an during the second part of Operation Dekel. The houses of those villagers who had fled were later used to house Arab refugees from neighbouring villages. The village remained under Martial Law until 1966.
- "Population in the Localities 2018" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 25 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Palmer, 1881, pp. 123, 136
- Tur'an (Israel)
- Massarwa, 2010, Tur‘an
- Feig, 2016, Turʽan, Northwest
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 418
- "Tur'an" in Mapa - Israel's Geography Site
- Mokary, 2009, Tur‘an, Final Report
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 188.
- Note that Rhode, 1979, p. 6 writes that the register that Hütteroth and Abdulfattah studied from the Safad-district was not from 1595/6, but from 1548/9
- Karmon, 1960, p. 166.
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, 2nd appendix, p. 132
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, p. 237
- Lynch, 1849, pp. 140 - 144
- Guérin, 1880, pp. 182-183
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, pp. 363-364
- Schumacher, 1888, p. 183
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Nazareth, p. 38
- Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 51
- Mills, 1932, p. 76
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 8
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 63
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 110
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 160
- Morris, 1987, pp. 200, 253.
- O'Ballance, 1956, p. 160
- Barron, J.B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Feig, Nurit (2016-12-29). "Turʽan, Northwest" (128). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
- Guérin, V. (1880). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal. 10 (3, 4): 155–173, 244–253.
- Lynch, W.F. (1849). Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea. London: Richard Bentley.
- Massarwa, Abdalla (2010-09-26). "Tur'an Final Report" (122). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Moktari, Abdalla (2009-12-30). "Tur'an Final Report" (121). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Morris, B. (1987). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33028-9.
- O'Ballance, E. (1956). The Arab-Israeli War, 1948. London: Faber & Faber.
- Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Rhode, H. (1979). Administration and Population of the Sancak of Safed in the Sixteenth Century. Columbia University.
- Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.