The Tupolev PAK DA or PAK DA (Russian: ПАК ДА, short for: Перспективный авиационный комплекс дальней авиации, romanizedPerspektivnyi aviatsionnyi kompleks dal'ney aviatsii, lit.''Prospective aviation complex for long-range aviation''),[3] codename Poslannik (Russian: Посланник, lit.'Envoy'),[4] is a next-generation stealth strategic bomber being developed by Tupolev for the Long-Range Aviation branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces.[5] The PAK DA is set to complement and eventually replace the older Tupolev Tu-95 in Russia's Air Force service.[6]

Role Stealth strategic bomber
National origin Russia
Manufacturer Kazan Aircraft Production Association, Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association Plant, Beriev[1]
Designer Tupolev
Introduction 2027 (expected)[2]
Status In development
Primary user Russian Aerospace Forces

According to the 2020 Izvestia report, three PAK DA prototypes were expected to be ready for preliminary testing by April 2023, with the state tests to begin in February 2026. The aircraft is expected to enter serial production in 2027.[7] Due to the ongoing modernization of Russia's current bomber fleet and massive purchases of upgraded Tu-160M2s, it is believed that the Russian Defence Ministry will initially procure only a small number of PAK DA bombers.[8]

Technical parameters of the PAK DA include subsonic speed, 12,000-kilometre (7,500 mi) operational range and a capability to continuously remain in the air for up to 30 hours while carrying both conventional and nuclear payloads up to 30 tons.[9] The aircraft is expected to have a crew of four.[7]

Development edit

The first mention of Russia's next-generation long-range strategic bomber dates back to the late 1990s when the formation of requirements for the aircraft had begun. In December 2007, the Russian Air Force handed to Tupolev Design Bureau the first set of technical and tactical requirements for a new strategic bomber and financing of the programme began in 2008.[10] According to some early reports, the PAK DA was to be heavily based on the supersonic Tupolev Tu-160,[3] but later reports regarding to the aircraft, including a televised address from then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, seemed to imply that it will be an entirely new design.[11]

On 3 September 2009, the Russian Defence Ministry awarded Tupolev Design Bureau a three-year R&D contract to undertake studies for the new long-range bomber. According to the President-General Designer of Tupolev, Igor Shevchuk, "this should be a fundamentally new aircraft, based on conceptually new solutions".[11]

In June 2012, then-Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin questioned the need for a new long-range bomber, pointing out the progress in aerial and anti-missile defence technology, saying "these aircraft will not get anywhere. Not ours, not theirs." The Chief of the General Staff Nikolai Makarov, responded by stating that work is ongoing and that the design was superior to American aircraft.[12] On 9 June 2012, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev stated that the PAK DA was confirmed as planned.[citation needed] Russian President Vladimir Putin in his statement on 14 June 2012 also urged the need for a new long-range bomber.[citation needed]

In March 2013, it was reported that the selected PAK DA design would be a subsonic flying wing with emphasis on stealth technology rather than supersonic speeds.[13][14][15] Anatoly Zhikharev noted that an unmanned strategic bomber may follow the PAK DA after 2040.[16] On 30 August 2013, a Russian Defense Ministry source revealed that the PAK DA will be equipped with advanced types of precision-guided weapons, including hypersonic weapons.[17]

In November 2013, a decision was taken to speed up work on the PAK DA and begin full-scale R&D work in 2014.[18] In February 2014, then-Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Andrey Boginsky stated that Russia was seeking Chinese investment in the project.[19]

In April 2014, head of Russia's United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) Mikhail Pogosyan announced that the Tupolev Design Bureau had finalized the design and that the project was moving to the intermediate phase - i.e. completion of the design and construction of a prototype.[20]

In March 2015, it became known that the KAPO plant in Kazan was chosen for the construction of the PAK DA prototypes and serial aircraft. The Russian Defence Ministry allocated about RUB5 billion for reconstruction and technical re-equipment of the production base, to prepare the plant for the construction of the new bomber.[21] Development of the PAK DA will be carried out simultaneously with serial production of the upgraded Tu-160M2,[22] although this later led to repeated delays in the programme.[23]

In July 2015, representatives from the United Instrument Manufacturing Corporation (UIMC), now part of Roselectronics, announced the company is developing "one-of-a-kind communications system" for the bomber.[citation needed]

On 1 March 2017, it was reported that the first full-size model of the bomber was built, amongst various scale mock-ups of different configurations.[24]

In July 2018, United Engine Corporation (UEC) and Tupolev signed a contract for the creation of PAK DA's powerplant.[25] According to early reports, it will be derived from the upgraded Kuznetsov NK-32 Tier 2 engine, intended for modernized Tu-160M2s. About RUB8 billion was to be allocated for the development of the new engine that will be produced by JSC Kuznetsov in Samara.[26][27] The engine is to provide the PAK DA with a capability to perform 30 hours nonstop flight while being resistant to temperatures from minus 60°C to plus 50°C and even effects of a nuclear explosion. Its service life is expected to be from 12 to 21 years.[25][4] The first tests of the PAK DA engine will take place in 2020 and be completed by the end of 2021.[28]

In February 2019, PAK DA's final draft was approved and all documents for the construction of the bomber were signed.[29] Construction of the first aircraft components began in late 2019.[30] On 26 May 2020, the beginning of construction of the first PAK DA bomber was reported by TASS with reference to anonymous sources.[31] Still according to TASS, citing another source in the aircraft industry, the first prototype of the PAK DA will be finished in early 2023.[32]

On 23 December 2020, it was reported that UEC was in the final stages of completing the first prototype engine for the PAK DA, with bench tests to be carried out in 2021.[33] The new engine was designed digitally, which made it possible to quickly manufacture the first sample.[34] On 24 December 2020, according to a TASS source in the Russian military-industrial complex, it was reported that there were now several PAK DA being assembled at the same time at the Kazan aircraft plant.[35] The source said that two or three prototypes are already being launched into production.[36]

On 22 July 2021, the general director of NPP Zvezda announced at the 2021 MAKS air show that the ejection seats for the PAK DA were under development and should be handed over to Tupolev in 2023.[37] The testing phase of the PAK DA's ejection seat started in October 2022, according to the general director of NPP Zvezda.[38] On 2 August 2021, it was announced that a new long-range nuclear-capable hypersonic cruise missile, the Kh-95,[39] was under development, to be fitted inside the PAK DA's weapon bay.[40] On 25 November 2021, it was reported that the first PAK DA prototype was in final stage of assembly and would start ground tests in 2022, with the first flight scheduled for late 2024 or early 2025.[41]

On 16 March 2022, Tupolev published a patent for an engine air intake for stealthy flying wing aircraft, including illustrations of such an aircraft. [42]

On 13 May 2022, a production planning of United Aircraft Corporation at the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association plant showed that the production of components for 6 PAK DA was ongoing. The planning also confirmed that several PAK DA prototypes were still expected to be built between 2023 and 2026.[43] Work on the schedule was further warranted by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Denis Manturov, explaining that the sanctions following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine would not affect the timing of the creation of the PAK DA as the bomber does not contain any foreign components.[44] Similarly, on 10 August 2023, the eve of the "Army-2023" International Military-Technical Forum, Vladimir Artyakov, First Deputy General Director of Rostec claimed that "work on the PAK DA project is carried out in the mode established by the approved schedule," meaning that the first prototype should thenceforth be rolled-out in 2023.[45]

See also edit

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References edit

  1. ^ "Общая информация". Archived from the original on 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  2. ^ "Первые испытания ПАК ДА ачнутся уже в 2022 году".
  3. ^ a b "PAKDA a Russian Stealth bomber". 6 July 2008. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Двигатель бомбардировщика ПАК ДА начнут испытывать на Ил-76 в 2020 году". Interfax. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Russia starts building first stealth bomber: State media". Flight Global.
  6. ^ "Минобороны подписало контракты, необходимые для производства ПАК ДА" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  7. ^ a b "ПАКетное соглашение: новейшему бомбардировщику назначили сроки выхода в серию". Izvestia (in Russian). 14 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  8. ^ "Выбор настоящих "стратегов"". Kommersant. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  9. ^ ""ПАК-ДА" станет важным элементом российской "гиперзвуковой триады"". 20 April 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  10. ^ "ПАК ДА (проект)". 15 September 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  11. ^ a b ""Туполев" создаст новый самолет дальней авиации". 4 September 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Russian PAK-DA bomber in doubt, says minister". Flight Global. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  13. ^ "ВВС России утвердили проект нового бомбардировщика". 4 March 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  14. ^ "Бомбардировщик пятого поколения будет дозвуковым". 4 March 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  15. ^ "ПАК ДА построят с применением стелс-технологий". Телеканал «Звезда». 12 July 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Russia Could Deploy Unmanned Bomber After 2040 - Air Force". Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  17. ^ "Russia's New Bomber to Carry Hypersonic Weapons – Source". 30 August 2013. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  18. ^ "Russia Speeds Up Development of New Strategic Bomber". 28 November 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  19. ^ "Russia and China can jointly develop bomber: Voice of Russia". 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  20. ^ "Russia finalizes PAK-DA bomber design". 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  21. ^ "На Казанский авиазавод "прилетело" загадочное "изделие 80"". 5 March 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Putin made decision to revive production of Tu-160M strategic bomber — Air Force commander". TASS. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Сроки проекта ПАК ДА сдвинутся из-за старта производства Ту-160М2". 17 July 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Russian manufacturer creates first full-size model of future strategic bomber — source". TASS. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  25. ^ a b Пешков, Александр (1 October 2018). ""Изделие 80": раскрыты подробности о двигателе ПАК ДА". Телеканал «Звезда». Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  26. ^ "An engine for PAK DA bomber will be derived from the engine, which powers Tu-160". 19 August 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  27. ^ "СМИ: в Самаре разработают двигатель для российского стратегического бомбардировщика ПАК ДА". TASS. 9 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  28. ^ "Первый двигатель ПАК ДА поступит на испытания в 2020 году".
  29. ^ "Утвержден окончательный облик ПАК ДА". Телеканал «Звезда». 14 February 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  30. ^ "В России начали строительство элементов бомбардировщика ПАК ДА". 28 December 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  31. ^ "Russia begins construction of the first PAK DA strategic bomber - sources" (in Russian). TASS. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  32. ^ "Бомбардировщик ПАК ДА вооружат стратегической гиперзвуковой ракетой X-95". 4 August 2021.
  33. ^ "Изготовлен опытный образец двигателя для ПАК ДА". 23 December 2020.
  34. ^ "Испытания двигателя для перспективного ракетоносца ПАК ДА начнутся в 2021 году". Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  35. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Korda, Matt (2021). "Russian nuclear weapons, 2021". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 77 (2): 90–108. Bibcode:2021BuAtS..77b..90K. doi:10.1080/00963402.2021.1885869. ISSN 0096-3402. The Russian government signed a contract with manufacturer Tupolev in 2013 to construct the PAK-DA at the Kazan factory.
  36. ^ "Источник: в России собирают сразу несколько стратегических бомбардировщиков ПАК ДА". 24 December 2020.
  37. ^ "Катапультное кресло для ПАК ДА пос тавят в ближайшие два года".
  38. ^ "Начались испытания катапультного кресла для перспективного бомбардировщика ПАК ДА". Военное.РФ. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  39. ^ "Russia developing new Kh-95 long-range hypersonic missile".
  40. ^ "Le bombardier russe PAK DA sera armé du missile stratégique hypersonique le plus unique Kh-95". Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  41. ^ "Первые испытания российского ПАК ДА могут начаться уже в 2022 году". 25 November 2021.
  42. ^ "RU209424U1 - ВОЗДУХОЗАБОРНИК ДВИГАТЕЛЯ САМОЛЕТА - Яндекс.Патенты".
  43. ^ @La_souris_DA (May 13, 2022). "[UAC] Un planning de production des avions du groupe aéronautique russe UAC. A prendre avec des pincettes. Désolé p…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  44. ^ "Мантуров заявил, что санкции не скажутся на сроках создания бомбардировщика ПАК ДА".
  45. ^ "«Армия-2023»: в Ростехе рассказали о Су-25СМ3, ПАК ДА и сроках поставок Су-57 с двигателем второго этапа » Авиация России". 10 August 2023.

External links edit