Tual is a city in Maluku Province of Indonesia. The city, called Kota Tual in Indonesian, is within the Kei Islands, on Dullah Island, but since 2007 has been administratively separate from the rest of the Kei Islands, which form the Southeast Maluku Regency and comprise two principal islands (Kei Besar to the east and Kei Kecil to the west) together with over 190 smaller offshore islands.[4][5]

Tual
City of Tual
Kota Tual
Tual City Monument
Tual City Monument
Coat of arms of Tual
Motto: 
Larwur Ngabal
Location within Maluku
Location within Maluku
OpenStreetMap
Tual is located in Maluku
Tual
Tual
Location in Maluku and Indonesia
Tual is located in Indonesia
Tual
Tual
Tual (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 5°38′12.5″S 132°45′3″E / 5.636806°S 132.75083°E / -5.636806; 132.75083Coordinates: 5°38′12.5″S 132°45′3″E / 5.636806°S 132.75083°E / -5.636806; 132.75083
Country Indonesia
Province Maluku
Establishment2007[1]
Government
 • MayorAdam Rahayaan
 • Vice MayorUsman Tamnge
Area
 • Total254.39 km2 (98.22 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)[2]
 • Total88,999
 • Density350/km2 (910/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)
Area code(+62) 916
Vehicle registrationDE
HDI (2020)Increase 0.679 (Medium)[3]
Websitetualkota.go.id

The city is on the same administrative level as the regency, and covers a land area of 254.39 km2 (98.22 sq mi), together with a sea area estimated at 19,088 km2 (7,370 sq mi). It consists of a partly urbanised island (Pulau Dullah) which is situated to the northeast of the much larger Kei Kecil, and includes a further number of small islands to the west of the principal Kei Kecil.[4]

HistoryEdit

The city was in one of the key maritime routes of the spice trade that extended from the Moluccas southwards towards the Lesser Sunda Islands and Java, which have had significant effects on the culture and people in the region.[1][6]

 
Tual circa 1915

Inhabitants of the Kai Islands are believed to have migrated from the larger island of Seram. Local cultures were exposed to that of the Balinese in the 14th century, during the expansion of the Majapahit Empire.[7] After its collapse, however, the local elders known as Halaai formed a local set of government and laws (known as the Larwul Ngaal), which stood until European arrival to the archipelago. After the Dutch East India Company conquered the area sometime in the 17th century, the elders were replaced with kings.[1][6]

During the Second World War, Japanese soldiers landed on the island and several Roman Catholic missionaries were executed. The area remained largely untouched by the insurgency in South Maluku during the 1960s. In 2007, the city (which includes a number of far-flung islands to the west of it) was administratively separated from the Southeast Maluku Regency.[1][6]

InfrastructureEdit

There are fifteen kindergartens, sixty-four elementary schools, thirty junior high schools, fourteen senior high schools, and six vocational high schools both public and private.[8] In addition, there are three higher education institutions.[8] The city only has one hospital, but is also supported by two clinics, nineteen puskesmas, and one central pharmacy.[8] The only hospital in the city, Maren Hi Noho Renuat Regional Hospital, is owned by city government and undergoing an expansion expected to be completed in 2021.[9][10][11][needs update] There are also 18 family planning clinics as of 2019. There are exactly 100 mosques and 24 churches in the city.[8] There are seven hotels and homestays in the city.[8]

 
A junior high school in Tual

187,72 kilometers out of 353,59 kilometers of roads in the city are paved using asphalt.[8] Angkots exist in the city and are the only available form of public transportation. Other informal taxis and motorcycle taxis also exist, but online transportation services such as Grab and Gojek have not yet established a presence as of 2021.[12] The closest airport is Karel Sadsuitubun Airport and Dumatubin Airport which are located around 10 minutes' journey from the city.[12] The city is also served by Pelni to connect it to other neighboring islands and regions.[12]

The city and neighbouring regions have access to 4G internet service, in addition to other basic telecommunication services such as the telephone.[13][14] There are also some public Wi-Fi spots provided by the government.[15] The only fiber optic connection provider is IndiHome, which is state-owned under Telkom Indonesia.[16]

DemographicsEdit

Around 75% of the population are Muslim, 25% are Christian, 0.08% are Hindu, and 0.01% are Buddhist.[17] The city's life expectancy is 65.21.[18] There are more females than males, making up around 51.34% of the city population.[18]

EconomyEdit

The city produced 3.9 tons of galangal, 3.7 tons of turmeric, and 2.02 tons of ginger in 2019. This is a sharp decrease from the previous year, in which the city produced 11 tons of galangal, 4.2 tons of turmeric, and 3.45 tons of ginger, suggesting a decline in the agricultural sector and a shift to the industry and service sectors.[8] Other agricultural commodities such as sweet potatoes and cassava also experienced a decline in production, from 21 tons to 14 tons and 107 tons to 76 tons, respectively.[8] Another sector, fishery, contributes significantly to the local economy, in which there were 30,638 tons of seafood products from the city in 2019, ranging from tuna to shrimp.[8][19] In the industry sector, fish meal production is the main industry product with an investment value of more than $680,000.[8] There are 12 registered restaurants in the city, not counting informal restaurants and shops.[8] Unemployment rate was 9.3% as of 2019.[8]

As the city's location is isolated and dependent on logistics from the sea, it is very prone to high inflation. The inflation rate in 2020 was 1.15%, which was the highest inflation rate in Indonesia that year.[20]

Administrative districtsEdit

 
Mayoral office building of Tual

The city as of 2010 was divided into four districts (kecamatan), but subsequently in 2018 a fifth district — Kur Selatan (South Kur) — was created from part of Pulau-Pulau Kur District. These are tabulated below with their areas and their populations as of the 2010 census[21] and 2020 census.[22] The table also includes the number of administrative villages (urban kelurahan and rural desa) in each district, and its post code.

Name Area in
sq.km
Population
Census
2010
Population
Census
2020
Number
of
villages
Post
code
Pulau-Pulau Kur[a] 19.61 4,895 2,784 5 97615
Kur Selatan
(South Kur Islands)
28.72 [b] 3,609 7 97614
Tayando Tam[c] 73.74 5,448 7,821 5 97613
Pulau Dullah Utara[d] 91.57 14,564 23,697 8 97612
Pulau Dullah Selatan[e] 40.75 33,175 51,088 5 97611
Total 254.39 58,082 88,999 30

ClimateEdit

Tual has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with moderate rainfall from July to October and heavy to very heavy rainfall from November to June.

Climate data for Tual
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.0
(86.0)
30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
30.7
(87.3)
29.7
(85.5)
29.2
(84.6)
29.7
(85.5)
30.7
(87.3)
31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
30.4
(86.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.4
(81.3)
27.3
(81.1)
27.4
(81.3)
27.6
(81.7)
27.6
(81.7)
26.8
(80.2)
26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
27.7
(81.9)
28.2
(82.8)
27.8
(82.0)
27.3
(81.1)
Average low °C (°F) 24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.5
(76.1)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
24.1
(75.4)
24.7
(76.5)
24.7
(76.5)
24.2
(75.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 385
(15.2)
337
(13.3)
347
(13.7)
275
(10.8)
242
(9.5)
162
(6.4)
105
(4.1)
73
(2.9)
68
(2.7)
77
(3.0)
165
(6.5)
324
(12.8)
2,560
(100.9)
Source: Climate-Data.org[23]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The northern part of the Kur Islands archipelago, which comprises nine islands (including those now in Kur Selatan District); the nine are Bui, Fadol, Kumer, Kur, Maliktutin, Mangur, Ngurtutin, Vatukannyasin and Woning. They are situated far to the west of the Kayando Tam group.
  2. ^ The 2010 population of Kur Selatan District was included with the figure for Pulau-Pulau Kur, from which it was cut out.
  3. ^ The Tayando Tam group comprises 27 islands (of which the largest are Pulau Tayando and Pulau Tam) situated to the west of Kei Kecil.
  4. ^ Comprises the northern half of Dullah Island, and 22 other islands.
  5. ^ Comprises the southern part of Dullah Island (including Tual town) and 7 other islands.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Loupatty, Stenly R. "Sejarah Kota Tual" (PDF). Indonesian Ministry of Education.
  2. ^ "Kota Tual dalam Angka 2020". BPS Kota Tual. Indonesian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  3. ^ "Badan Pusat Statistik".
  4. ^ a b "SIFATARU - Maluku". sifataru.atrbpn.go.id. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  5. ^ VIVA, PT VIVA MEDIA BARU- (2018-01-30). "Inilah Tual, Surga Wisata Tersembunyi di Maluku Tenggara". www.viva.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  6. ^ a b c mezakwakim (2014-06-04). "Sejarah Kota Tual Maluku Tenggara". Balai Pelestarian Nilai Budaya Maluku (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-04-09.
  7. ^ Warfewubun, Jamain (2016). "ISLAMISASI DI TAYANDO KOTA TUAL MALUKU (POLA ADAPTASI RITUAL DAN PERKEMBANGAN KELEMBAGAAN ISLAM) Islamization in Tayando of Tual City Maluku (Pattern of Adaptation Ritual and Development Institutional Islamic)". Al-Tadabbur. 2 (1): 1–15. ISSN 2613-9154.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara". tualkota.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  9. ^ "RSUD Maren Hi Noho Renuat Rampung Tahun 2021". Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  10. ^ "Pemkot Tual Optimis Pembangunan RSUD Hi Noho Renuat Rampung Tahun 2021". Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  11. ^ "Informasi SDM Kesehatan Nasional". bppsdmk.kemkes.go.id. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  12. ^ a b c "Infrastruktur Wilayah Kota Tual". www.dpmptsp-maluku.com. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  13. ^ "Warga Desa Malra Nikmati Layanan Internet 4G". Kabartimurnews.com (in Indonesian). 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  14. ^ Maluku, Rakyat. "Telkomsel Perluas Jaringan di Wilayah Cluster Kepulauan Tual – Rakyat Maluku" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  15. ^ "Wuih, Jaringan Wi-Fi Terpasang di Seluruh Maluku". Republika Online (in Indonesian). 2013-04-27. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  16. ^ "IndiHome Kota Tual | Layanan Resmi Pasang IndiHome". Paket IndiHome Sedang Promo, Daftar IndiHome Sekarang!. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  17. ^ "Peringatan". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  18. ^ a b "Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara". tualkota.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  19. ^ BeritaSatu.com. "Kehadiran Industri Perikanan Terpadu Dorong Perekonomian Kota Tual". beritasatu.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  20. ^ Liputan6.com (2020-12-01). "BPS Sebut 83 Kota Inflasi, Tertinggi di Tual Maluku". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  21. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  22. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  23. ^ "Climate: Tual". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 23 November 2020.