Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago)
The Trump International Hotel and Tower is a skyscraper condo-hotel in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The building, named after businessman and current U.S. President Donald Trump was designed by architect Adrian Smith of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Bovis Lend Lease built the 98-story structure, which reaches a height of 1,388 feet (423.2 m) including its spire, its roof topping out at 1,171 feet (357 m). It is next to the main branch of the Chicago River, with a view of the entry to Lake Michigan beyond a series of bridges over the river. The building received publicity when the winner of the first season of The Apprentice reality television show, Bill Rancic, chose to manage the construction of the tower over managing a new Trump National Golf Course and resort in Los Angeles.
|Trump International Hotel and Tower|
Location of Trump Tower along the Chicago River
|Location||401 N. Wabash Ave.|
|Construction started||March 17, 2005|
|Topped-out||August 16, 2008 (last concrete pour)|
August 19, 2008 (ceremonial topping out)
January 3, 2009 (Spire ceremony)
|Opening||January 30, 2009|
|Cost||US $847 million|
|Architectural||1,388 feet (423.2 m)|
|Tip||1,388 feet (423.2 m)|
|Roof||1,171 feet (357 m)|
|Top floor||1,116 feet (340.2 m)|
|Floor area||2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m2)|
|Lifts/elevators||27, made by Kone|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Adrian Smith, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill|
|Developer||The Trump Organization|
|Structural engineer||William F. Baker, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill|
|Main contractor||Bovis Lend Lease|
Trump announced in 2001 that the skyscraper would become the tallest building in the world, but after the September 11 attacks that same year, he scaled back the building's plans, and its design underwent several revisions. When topped out in 2009, it became the fourth-tallest building in the US. It surpassed the city's John Hancock Center as the building with the highest residence (apartment or condo) in the world, and briefly held this title until the completion of the Burj Khalifa.
The design of the building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel and condominiums. The 339-room hotel opened for business with limited accommodations and services on January 30, 2008, then full accommodation and services on April 28. The building topped out in late 2008 and construction was completed in 2009. As of 2015[update], the hotel is among three in Chicago with an elite five-star Forbes Travel Guide rating. Sixteen was one of five restaurants in Chicago with at least a Michelin Guide two-star rating in 2016 and one of three five-star Forbes-rated restaurants in the city until it closed in 2018. The spa is one of six with at least a four-star Forbes rating in the Chicago area in 2015.
The tower sits at 401 North Wabash Avenue in the River North Gallery District, part of the Near North Side community area of Chicago. The building occupies the site vacated by the Chicago Sun-Times, one of the city's two major newspapers, and its location within the River North Gallery District places it in a neighborhood that has had a high concentration of art galleries since the 1980s. The site, at the foot of Rush Street, is on the north side of the Chicago River just west of the Wrigley Building and the Michigan Avenue Bridge, and just east of Marina City and 330 North Wabash. The building is close to numerous Chicago landmarks; it borders the Michigan-Wacker District, which is a Registered Historic District. Parts of the building are visible throughout the city, and the entire length of the building is visible from boats on the river, as well as from locations to the east along the river, such as the mouth of Lake Michigan, the Lake Shore Drive Overpass, and the Columbus Drive Bridge.
The building is across the Chicago River from the Chicago Loop, the city's business district. It is a block away from the southern end of the Magnificent Mile portion of Michigan Avenue. The restaurant, Terrace 16, has a clear view of the Chicago River's entrance to Lake Michigan and of the four buildings completed in the 1920s that flank the Michigan Avenue Bridge (Wrigley Building, Tribune Tower, 333 North Michigan, and 360 North Michigan).
Design and architectureEdit
The design of the building incorporates three setback features designed to provide visual continuity with the surrounding skyline, each reflecting the height of a nearby building. The first setback, on the east side of the building, aligns with the cornice line of the Wrigley Building to the east; the second, on the west side, aligns with River Plaza to the north and with the Marina City Towers to the west. The third setback, on the east side, relates to 330 North Wabash building (formerly known as IBM Plaza). However, some views distort the alignment of the second setback.[a] The setbacks and rounded edges of the building combat vortex formation. The body of the building is raised 30 feet (9.1 m) above the main Wabash entrance and 70 feet (21 m) above the Chicago River. The building's Permasteelisa curtain wall uses clear low-emissivity coated glass and a curved wing-shaped polished stainless-steel mullion system that projects 9 inches (23 cm) from the glass line. It incorporates a brushed stainless steel spandrel panels and clear anodized aluminum.
The building has 2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m2) of floor space, rises to 98 stories, and houses 486 luxury residential condominiums. These include studio apartments, a mixture of suites with one to four bedrooms, and five-bedroom penthouses. The tower also features a luxury hotel condominium with 339 guest rooms. The building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel, and condominiums. The 3rd through 12th floors house lobbies, retail space, and the parking garage; the 14th floor and its mezzanine hosts a health club and spa. The 17th floor through the 27th-floor mezzanine contain hotel condominiums and executive lounges. The 28th through 85th floors have residential condominiums, and the 86th through 89th floors have penthouses. A 1.2-acre (0.49 ha) riverfront park and riverwalk, along a 500-foot (150 m) space in the area adjacent to the building to the east, was opened in the first half of 2010. The park facilitates public assembly and entertainment activity while linking the building effectively with river commuters.
In 2011, the riverfront park landscaping surrounding the building, which is referred to as Trump Plaza and Riverwalk or sometimes just Trump Plaza, became the subject of controversy. In 2010, the Plaza had earned special recognition at the Mayor Daley's Landscape Awards. The press release noted the landscaping "for their magnificent new civic landscape that is a poetic interpretation of native Illinois that seems at once sophisticated and familiar." However, in 2011, the award-winning plantings of small sumac trees, ferns and native grasses with yellow, orange and red hues were removed and replaced with evergreens like junipers and boxwoods, pieces of gray stone, and purple perennials (catmint and salvia), which may require less watering. To add to the controversy, the planting was accompanied by a plan to light the trees to attract nighttime park visitors, in conflict with the "dark skies" movement to reduce light pollution to facilitate better stargazing.
The building broke the record for the world's highest residence above ground level, held since 1969 by the nearby John Hancock Center. Because the Trump Tower has both hotel condominiums and residential condominiums, it does not contest the record held by the 88-story 432 Park Avenue in New York City, which, at 1,396 feet (425.5 m), is the tallest residential building in the world.
The Trump International Hotel and Tower rises 1,400 feet (426.7 m) from the building's main entrance on Wabash Avenue to the tip of the architectural spire. Upon its completion in 2009, the building became the seventh-tallest building in the world, behind the 1,380-foot (420.6 m) Jin Mao Tower in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. On November 17, 2009, however, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), which composes rankings of the tallest skyscrapers in the world based on various criteria, changed its standard for measuring a building's height. Prior to this change, a building's architectural height was calculated from the main entrance to the tip of the spire; new standards measured from the lowest open-air pedestrian level of a building. As the Trump International Hotel and Tower has a riverwalk entrance and pedestrian level 27 feet (8.2 m) below the building's Wabash Avenue entrance, the skyscraper's official height was recalculated as 1,388 feet (423.2 m) without a physical addition to the structure. According to the CTBUH, the recalculated height also made the tower the sixth-tallest building in the world, surpassing the Jin Mao Tower by 9 feet (2.7 m). In January 2010, the building moved back to its position as seventh-tallest with the opening of the 828-metre (2,717 ft) Burj Khalifa in Dubai.
According to Trump, he received approval for a 3,600-square-foot (334.5 m2) sign from Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley's administration in 2009, but renegotiated with Mayor Rahm Emanuel's administration. In October 2013, Trump received approval to erect 20-foot (6.1 m) tall stainless steel letters back-lit with white LED lighting spelling out TRUMP on the 16th floor of the building. He made his impending plans for the sign public in February 2014. According to a city planning department spokesperson, standard protocol for such a sign is to require approval from the local alderman (Brendan Reilly, 42nd ward) and the full Chicago City Council. The five letters span a width of approximately 141 feet (43 m), making the final approved version approximately 2,800 square feet (260.1 m2)—2,891 square feet (268.6 m2) according to some sources—rather than the originally proposed size. The sign is located about 200 feet (61 m) above ground level.
Crews began hanging the sign in May 2014. When Chicago Tribune architecture critic Kamin warned Trump that his review of the sign would be unfavorable, Trump responded "As time passes, it'll be like the Hollywood Sign"; architect Smith distanced himself from the sign saying "Just for the record, I had nothing to do with this sign!" The controversy surrounding the sign drew attention in the national press and international press as it neared completion and the Associated Press ran a story about Mayor Emanuel's disapproval in mid-June. According to the Mayor's spokeswoman Kelley Quinn, "Mayor Emanuel believes this is an architecturally tasteful building scarred by an architecturally tasteless sign". Kamin has noted that part of the problem is the architectural traditions of the city: "If this sign was in Atlantic City or Las Vegas, nobody would care—but it is in Chicago, and in a part of Chicago full of great buildings from the 1920s to the 1960s and onward". Trump and Reilly both pointed out how unbecoming the prior Chicago Sun-Times building signage was. As a result of the fiasco, Emanuel initiated a study on how to alter the rules to avert similar signage controversies in the future. A Chicago-based design firm planned to create and float four giant pig balloons in front of the sign as a protest, but were unsuccessful getting US Coast Guard and Chicago Department of Transportation approvals.
According to the "2010 City Guide: Chicago" edition of the Forbes Travel Guide, the building hosts one of the seven four-star restaurants in the city and one of the three four-star spas. The hotel is one of two four star hotels. In 2010 Chicago had two five-star hotels and two five-star restaurants. By the time of the Forbes Travel Guide: 2013 City Guide, the hotel and restaurant were each among only three five-star ratings in the city. It retained this ranking in the 2015 Forbes Guide (along with hotels The Peninsula and Four Seasons and with restaurants Alinea and Grace). The spa was among 6 four- or five-star Forbes-rated spas in the Chicago area in 2015.
The restaurant was promoted to two-star rating by the Michelin Guide for 2014 and retained that rating in 2015. It was one of 5 Chicago restaurants to achieve at least a two-star Michelin rating in both years. In 2016, it again retained its two-star rating as one of five restaurants in the city with such a rating.
The original plan was to have a partial opening of three of the hotel's floors on December 3, 2007, with a grand opening to follow. The interim ceremony, however, was delayed until January 30, 2008, while the City of Chicago granted occupancy approval for the staff of the hotel in the first 27 floors. Four floors of guest rooms were opened, comprising 125 of the planned 339 rooms. By January 30, construction on the exterior of the building had passed the 53rd floor. The grand opening of the hotel, including amenities, originally scheduled for March 17, 2008, took place on April 28, 2008. Pulitzer-Prize-winning Chicago Tribune architecture critic Blair Kamin faults the zebrawood paneling in the hotel lobby, but another Tribune reporter praises the hotel for its "understated, contemporary look, distinguished by stunning views".
On the 16th floor, a restaurant named Sixteen opened in early February 2008, and an outdoor patio terrace, named The Terrace at Trump, opened on June 25, 2009 following the completion of construction. The restaurant opened to favorable reviews for its cuisine, decor, location, architecture, and view. Sixteen, which was designed by Joe Valerio, is described architecturally as a sequence of spaces that do not reveal themselves at once, but rather in "procession". The restaurant's foyer is T-shaped, and a passageway to the hotel is lined with floor-to-ceiling architectural bronze wine racks in opposing red and white wine rooms. The passageway leads to views—praised by Kamin—that showcase the Wrigley Building clock tower and the Tribune Tower's flying buttresses. Kamin notes that these views are "more intimate" than the panoramic ones of the Signature Room, a restaurant near the top of the Hancock Center. The views are described as equally impressive by day and by night. The main part of the procession is the Tower Room, a dining room with a 30-foot (9.1 m) dome-shaped ceiling made of West African wood. The dome is furnished with Swarovski chandeliers and incorporates mirrors so that all diners can experience the view.
The Terrace, which opened on June 25, 2009, has views of the Chicago River and Lake Michigan as well as Navy Pier's seasonal Wednesday and Saturday evening fireworks, and was designed for outdoor or "al fresco" dining.
Located on the mezzanine level, Rebar—the hotel bar—opened on April 18, 2008.
The 23,000-square-foot (2,100 m2) spa, named The Spa at Trump, opened in late March 2008. The spa offers gemstone-infused (diamond, ruby, or sapphire) oil massages, hydrating masques, exfoliating salts and the "Deluge shower". The spa features a health club with an indoor pool, eleven treatment rooms, a private couples treatment suite, Swiss shower, and saunas. The Citysearch editorial review described this as the "Bentley of hotel spas". A Chicago Tribune critic spoke of the spa in positive terms for both the treatment and the physical spa itself. The Spa at Trump can be accessed from a large circular staircase inside the hotel, enabling its customers to access the facility from specially designed spa guest rooms without using the elevator.
In July 2001, when Donald Trump announced plans for the site of the former seven-story Sun-Times Building, the tower was expected to reach a height of 1,500 feet (457.2 m), which would have made it the world's tallest building. It was expected to contain between 2,400,000 and 3,100,000 square feet (220,000 and 290,000 m2) of floor space and cost about $77 million just for the property rights. Three architectural firms were considered: Lohan Associates, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; Trump selected Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in August 2001. Adrian Smith, who had previously designed the Jin Mao Tower, headed the SOM team, giving Chicago a third skyscraper from the same firm which had previously designed the Willis Tower and the Hancock Center.
After the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, Trump reduced the planned height to 78 stories and 1,073 feet (327.1 m), to reduce the risk of similar attacks. Time magazine reported that a meeting between Smith and Trump about erecting the tallest building in Chicago was taking place at the actual time of the attacks. Some international news sources later claimed that the planned tower height was reduced to 900 feet (274.3 m) after the original plans called for a 150-story building that would reach 2,000 feet (609.6 m). These claims are supported by computer renderings from 1999 of the proposed skyscraper, shown in the Chicago Tribune in 2005.
The building's 1,073-foot (327.1 m) design was first released in December 2001. However, the first design did not meet with approval from other architects, or from the residents of Chicago. A subsequent revision in July 2002 resulted in an 86-floor design for use as an office and residential structure, similar to the 2006 design which is, however, for a different combination of uses. Smith's 2002 plans put broadcast antennas (multiple communications dishes) at the top of the building. A revised 90-story, 1,125 feet (342.9 m) plan was unveiled in September 2003 for a building including condominiums, office space, a "condominium hotel", retail stores, and restaurants. In January 2004, another revision changed floors 17 through 26 from offices into condominiums and hotel rooms. In his May 2004 plan, Smith decided to top the building with an ornamental spire instead of communications dishes. These dishes, according to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, would not have counted toward the building's height. The spire, however, will count, raising the tower's height to 1,300 feet (396.2 m). At one point in 2005, Trump aspired to build a slightly taller building that would surpass the Sears Tower as the nation's tallest building, but Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley was against the plan. Eventually, Smith settled on a design with a height of 1,362 feet (415.1 m), which was the height of 2 World Trade Center, the shorter of the former twin World Trade Center towers. This height makes the Tower the third tallest in the United States after One World Trade Center and the Willis Tower.
On October 16, 2004, Donald Trump and Hollinger International, the parent company of the Chicago Sun-Times, completed the $73 million sale of the former home of the newspaper a week after it relocated. On October 28, 2004, Trump held a ceremony to begin the demolition of the former Sun-Times Building. The demolition and construction were financed by a 650-million-dollar loan from Deutsche Bank and a trio of hedge funds, one of which George Soros backed.
In March 2005, the construction process began with the sinking of the first caisson for the tower into the bedrock. In April, construction began on the foundation below the Chicago River. In July 2005, water from the river began seeping into the building site, through crevices in a corner where the foundation wall meets the Wabash Avenue Bridge. Divers discovered that the leak could not be sealed from the water side. After several other failed attempts to correct the problem, they drove a steel plate next to the gap and filled the space between with concrete after digging it out.
Within a single 24-hour period in October 2005, a fleet of 30 concrete trucks made 600 trips to pour 5,000 cubic yards (3,800 m3) of concrete, and thus create a 200-by-66-by-10-foot (61.0 m × 20.1 m × 3.0 m) concrete "mat". The mat serves as the base of the building, from which its spine rises. Those involved with the construction referred to the day as the "Big Pour". James McHugh Construction Co. was contracted for the concrete work on this job. They obtained the concrete from the Chicago Avenue and Halsted Street distribution site of Prairie Material Sales Inc of Bridgeview, Illinois, the former largest privately owned ready-mix concrete company in the United States. Prairie used a formula of concrete that had never been used in the construction business to meet a 10,000 psi (69 MPa) specification, which exceeded the standard 7,000 psi (48 MPa) for conventional concrete.
In October 2006, controversy erupted over a 10-by-4.5-foot (3.0 by 1.4 m) street kiosk at the foot of the Magnificent Mile in front of the Wrigley Building at 410 North Michigan Avenue that advertised Trump Tower a full block away. Extensive debate and publicity occurred on the issue of whether such advertising should have been allowed. Two distinct pieces of legislation in 2002 and 2003 by the Chicago City Council had authorized the kiosk, but sidewalk billboards were not common in Chicago at the time, and their desirability was questioned. Although there were demands from citizens' organizations and the local Alderman Burton Natarus (who had voted in favor of the legislation) to remove the kiosk, Trump agreed only to remove pricing information from the signage, after a request to remove all advertising from it. Originally, one side displayed the geographical information and the other side functioned as a billboard.
In a separate legal development, Donald Trump was sued by former Chicago Sun-Times publisher F. David Radler and his daughters in February 2008 for rescinding all "friends and family" condominium purchases, including Radler's. As president of the Sun-Times' holding company, Radler had negotiated the sale of the paper's headquarters building to Trump's consortium. The price of Radler's condo had been discounted by 10%, and only a 5% deposit was required instead of the standard 15%. Radler and family were part of a group of 40 insiders who were able to purchase property at about $500 per square foot ($5,400/m2). When the market value of the property eventually rose to over $1,300 per square foot ($14,000/m2), Trump nullified the "friends and family" sales. The insiders were involved in the planning and designing of the building. In January 2007, Trump cited both a clause about "matters beyond [the] seller's reasonable control" and the desire to "have more income to handle potentially higher construction costs". Despite Trump's concerns about higher construction costs, earlier in the same month, Ivanka Trump, his daughter and an executive of the company, had stated that the construction was $50 million under budget. In addition to the Radler suit over the validity of the "friends and family" discount contracts, a group of four owners sued over revisions to the closing terms, which placed limits on the owner occupancy of condo hotel units and excluded the meeting rooms and ballrooms from the common elements of which the owners have an interest.
In an additional legal issue, on February 8, 2005, Trump had closed on a construction loan of $640 million from Deutsche Bank for the project. He also obtained a $130–135 million junior mezzanine loan from another syndicate headed by Fortress Investment Group. As part of these contracts, Trump had included a $40 million personal guarantee. The contracts also mandated partial repayments for each closed unit sale, and minimum sale prices. In September 2008, due to slow unit sales, Trump sought to extend both loans until mid-2009 because he felt that it was necessary in the business environment and expected from the outset of the contract. On November 10, Deutsche Bank demanded the outstanding loan payment and the $40 million guarantee. Trump filed suit later that month against Deutsche Bank in New York State Supreme Court in an effort to excuse a repayment of more than $330 million that had been due November 7, and to extend the construction loan for an unspecified period of time because of extenuating circumstances arising from the financial crisis of 2007–2010. Trump cited a "force majeure" clause that allowed the borrower to delay completion of the project under a catch-all section covering "any other event or circumstance not within the reasonable control of the borrower". Trump not only sought an extension, but sought damages of $3 billion from the bank for its use of predatory lending practices to undermine the project and damage his reputation, which he claimed "is associated worldwide with on-time, under-budget, first-class construction projects and first-class luxury hotel operations." At the end of November, Deutsche Bank countersued Trump to force him to uphold his personal payment guarantee from February 2005, after he failed to repay the amount due November 7—a date that already had been extended. The suits did not interfere with Trump's ability to continue drawing on the credit line provided by Deutsche Bank, because without the project's continued financing, Deutsche Bank may have had to assume the role of developer. In March 2009, both parties agreed to suspend litigation and resolve the disagreement amicably in an effort to help the project to succeed. In September 2010, an amended loan agreement stopped the litigation and extended the term on an approximately $600 million construction loan for five years.
Bill Rancic, The Apprentice's season one winner in 2004, was originally hired to manage the project for a $250,000 salary. Rancic's title was President of the Trump International Hotel and Tower, but the title was somewhat misleading, because he was in fact learning on the job as an "Apprentice." Rancic's contract was renewed after his first year, but in September 2005 it appeared that his employment with Trump would finish at the end of his second year in April 2006. During 2005 Donald Trump, Jr., who had been involved in the building since its earliest stages in 1999, was overseeing the construction with weekly visits, while Rancic worked on sales and marketing. In December 2005, Rancic made it clear that he wanted to continue working for Trump, and in April 2006 his contract was renewed for a third year. In that year Donald Trump's children began to assume prominent public roles as in the Trump Organization; by January 2007 all three adult Trump children (Ivanka Trump, Donald Trump, Jr., and Eric Trump) were executives in the acquisitions and development division of the organization. By the time the Chicago Trump Tower's hotel opened in the building in January 2008, Donald Trump and his three adult children were in the spotlight, overseeing the construction.
Bovis Lend Lease, noted for work on Disneyland Paris, Petronas Towers, and the Time Warner Center, was the construction company. James McHugh Construction Co, the concrete subcontractor, implemented a comprehensive formwork for the construction of the building. At the completion of construction the building was the tallest formwork structure in the world, and follows in the footsteps of its neighbor, Marina City, as well as Chicago's Two Prudential Plaza, as past recordholders. Concrete moulding was used, because using a traditional ironwork structure would have required a building footprint that would have been too big for the property size, proportional to the height of the designed building. A steel frame would have had to be 25 feet (7.6 m) wider to have supported a building of this proportion. Concrete will counteract the force of wind with the force of gravity of the 360,000-short-ton (330,000 t) building. A new chemical process that leveraged more fluid liquid concrete facilitated pumping concrete up several hundred feet to the elevating construction site. Although previous technology limited formwork to 700 feet (213.4 m), this technology permitted the pumping of concrete 1,700 feet (518.2 m) high.
The building is cantilevered into a section of 420 million-year-old limestone bedrock 110 feet (33.5 m) underground. It uses 4-foot (1.2 m)-wide stilt-like pillars that were drilled beneath the building. Every 30 feet (9.1 m) around its perimeter, steel-reinforced concrete was poured into these holes to form the structural support. On top of these caisson shafts and pillars, an 8,400-short-ton (7,600 t) concrete pad foundation was built to support the building's spine. The building has 241 caissons, and the majority of the caissons only descend 75 feet (22.9 m) into hard clay. However, 57 of them go an additional 35 feet (10.7 m) into the ground, including 6 feet (1.8 m) of bedrock. The concrete spine uses five I-beam-shaped walls and exterior columns, narrowing to two as the building rises. Each floor is separated by a concrete slab, and stainless steel, glass, and aluminum panels are attached to each floor. 50,000 short tons (45,000 t) of reinforcing steel bars, called rebar, support the hotel. The extensive use of concrete makes the building more fireproof. Of the $600 million construction budget, $130 million was earmarked for the James McHugh Construction Co, who handled the 180,000-cubic-yard (140,000 m3) concrete-only portion of the job.
Two earlier business decisions by the Chicago Sun-Times led to substantial savings of time and money during the Trump Tower's construction. The original 1950s sea wall was built by the newspaper company to bomb-shelter thickness, to withstand a Cold War attack, and thus did not have to be broken down and rebuilt. Furthermore, the company decided in the 1970s to switch from petroleum-based to soy-based ink, which reduced ground pollution from the printing plant. This considerably reduced the costs and time for cleaning up the site prior to building anew.
On August 16, 2008, construction crews made the last major concrete pour to top off the Trump tower's concrete core, which was commemorated with an unofficial ceremony. To celebrate the milestone, a yellow tower crane raised a bucket full of concrete and an American flag to the rooftop of the skyscraper. Another ceremony occurred on August 19, when construction supervisors, structural engineers and company representatives from McHugh Construction made a minor concrete pour at the top of the Trump tower. Although Donald Trump was absent from both of these ceremonies, he, Donald Jr., Ivanka and Eric Trump attended the topping off party on September 24, 2008. Original plans called for the windows to be completed and the spire erected in October 2008. However, the spire installation was delayed through high winds in December 2008, and was finally completed on January 3, 2009. Kamin's critical opinion is that the spire is not aesthetically complementary.
At the September 2008 topping off ceremony, Donald Trump marketed his hotel by expressing doubts about the Chicago Spire ever being completed due to the financial crisis of 2007–2009. However, Donald Jr. said that they were fortunate to complete the project, while the Spire and Waterview Tower were among developments hit by the economic slowdown that followed the financial crisis. Occupancy had begun on lower-floor condominiums at the time of the ceremony.
Residential unit salesEdit
Trump's hotel was 25% unsold at the time of the 2008 topping off ceremony, and was expected to need the mid-2009 construction loan extension that has caused legal complications. Trump had sold all but 36 of the building's 486 residential condos at the end of 2012, and 15 remained unsold at the end of 2013. By May 15, 2014 only six units remained for sale including three that were used as the sales center and sales models.
Several local celebrities purchased units in the building, including numerous professional athletes. Juwan Howard, Rex Grossman (who has put his unit on the market), and Patrick Kane are among the purchasers of Trump properties. Derrick Rose purchased a $2.8 million 3,102-square-foot (288.2 m2) condo in spring 2012. Other prominent purchasers of units included McDonald's Chief Executive and President Don Thompson and WMAQ-TV (NBC 5 Chicago) president and general manager David Doebler. United Airlines CEO Jeff Smisek and Huron Consulting Group CEO James Roth also purchased properties in the building.
Two units on the 87th and 88th floors sold for prices in excess of $5 million in 2009 directly from the developer. After a few soft years in the real estate market, it took until August 2014, for units to sell for prices in excess of $1000 per square foot. Two units sold for over $3 million that month including a $3.99 million sale, which was the highest sale price in the building since 2009. The penthouse sold for $17 million in late 2014 to Sanjay Shah, the founder and CEO of Vistex.
In May 2016, a one-bedroom unit with a parking space became the first listed Chicago one-bedroom unit to fetch over $1,100-a-square-foot when Mark and Deborah Hellman moved their interests from a one-bedroom to a two-bedroom unit in the building. Overall, however, real estate observers noticed a slowdown in Trump Tower sales due to the controversial nature of the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016: prospective buyers who were happy with the actual tower residences were unsure they wanted to be associated with the Trump name.
Floods in 2014Edit
In February after one round of drink service, three men were denied further service at Sixteen due to their apparent intoxication and as a payback, the three pulled what was intended to be a prank. They set off fire alarms and opened a fifth-floor stairwell Chicago Fire Department standpipe valve and flooded elevator shafts with thousands of gallons of water and damaged woodwork, electrical circuitry and marble. The resulting damage was estimated at $700,000 and the three faced felony criminal damage to property charges.
On June 26, a pipe burst near the west public parking entrance, causing the first floor of the tower to flood.
Fodor's Chicago 2010 ranks the hotel as having one of the best spas and one of the best pools in the city. It also ranked the hotel as a Fodor's Choice among Chicago lodging options. Fodor's also notes that the hotel has impeccable service and lavish amenities, but also notes that the hotel may be a bit "too decadent", with offerings such as $25 bottles of water.
Frommer's Chicago 2010 describes the hotel as having the gorgeous views and upscale amenities to provide a place to go to live the life of a wealthy tourist. The building is praised for its location, which provides as many views along the Chicago River as possible. Its modern architecture is praised for "contemporary synthesis of adjacent building fabrics and modulations" that preserve the city's architectural heritage and integrate the riverfront setting.
Forbes Travel Guide describes the hotel as having an understated upscale lobby, sophisticated lounge, gorgeous restaurant and lavish rooms with amazing views. It also describes the hotel as befitting of the Trump name in several ways.
Time Out describes the building as a "testament to a vibrant 21st-century optimism in Chicago". It notes that the hotel meets all expectations attached to the name Trump in terms of luxury, modern conveniences and speaks highly of the views.
Insight Guides describes the building's architectural swagger as fitting for the post-September 11 attacks skyline. Ten years after the September 11 attacks, Kamin described the building as the one that "best reveals how the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks either did or did not change architecture". Kamin clarified his belief:
Simply by virtue of standing there—and by being the tallest American building built since the 1974 completion of Sears (now Willis) Tower—Trump confounds those who predicted after 9/11 that iconic skyscrapers would never be built again. At the same time, Trump's height—originally pegged at more than 2,000 feet but eventually scaled back to 1,362 feet—suggests that the fear spawned by the attacks did have some effect.
In popular cultureEdit
The building's planning and redesign led to publicity in local and national media both before and during its construction. For example, on September 19, 2007, the Trump International Hotel and Tower was featured on an episode of the Discovery Channel series Build It Bigger titled "High Risk Tower".
When Fox News Channel embarked on its month-long 6-city tour to celebrate its 15th anniversary, Neil Cavuto broadcast the network's 1-hour Your World with Neil Cavuto show from the riverwalk at the Trump International Hotel & Tower on October 3, 2011.
- Diesenhouse, Susan (September 28, 2008). "As Trump tower rises, worries pile up: Building battles challenges of nature, markets". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "Trump International Hotel and Tower". Encyclopedia of Things. Glasssteelandstone. January 13, 2010. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database.
- Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago) at Emporis
- "Trump International Hotel and Tower". SkyscraperPage.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower". kone.com. Kone. Archived from the original on October 2, 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2011.
- Trump International Hotel and Tower at Structurae
- Rotzoll, Brenda Warner (September 11, 1992). "Gallery District Boundaries Reach Beyond River North". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Robert Wagner (February 3, 1978). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Michigan-Wacker Historic District" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
- Conklin, Mike (May 11, 2005). "Outdoor theater: A spectacle in progress". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower". Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Beaver, p. 324.
- Janega, James (March 27, 2005). "Rooted in bedrock, reaching for the sky: Trump tower will go far above – and far below – its neighbors". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- Binder, Georges (2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Images Publishing. p. 216. ISBN 1-86470-173-0.
- "Permasteelisa North America". Construction Today. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Trump Organization Project overview" (PDF). Trump Chicago. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- "Trump International Hotel & Tower Chicago (See the pictures within the architectural design option)". trumpchicago.com. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- Joseph Askins (May 3, 2010). "an-early-afternoon-visit-to-trumps-riverwalk". Retrieved January 30, 2011.
- Beaver, p. 328.
- "NORTHSIDE COLLEGE PREP "JOY GARDEN" NAMED GARDEN OF THE YEAR AT MAYOR DALEY'S 2010 LANDSCAPE AWARDS" (PDF). City of Chicago. November 6, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Kamin, Blair (June 3, 2011). "Landscaping gets unwelcome overhaul at Trump Tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- "Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago, Illinois, USA". SPG Media Limited. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "New Manhattan Tower is Now the Tallest, if Not the Fairest, of Them All". NY Times. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Kamin, Blair (November 18, 2009). "Trump Tower now sixth-tallest building in world". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- "Jin Mao Building". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- "CTBUH changes height criteria". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Orichuia, Nicola (November 18, 2009). "Trump Trumps Other Buildings, Now 6th Largest". nbcchicago.com. NBCUniversal. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- "Height: The History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- Byrne, John & Bill Ruthhart (June 13, 2014). "Emanuel wants to prevent more signs like Trump's". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Maidenberg, Micah & Ryan Ori (February 21, 2014). "Trump to sign maker: You're hired!". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Kamin, Blair (June 5, 2014). "Donald Trump: Giant sign on his Chicago tower is like Hollywood sign". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Schaper, David (June 8, 2014). "Trump Stamp Has Chicagoans Irked at the Donald". NPR. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Donald Trump skyscraper sign 'tasteless'". BBC. June 13, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Perez, Juan, Jr. (May 6, 2014). "New Trump sign going up at riverfront tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2014.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Kamin, Blair (June 13, 2014). "Donald Trump, Rahm Emanuel clash over Chicago tower sign". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Keneally, Meghan (June 13, 2014). "'We're the hottest brand there is!': Donald Trump defends Chicago building sign after it's lambasted as 'awful' and 'tasteless'". Daily Mail. Associated Press. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Yaccino, Steven (June 12, 2014). "Chicago Winces After a Jewel Is Stamped 'Trump'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Kamin, Blair (June 12, 2014). "Sign points to Emanuel, Trump faceoff". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Belton, Beth (June 13, 2014). "Chicago mayor blasts new Trump sign". USA Today. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Flying Pigs Over Chicago's Trump Tower Sign Grounded For Now: The art project involving 4 helium-filled, pig-shaped balloons was blocked by the city, but the proposal could take off in 2018. Joe Vince, July 27, 2017
- Flying Pigs on Parade
- Chicago deflates plan to fly giant pig balloons in front of Trump Tower Leonor Vivanco, Chicago Tribune, July 27, 2017
- Trump sign flying pigs installation delayed MATTHEW MESSNER, The Architect's Newspaper, July 27, 2017
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, p. 4
- "Forbes Travel Guide 2013 Star Award Winners". Startle.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2013.
- "The 2015 Forbes Travel Guide Star Award Winners". Forbes Travel Guide. 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- Vettel, Phil (November 12, 2013). "Michelin Chicago Guide 2014: Elizabeth, EL ideas among winners". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Engleman, Joe (November 11, 2014). "Here Are Chicago's 2015 Michelin Star Ratings". Chicago. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Vettel, Phil (2015-10-27). "Michelin 2016: Two stars for Acadia, one star for Parachute, Dusek's". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- Rao, Tejal (2015-10-27). "Michelin Stars for Chicago 2016 Are Announced". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- "FTR: For The Record, week ended 1.11.08". Crain's Chicago Business. 31, no. 2. Crain Communications Inc. January 14, 2008. p. 12. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Sharoff, Robert (February 13, 2008). "A Chicago Hotel's New Life in a Rising Area". The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
- Leo, Jen (January 31, 2008). "Chicago – Donald Trump opens another hotel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Bergen, Kathy (November 19, 2007). "Trump's hotel opening may be delayed: With 'soft' launch two weeks away, city hasn't yet issued necessary permit". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 22, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Bergen, Kathy (January 31, 2008). "1st look at Trump hotel reveals 5-star views: 4 floors of rooms open in still-rising skyscraper". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Trump Tower Hotel Opens To Guests: Mogul's Project Delayed Nearly 2 Months". NBC5.com. NBCUniversal. January 30, 2008. Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved September 26, 2008.
- "A bogey in Chicago too". Chicago Tribune. December 6, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Slania, John T. (January 28, 2008). "The inside jobs at Trump Tower". Crain's Chicago Business. p. 35.
- "Trump Tower tour". Chicago Tribune. April 29, 2008. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Foster, Stella (April 29, 2008). "Safety first". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (March 1, 2008). "Our architecture critic evaluates Trump's new restaurant: By design: Sweet Sixteen dining". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "The Terrace at Trump Opens June 25, 2009". Reuters. June 16, 2009. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
- Bianchi, Laura (March 31, 2007). "Sixteen soars with city's finest". Crain's Chicago Business. Crain's Communication, Inc. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Slavid, Ruth (March 3, 2008). "Architecture critic attempts to eat dinner, but is distracted by giant dome". Architects' Journal. Emap. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Shames, Lisa (July 2008). "A Supersweet Sixteen: At Trump's sky-high eatery, the views are only rivaled by the food". Chicago Social. p. 204.
- Vettel, Phil (April 10, 2008). "Review: Sixteen: Bold and luxe, Trump restaurant lives up to the hype". Metromix. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Shouse, Heather (March 13–19, 2008). "Restaurant review: Sixteen: Trump's Chicago debut finds a niche, but a tiny, tony one". Time Out Chicago. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "The Terrace at Trump". Metromix. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
- "Trump Chicago: A landmark in the making". The Grand Rapids Press. Chicago. April 14, 2008. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
Rebar, the hotel's chic main bar, is expected to open Friday on the mezzanine level.
- Selvam, Ashok (June 5, 2018). "Trump Tower Chicago's Replacement for Sixteen Will Be Called Terrace 16". Eater Chicago. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- <"Terrace 16 to Debut This Summer". Food & Beverage. June 26, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- "The Experience". trumpchicagohotel.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- "Just opened: Spa at Trump". Time Out Chicago. March 20–26, 2008. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Moloney, Valerie. "Editorial Review for The Spa at Trump". Citysearch.com. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Stevens, Heidi (May 4, 2008). "Between a rock and a hot place: Trump spas gemstone oil and heated table turn muscles to goo". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Ready for a Little R&R?: Three big-name spas—and a few smaller local gems—hit the Chicago beauty scene". Chicago Social. July 2008. p. 52.
- Fountain, John W. (July 28, 2001). "Eyes of Chicago Turn to Plan for a New Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (July 18, 2001). "Trump, Sun-Times plan tower – Builder, paper's parent may erect tallest structure". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Ford, Liam (July 19, 2001). "Daley 'excited' by Trump plan – Skyscraper won't be restricted in height, he says". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (July 14, 2001). "Selling to The Donald ? – Trump is planning ritzy condos, hotel for Sun-Times site". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (July 18, 2001). "Trump, Sun-Times plan tower – Builder, paper's parent may erect tallest structure". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Kamin, Blair (July 20, 2001). "Note to The Donald: It's the quality, stupid". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Nance, Kevin (November 27, 2005). "The Man of steel: Able To Leap Tall Buildings". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Kamin Blair (May 11, 2009). "Trump 's towering toothpick – The Donald's too-skinny, prominent spire calls to mind a plastic toy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Kamin, Blair (December 12, 2001). "Selling to The Donald ? – Trump is planning ritzy condos, hotel for Sun-Times site". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Lacayo, Richard (July 25, 2004). "Tall Order". Time. Time, Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Lacayo, Richard (December 30, 2004). "Going Up ... and Up: When Height Is All That Matters". Time. Time, Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Arndt, Michael (March 17, 2005). "The Donald Aims Higher in Chicago". Businessweek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (March 25, 2005). "Getting to the point: A tower's aspirations". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (December 19, 2001). "Trump 's skyscraper reaches for mediocrity". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Miller, Sabrina L. (July 19, 2002). "City planners give their approval to Trump's riverfront tower plan – New skyscraper would be 4th tallest in Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (May 27, 2004). "Will Trump say: 'You're higher'?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Umberger, Mary & Thomas A. Corfman (September 24, 2003). "Trump unwraps building plan – Skyscraper would be city's 4th-tallest; completion set for 2007". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (September 24, 2003). "Improved design wrapped in promises". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (January 23, 2004). "Trump erases tower's offices – Number of condos, hotel rooms to rise". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (March 9, 2005). "Trump dumps lofty goal for tower's spire". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Roeder, David (March 9, 2005). "Trump curbs his soaring ambition". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (February 10, 2006). "It has emerged: Suddenly, the Trump Tower seems very real – and even a little terrifying". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Janega, James & Blair Kamin (February 10, 2005). "Daley to Trump: You're spired: The mayor wants a fancy top. The Donald disagrees. Guess who wins". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "Trump tower deal final". Chicago Tribune. October 16, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Downes, Lawrence (October 30, 2004). "Defacing the Skyline, a Heartless Act in the Heart of Chicago". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- "Business". Chicago Tribune. October 29, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Roeder, David (October 29, 2004). "This Trump show is called 'Demolition'". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Corfman, Thomas A. (October 28, 2004). "Big names back Trump tower – Soros, Deutsche Bank said to be in on 90-story building". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Janega, James (March 27, 2005). "Rooted in bedrock, reaching for the sky: Trump tower will go far above—and far below—its neighbors". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Conklin, Mike (October 3, 2005). "Trump's Big Pour: It took 30 trucks 600 trips to make concrete history". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (October 20, 2006). "Trim in store for Trump's promotional kiosk sign". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Kamin, Blair (October 27, 2006). "Trump's harrumph: Developer calls to debate the merits of his Michigan Avenue hotel-condo ad". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 7, 2006. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Gallun, Alby (February 11, 2008). "Radler Sues Ex-pal Trump". Crain's Chicago Business. Crain Communications, Inc. p. 2. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Weber, Joseph (March 18, 2008). "The Setting Sun-Times: Feisty and muckraking, the Chicago Sun-Times is also losing readers, advertisers, and money". Businessweek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Diesenhouse, Susan (January 16, 2007). "Trump undoing deals: Condo buyers who got discounts in friends/family program told contracts voided". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "Trump dumps 'Friends and Family'". United Press International. January 16, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Nunn, Emily (January 5, 2007). "The daughter also rises: Ivanka Trump stands tall in her father's world of skyscrapers and billion-dollar deals". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Sachdev, Ameet (February 12, 2008). "Trump tower tenants sue over deal changes: Would-be tenants allege deal details were altered". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "Trump closes loan, boosts project size". Chicago Tribune. February 9, 2005. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Norris, Floyd (December 8, 2008). "Trump Sees Act of God in Recession". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Bergen, Kathy & Susan Diesenhouse (December 2, 2007). "Towering troubles? – Donald Trump, stymied in his plan for a Monday opening of several floors of the gleaming but still unfinished Trump International Hotel & Tower, is dealing with a real estate and financial climate that has become far less hospitable for sales of condo-hotel units than was the case when the 92-story skyscraper—which also includes ordinary condominiums and a hotel—was conceived". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (December 1, 2008). "Deutsche Bank sues Trump over hotel loan – Lawsuit alleges builder failed to make payment". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (September 25, 2008). "Tower trumps slowdown – Completion of luxury hotel and condos a feat even Donald Trump acknowledges in this tough economy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Trump receives cash from Deutsche Bank". Chicago Tribune. December 2, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (March 4, 2009). "Truce reached over Trump Tower – Developer, Deutsche Bank shelve dueling lawsuits in bid to lure condo buyers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (October 12, 2010). "Trump Tower dressing up model units to spur sales: Skyscraper finalizing plans to turn five of its unsold condominiums into furnished models". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Davey, Monica (April 17, 2004). "Chicago May Give 'Apprentice' Lesson in Reality". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- "Trump's $250,000 bill". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report, L.P. September 12, 2004. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Kinzer, Stephen (September 10, 2004). "'The Apprentice' Is Learning About the Trump Style". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- "Trump's 1st Apprentice Eyes Future: Bill Rancic Says He'll Quit Next Year, Wants To Start Own Business". CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc/The Associated Press. September 8, 2005. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Diesenhouse, Susan (September 18, 2005). "Trump Jr. builds on roots: Working for father, he's in Chicago regularly to check progress on hotel/condo tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Rosenbush, Steve (December 1, 2005). "Trump deal working out for apprentice". Businessweek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Herbst, Diane (April 10, 2006). "Bill Rancic: The Apprentice star dishes on The Donald and the dating scene". People. Time Inc. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Itzkoff, Dave (December 31, 2006). "Reluctant Apprentices". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- La Ferla, Ruth (December 27, 2007). "Introducing the Ivanka". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Slania, John T. (January 28, 2008). "The right-hand man". Crain's Chicago Business. p. 34. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Davey, Monica (May 25, 2007). "Trump & Co. Hits Chicago to Drum Up Apartment Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Holland, Liz (April 23, 2008). "Now Open: Rebar". NBC5 Street Team. NBC5. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- "Chicago's Trump Tower soon to be 'topped off'". Tribune staff report. Chicago Tribune. August 16, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Vivanco, Leonor (September 16, 2008). "The high life". RedEye. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Wind Delays Spire Installation on Trump Tower". WBBM-TV. December 14, 2008. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Kamin, Blair (January 3, 2009). "Trump Tower spire topped out; installation brings tower's peak 90 feet short of Willis Tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- "Even Trumps feel tremors in the market". Chicago Tribune. September 25, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Spire Will Never Happen, Trump Says". NBC5.com. NBCUniversal. September 24, 2008. Retrieved September 26, 2008.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (September 25, 2008). "Tower trumps slowdown – Completion of luxury hotel and condos a feat even Donald Trump acknowledges in this tough economy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Donovan, Deborah (September 25, 2008). "Trumps celebrate towering achievement". Daily Herald. Daily Herald Inc. Retrieved September 26, 2008.
- "Geographic Information Systems". Chicago Public Schools. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- "Near North/West/Central Elementary Schools" (PDF). Chicago Public Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- "West/Central/South High Schools" (PDF). Chicago Public Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 14, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- Gallun, Alby (September 24, 2008). "Trump to ask for later loan due date". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- Rodkin, Dennis (May 15, 2014). "After nearly 11 years, Trump Tower almost sold out". Chicago Business. Crain Communications. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Goldsborough, Bob (January 3, 2010). "NBA star Juwan Howard buys condo in Trump tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Bulls' Derrick Rose buys condo in Trump Tower for $2.8 million". Chicago Tribune. March 13, 2012. Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Goldsborough, Bob (November 1, 2012). "McDonald's CEO buys 2 units in Trump Tower". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Goldsborough, Bob (June 10, 2014). "President David Doebler buys Trump Tower unit for $2.8 million". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Goldsborough, Bob (August 1, 2013). "Kiss FM personality pays $865,000 for condo: Brotha' Fred buys 53rd-floor unit in downtown Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Goldsborough, Bob (August 7, 2014). "Elite Street: Trump Tower condo unit sells for $3.36 million". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Goldsborough, Bob (August 21, 2014). "Trump tower unit sets resale record at $3.99M". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Harris, Melissa (December 8, 2014). "Chicago tech millionaire pays $17 million for Trump Tower penthouse". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- Sadovi, Maura Webber (December 8, 2014). "Trump cuts $17 million condo deal, sets record". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- Rodkin, Dennis (May 31, 2016). "Trump one-bedroom sells at record price". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Donald Trump Says He ‘Called’ the ’08 Crash. Here’s What Really Happened – POLITICO Magazine
- Sweeney, Annie (February 22, 2014). "Trio facing jail time in Trump Hotel flooding: Prosecutors say 3 cut off at bar caused $700,000 in damage". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Frost, Peter (June 26, 2014). "Trump Tower floods in sprinkler incident". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Fodor's Chicago 2010, p.217
- Fodor's Chicago 2010, p.238
- Blackwell, Elizabeth Canning (November 2009). "The Best Hotel Bets". Frommer's Chicago 2010. Frommer's. p. 69. ISBN 0-470-50468-4.
- Gil, p. 127
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, p. 9
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago, p. 106
- Time Out: Chicago, p. 77
- Time Out: Chicago, p. 135
- Gattuso, p. 95
- Kamin, Blair (September 9, 2011). "Trump's tower a symbol of a post-attack revival". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "Mark Your Calendar Now!". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2009. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- "Chicago Hotels Star In 'Dark Knight'". Hotels. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- Channick, Robert (September 24, 2011). "Fox News to stop at Trump Tower on national broadcast tour". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Arroyave, Luis (July 17, 2010). "Magnificent 'Transformers' explosions, fires on the Mile". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Murphy, Mekado (June 22, 2011). "Welcome to Chicago, Just Don't Kill Us". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Beaver, Robyn, ed. (2007). The architecture of Adrian Smith, SOM: toward a sustainable future. Images Publishing Group Pty. Ltd. ISBN 1-86470-169-2. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
- Gil, Fernando Cwilich, ed. (2008). BlackBook: Guide To Chicago 2009 Restaurants, Bars, Clubs, Hotels. Blackbook Media Corp. ISBN 978-1-932942-43-9.
- Fodor's (November 2009). Fodor's Chicago 2010. Fodor's. ISBN 978-1-4000-0860-5.
- Forbes Travel Guide: 2010 City Guide: Chicago. The Five Star Corporation. 2010. ISBN 978-1-936010-05-9.
- Time Out: Chicago. Time Out Guides Ltd. 2009. ISBN 978-1-84670-138-2.
- Gattuso, John, ed. (2008). Insight Guides: Chicago. Apa Publications Gmbh & Co. Verlag KG. ISBN 978-981-258-612-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Trump International Hotel & Tower Chicago Official Hotel Website
- Trump International Hotel & Tower Chicago Official Real Estate Website
- Trump Organization Official Website
- Trump International Hotel & Tower on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
- Chicago Tribune story gallery
- archive at Chicago Tribune
- Trump Tower Floorplans
John Hancock Center
| Building with the highest residence above ground-level