Tropical cyclones in 2015

During 2015, tropical cyclones formed within seven different tropical cyclone basins, located within various parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the year, a total of 134 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 92 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclones in 2015
Tropical cyclones in 2015.png
Year summary map
Year boundaries
First system05U
FormedJanuary 2, 2015
Last systemUla
DissipatedJanuary 12, 2016
Strongest system
NamePatricia
Lowest pressure872 mbar/hPa; 25.75 inHg
Longest lasting system
NameKilo
Duration21 days
Year statistics
Total systems134
Named systems92
Total fatalities996 total
Total damage$18.8 billion (2015 USD)
Other years
2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
Hurricanes Kilo (left), Ignacio (center), and Jimena (right), all at major hurricane intensity, spanning the Central and Eastern Pacific basins on August 30
Taken by various of satellites throughout 2015, these are the 40 tropical cyclones that reached at least Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale during that year, from Bansi in January to Ula in December (second to last image), though it peaked in January of 2016.

The most active basin in the year was the Eastern Pacific which documented 26 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992, despite only amounting to 25 named systems in the Western Pacific. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the fewest cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 11 and 4, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins–South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific–was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece. That hemisphere's strongest tropical cyclone was Cyclone Pam, which bottomed out with a barometric pressure of 896 mbar (hPa; 26.46 inHg) in the South-Pacific Ocean. Nine Category 5 tropical cyclones were formed in 2015.

The strongest of these tropical cyclones was Hurricane Patricia, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 872 mbar (hPa; 25.75 inHg) before striking the east coast of Colima in Mexico. The costliest tropical cyclone of the year was Typhoon Mujigae, which struck in China area in October, causing US$4.25 billion in damage. Cyclone Komen was also the year's deadliest storm, killing 280 people primarily in Southeast India.

Global atmospheric and hydrological conditionsEdit

 
Map of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific Ocean on October 15, showing well above-normal SSTs east of the International Date Line (180°)

SummaryEdit

Cyclone UlaTyphoon MelorHurricane Sandra (2015)2015 South Indian floodsHurricane Kate (2015)Cyclone MeghCyclone ChapalaHurricane PatriciaTyphoon KoppuTyphoon MujigaeHurricane JoaquinHurricane Marty (2015)Typhoon Dujuan (2015)Tropical Storm Vamco (2015)Tropical Storm Etau (2015)Hurricane Linda (2015)Hurricane Fred (2015)Tropical Storm ErikaHurricane Danny (2015)Typhoon Goni (2015)Typhoon SoudelorJuly 2015 Gujarat floodHurricane Dolores (2015)Typhoon HalolaTyphoon Nangka (2015)Tropical Storm Linfa (2015)Typhoon Chan-hom (2015)Cyclone Raquel2015 Gujarat cycloneTropical Storm Bill (2015)Hurricane Carlos (2015)Hurricane Blanca (2015)Tropical Storm Ana (2015)Typhoon Dolphin (2015)Typhoon Noul (2015)Typhoon Maysak (2015)Tropical Storm Bavi (2015)Cyclone PamCyclone MarciaCyclone LamTropical Storm ChedzaTropical Storm Mekkhala (2015)Tropical Storm Jangmi (2014)tropical cyclone basins

North Atlantic OceanEdit

The season was the last of three consecutive below-average Atlantic hurricane seasons. It produced twelve tropical cyclones, eleven named storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes.[nb 1] The accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) for the season was 68% of the long-term median value.[2] However, the first named storm, Ana, developed on May 8, nearly a month before the official start of the season, the first pre-season cyclone since Beryl in 2012 and the earliest since Ana in 2003. The formation of Ana marked the first in a series of six consecutive seasons with pre-season activity, spanning from 2015 to 2020. The season concluded with Kate transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on November 11, almost three weeks before the official end.

Fred prompted a hurricane warning for Cape Verde for the first time ever and was the first storm to pass through the islands as a hurricane since 1892. Strong winds there left about $2.5 million in damage. Two deaths were presumed to have occurred after two fishermen never returned to port. Seven other sailors likely drowned offshore Guinea-Bissau after their fishing boat collapsed. Tropical storms Grace, Henri, and Ida left negligible impact on land. Hurricane Joaquin's intensity and slow movement in the vicinity of the Bahamas resulted in severe damage on some islands. Additionally, the American cargo ship SS El Faro went missing near Crooked Island and eventually capsized during the storm, drowning 33 people. Rough seas in Haiti also caused damage and one death from a fisherman drowning. Joaquin was the most intense satellite era tropical cyclone of non-tropical origins. The remnants of Kate affected the British Isles, particularly Wales in the United Kingdom. Throughout the season, these storms collectively caused $813.9 million in damage and 89 deaths.

With the exception of Tropical Storm Risk's initial season prediction in December 2014, all major forecasting agencies called for a below or near-average season, due to the strong 2014–16 El Niño event and colder than average sea surface temperatures. Overall, the forecasts were fairly accurate.

Eastern Pacific OceanEdit

The season is the second-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, with 26 named storms, only behind the 1992 season. A record-tying 16 of those storms became hurricanes, and a record 11 storms further intensified into major hurricanes throughout the season.[nb 2] The Central Pacific, the portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean between the International Date Line and the 140th meridian west, had its most active year on record, with 16 tropical cyclones forming in or entering the basin. Moreover, the season was the third-most active season in terms of accumulated cyclone energy, amassing a total of 287 units. This was shown when a tropical depression formed on December 31. The above-average activity during the season was attributed in part to the very strong 2014–16 El Niño event.

The season featured several long-tracking and powerful storms, although land impacts were often minimal. In June, Hurricane Blanca, an early season Category 4 hurricane, killed four people due to rough seas. Hurricane Carlos caused minor damage while passing a short distance off the coast of Mexico. In July, the remnants of Hurricane Dolores brought record rainfall to Southern California, killing one and causing losses worth over $50 million.[nb 3] On August 29, three Category 4 hurricanes (Kilo, Ignacio, Jimena) were all active simultaneously in the Pacific east of the International Date Line for the first time in recorded history. In September, moisture from Hurricane Linda contributed to storms that killed 21 people in Utah. Later that month, Hurricane Marty inflicted $30 million in damage to the southwestern coast of Mexico. In October, Hurricane Patricia became the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere, with a central pressure of 872 mbar (hPa; 25.75 inHg) and 1-minute sustained winds of 215 miles per hour (346 km/h). After also becoming the strongest landfalling Pacific hurricane on record, Patricia claimed 13 lives and was responsible for $463 million in damage. The season's activity continued into November when Hurricane Sandra became the strongest Pacific hurricane ever recorded in that month. Damage across the basin reached $566 million (2015 USD), while 45 people were killed by the various storms.

SystemsEdit

A total of 139 systems formed globally in 2015 with 52 of them causing significant damage, deaths, and/or setting records for their basin.

JanuaryEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in January 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind
km/h (mph)
Pressure
(hPa)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
05U January 2–10 Unspecified Unspecified Western Australia Minimal None
TD January 2–4 Unspecified 1006 Borneo None None
Bansi January 10–18 220 (140) 910 Mascarene Islands Minimal None
06U January 10–13 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
07U January 10–13 55 (35) 998 Solomon Islands None None
Mekkhala (Amang) January 13–21 110 (70) 975 Yap State, Philippines $7.8 million 3 [3][4]
Chedza January 14–19 110 (65) 975 Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Réunion $40 million 80 [5][6]
08U January 16–20 30 (15) 1003 Western Australia None None
Niko January 19–25 100 (65) 982 French Polynesia Minimal None
Diamondra January 26–30 85 (50) 986 None None None
Eunice January 26–February 1 230 (145) 915 None None None
08F January 27–30 Unspecified 1000 Wallis and Futuna, Samoan Islands None None
Ola January 29–February 3 150 (90) 955 New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island None None

FebruaryEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in February 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
10F February 2–4 Unspecified 1001 Tuvalu None None
Fundi February 5–8 100 (65) 978 Madagascar Unknown 5
Bapo February 5–8 65 (40) 992 None None None
Higos February 6–12 165 (105) 940 None None None
12U February 13–16 Unspecified Unspecified None None None
Lam February 13–20 185 (115) 943 Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia $64.4 million None
Marcia February 15–26 205 (125) 930 Queensland $591 million None
Glenda February 22–28 95 (60) 974 None None None

MarchEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in March 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
11 March 4–7 55 (35) 998 Mozambique, Madagascar None None
Pam March 6–15 250 (155) 896 Fiji, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, New Zealand $360 million 16
Haliba March 7–10 85 (50) 993 Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius $6.3 million 26
Olwyn March 8–14 145 (85) 955 Western Australia $76.1 million 1
Nathan March 9–25 165 (105) 963 Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia Major None
Cari March 10–13 65 (40) 998 None None None
Bavi (Betty) March 10–21 85 (40) 985 Vietnam, China $16.6 million 9
Reuben March 19–23 75 (45) 990 Fiji, Tonga None None
13F March 19–21 Unspecified 1004 French Polynesia None None
Maysak (Chedeng) March 26–April 7 195 (120) 910 Micronesia, Philippines $8.5 million 5
14F March 28–31 55 (35) 998 Southern Cook Islands None None

AprilEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in April 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Joalane April 2–11 140 (85) 962 None None None
Haishen April 2–6 65 (40) 998 Caroline Islands $200 thousand None
Ikola April 5–8 175 (110) 953 None None None
Solo April 9–12 100 (65) 985 Solomon Islands, New Caledonia Significant None
16F April 15–16 Unspecified 1008 None None None
Quang April 27–May 1 185 (115) 950 Western Australia Minimal None
Katie April 29–May 6 75 (45) 993 Easter Island, Chile None None

MayEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in May 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Noul (Dodong) May 2–12 205 (125) 920 Caroline Islands, Taiwan, Philippines, Japan $23.5 million 2
Dolphin May 6–20 185 (115) 925 Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands $10 million None
Ana May 8–11 95 (60)4 998 Southeastern United States Minimal 2
Andres May 28–June 4 230 (145)4 937 Southwestern United States None None
Blanca May 31–June 9 230 (145)4 936 Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United States $133 thousand 4

JuneEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in June 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Ashobaa June 7–12 85 (50) 990 Oman, United Arab Emirates Minimal None
Carlos June 10–17 150 (90) 978 Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico $1.04 million None
Bill June 16–18 95 (60) 997 Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, Southern United States (Texas), Midwestern United States $100 million 8 (1)
Kujira June 19–25 85 (50) 985 Vietnam, China $16 million 9
BOB 01 June 20–21 45 (30) 994 East India Minimal 15
ARB 02 June 22–24 55 (35) 988 West India $260 million 81
Raquel June 28–July 5 65 (40) 996 Solomon Islands Minimal 1
Chan-hom (Falcon) June 29–July 13 165 (105) 935 Mariana Islands, China, Taiwan, Korea, Russia $1.58 billion 18

JulyEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in July 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
TD July 1–2 Not specified 1000 Caroline Islands None None
Linfa (Egay) July 1–10 95 (60) 980 Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam $285 million 1
Nangka July 2–18 185 (115) 925 Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Japan $200 million 2
Ela July 8–10 75 (45) 1002 None None None
Halola (Goring) July 10–26 150 (90) 955 Wake Island, Japan, Korea $1.24 million None
Iune July 10–13 65 (40) 1004 None None None
LAND 01 July 10–12 45 (30) 994 North India, Nepal None None
Dolores July 11–19 215 (130) 946 Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United States $50.477 million 1
Enrique July 12–18 85 (50) 1000 None None None
Claudette July 13–14 85 (60) 1003 East Coast of the United States, Newfoundland None None
TD July 14 Not specified 1000 None None None
TD July 15–16 Not specified 1000 None None None
TD July 18–20 Not specified 1004 Japan None None
TD July 20–21 Not specified 1000 China None None
12W July 22–25 65 (40) 1008 Philippines None None
Felicia July 23–25 65 (40) 1004 None None None
Komen July 26–August 2 75 (45) 986 Bangladesh, Myanmar, Northeastern India $617 million 187
Eight-E July 27–29 55 (35) 1006 None None None
LAND 02 July 27–30 55 (35) 994 Central India None None
Guillermo July 29–August 7 175 (110) 967 Hawaii, Northern California None None
Soudelor (Hanna) July 29–August 11 215 (130) 900 Mariana Islands, Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, China, Korea, Japan $4.09 billion 59
01F July 29–August 4 Not specified 1000 Solomon Islands, Vanuatu None None

AugustEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in August 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
12W August

1–5

55 (35) 1008 Japan None None
LAND 03 August 4 45 (30) 998 Central India None None
Molave August

6–14

85 (50) 985 None None None
Hilda August

6–14

230 (145) 937 Hawaii None None
Goni (Ineng) August 13–25 185 (115) 930 Mariana Islands, Philippines, Taiwan Japan, Korea, China, Russia $1.05 billion 74
Atsani August 14–25 185 (115) 925 Mariana Islands Nonr None
Eleven-E August 16–17 55 (35) 1003 None None None
Danny August 18–24 205 (125) 960 Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico Minimal None
Loke August 21–26 120 (75) 985 Hawaii None None
Kilo August 22 – September 1 220 (140) 940 Hawaii, Johnston Atoll None None
Ignacio August 25 – September 5 230 (145) 942 Hawaii None None
Erika August

25–29

85 (50) 1001 Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, Florida $511.4 million 31
Jimena August 26– September 9 250 (155) 932 None None None
Fred August 30 – September 6 140 (85) 986 West Africa, Cape Verde $2.5 million 9
Kevin August 31 – September 5 95 (60) 998 Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United States None None

SeptemberEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in September 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Grace September 5–9 95 (60) 1000 None None None
Linda September 5–14 205 (125) 950 Sinaloa, Zacatecas, Southwestern United States $2.59 million 22
Etau September 6–11 95 (60) 985 Japan, Russia $2.41 billion
8
Henri September 8–11 85 (50) 1003 None None None
Vamco September 13–15 65 (40) 998 Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indochina $14.1 million 15
Krovanh September 13–21 155 (100) 945 None None None
Land 04 September 16–19 55 (35) 994 Central India
Nine September 16–19 55 (35) 1006 None None None
Ida September 18–27 85 (50) 1001 None None None
Malia September 18–22 85 (50) 992 Hawaii None None
Dujuan (Jenny) September 19–30 205 (125) 925 Mariana Islands, Taiwan, China $407 million 3
Sixteen-E September 20–21 55 (35) 1001 Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, Southwestern United States $17.8 million 1
Niala September 25–28 100 (65) 992 Hawaii None None
Marty September 26–30 130 (80) 987 Mexico $30 million None
Joaquin September 28 – October 8 250 (155) 931 Turks and Caicos Islands, The Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti Southeastern United States, Bermuda, Azores, Iberian Peninsula $200 million 34
Mujidae (kabayan) September 30 – October 5 155 (100) 950 Philippines, China, Vietnam $4.26 billion 29

OctoberEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in October 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Choi-wan October 1–7
110 (70) 965 Wake Island, Japan, Russia None None
Oho October 3–8 175 (110) 957 Western Canada, Alaska None None
Eight-C October 3–4 55 (35) 1001 None None None
08C October 6–7 Not specified 1002 None None None
ARB 03 October

9–12

55 (35) 1000 None None None
Nora October 9–15 110 (70) 993 None None None
02F October 12–18 45 (30) 1001 Vanuatu None None
Koppu (Lando) October 12–21 185 (115) 925 Mariana Islands, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan $313 million 62
Champi October 13–25 175 (110) 930 Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands None None
Olaf October 15–27 240 (150) 938 None None None
TD October 19–21 Not specified Not specified None None None
26W October 19–22 55 (35) 1004 None None None
Patricia October 20–24 345 (215) 872 Central America, Mexico, Texas $462.8 million 8
Chapala October 28 – November 4 215 (130) 940 Oman, Yemen, Somaliland

Somalia

>$100 million 9

NovemberEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in November 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
Megh November 5–10 175 (110) 964 Oman, Somaliland

Somalia, Yemen

Unknown 18
BOB 03 November 8–10 55 (35) 991 South India, Sri Lanka
Unknown 71
Kate November 6–11 140 (85) 980 The Bahamas, United Kingdom, Ireland Minimal None
In-fa (Marilyn) November 16–27 175 (110) 935 Micronesia, Guam None None
Rick November 18–22 65 (40) 1002 Nonr None None
Annabelle November 19–24 100 (65) 983 None None None
Sandra November 23–28 240 (150) 935 Central America, Baja California, Mexico Minimal 4
Tuni November 26–30 75 (45) 992 Tuvalu, Samoan Islands, Niue, Tonga $5 million None

DecemberEdit

Tropical cyclones formed in December 2015
Storm name Dates active Max wind km/h (mph) Min pressure (mbar) Areas affected Damage (USD) Deaths Refs
04F December 1–2 Not specified 1003 French Polynesia None None
Bohale December 9–12 65 (40) 995 None None None
Melor (Nona) December 10–17 175 (110) 935 Caroline Islands, Philippines $148 million 51
29W (Onyok) December 14–19 55 (35) 1002 Caroline Islands, Philippines $23.3 thousand None
04U December 17–23 Not specified 1006 None None None
TD December 20–23 Not specified 1008 Borneo, Malaysia None None
05U December 21 – January 2 55 (35) 994 Northern Territory, Queensland None None
06F December 27–30 Not specified 997 Wallis and Futuna None None
06U December 27–29 Not specified Not specified None None None
07F December 28 – January 1 Not specified 995 Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Fiji None 3
Ula December 29 – January 12 185 (115) 944 Tuvalu, Samoan Islands, Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia None 1
Nine-C December 31 55 (35) 1001 None None None

Global effectsEdit

Season name Areas affected Systems formed Named storms Damage (USD) Deaths
2015 Atlantic hurricane season Yucatán Peninsula, Cayman Islands, Cuba, United States, Canada, Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Iceland, Ireland, United Kingdom, Hispaniola, West Africa, Cape Verde, Azores 12 11 $813.9 million 89
2015 Pacific hurricane season Mexico, Baja California Sur, Southwestern United States, Hawaii, Johnston Atoll, Central America, Colima, Sonora, Nayarit 31 26 $565.841 million 44
2015 Pacific typhoon season Micronesia, Taiwan, Philippines, China, Vietnam, Mariana Islands, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Laos, Russian Far East, Thailand, Myanmar, Alaska 36 25 $14.84 billion 349
2015 North Indian Ocean cyclone season India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Yemen, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea 12 4 >$1.04 billion 380
2014–15 Australian region cyclone season5 Indonesia, Australia, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea 13 6 $798.4 million 2
2015–16 Australian region cyclone season5 Northern Territory, Queensland 3 0 None None
2014–15 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season5 Madagascar, Mozamique, Mauritius, Reunion 10 9 $46.3 million 111
2015–16 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season5 None 2 2 None None
2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season5 Fiji, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Tonga, New Zealand, Samoan Islands, Wallis and Futuna, Niue, Solomon Islands 10 5 $692 million 17
2015–16 South Pacific cyclone season5 Fiji, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Tonga, New Zealand, Samoan Islands, Wallis and Futuna, Niue, Solomon Islands 5 2 $5 million 4
South Atlantic tropical cyclone 2 2
Worldwide (See above) 134[a] 92 > $18.8 billion 996

NotesEdit

  1. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.[1]
  2. ^ A major hurricane is one that reaches at least Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale.
  3. ^ All damage totals are in 2015 USD unless otherwise stated.

1 Only systems that formed either on or after January 1, 2015 are counted in the seasonal totals.
2 Only systems that formed either before or on December 31, 2015 are counted in the seasonal totals.
3 The wind speeds for this tropical cyclone/basin are based on the IMD Scale which uses 3-minute sustained winds.
4 The wind speeds for this tropical cyclone/basin are based on the Saffir Simpson Scale which uses 1-minute sustained winds.
5The wind speeds for this tropical cyclone are based on Météo-France which uses gust winds.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The sum of the number of systems and fatalities in each basin will not equal the number shown as the total. This is because when systems move between basins, it creates a discrepancy in the actual number of systems and fatalities.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 23, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  2. ^ Stewart, Stacy. 2015 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  3. ^ Mar S. Arguelles (January 21, 2015). "Storm 'Amang' leaves 3 people dead, P318.7M in damages in Bicol". Philippine News Agency. Interaksyon. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  4. ^ "SitRep No. 10 re Effects of Tropical Storm "Amang" (MEKKHALA)" (PDF). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. January 20, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  5. ^ "Flood death toll across Southern Africa reaches 260". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  6. ^ "Madagascar tropical storm claims 46 lives". Yahoo! News! via AP. Retrieved 21 January 2015.

External linksEdit

Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers

Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers

  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Weather Service.