Trk receptors are a family of tyrosine kinases that regulates synaptic strength and plasticity in the mammalian nervous system. Trk receptors affect neuronal survival and differentiation through several signaling cascades. However, the activation of these receptors also has significant effects on functional properties of neurons.
The common ligands of trk receptors are neurotrophins, a family of growth factors critical to the functioning of the nervous system. The binding of these molecules is highly specific. Each type of neurotrophin has different binding affinity toward its corresponding Trk receptor. The activation of Trk receptors by neurotrophin binding may lead to activation of signal cascades resulting in promoting survival and other functional regulation of cells.
Origin of the name trkEdit
The abbreviation trk (often pronounced 'track') stands for tropomyosin receptor kinase or tyrosine receptor kinase (and not "tyrosine kinase receptor" nor "tropomyosin-related kinase", as has been commonly mistaken).
The family of Trk receptors is named for the oncogene trk, whose identification led to the discovery of its first member, TrkA. Trk, initially identified in a colon carcinoma, is frequently (25%) activated in thyroid papillary carcinomas. The oncogene was generated by a mutation in chromosome 1 that resulted in the fusion of the first seven exons of tropomyosin to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the then-unknown TrkA receptor. Normal Trk receptors do not contain amino acid or DNA sequences related to tropomyosin.
Types and corresponding ligandsEdit
The three most common types of trk receptors are trkA, trkB, and trkC. Each of these receptor types has different binding affinity to certain types of neurotrophins. The differences in the signaling initiated by these distinct types of receptors are important for generating diverse biological responses.
Neurotrophin ligands of Trk receptors are processed ligands, meaning that they are synthesized in immature forms and then transformed by protease cleavage. Immature neurotrophins are specific only to one common p75NTR receptor. However, protease cleavage generates neurotrophins that have higher affinity to their corresponding Trk receptors. These processed neurotrophins can still bind to p75NTR, but at a much lower affinity.
TrkA has the highest affinity to the binding nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is important in both local and nuclear actions, regulating growth cones, motility, and expression of genes encoding the biosynthesis of enzymes for neurotransmitters. Peptidergic nociceptive sensory neurons express mostly trkA and not trkB or trkC.
TrkB has the highest affinity to the binding of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT-4. BDNF is a growth factor that has important roles in the survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. The binding of BDNF to TrkB receptor causes many intracellular cascades to be activated, which regulate neuronal development and plasticity, long-term potentiation, and apoptosis.
Although both BDNF and NT-4 have high specificity to TrkB, they are not interchangeable. In a mouse model study where BDNF expression was replaced by NT-4, the mouse with NT4 expression appeared to be smaller and exhibited decreased fertility.
TrkC is ordinarily activated by binding with NT-3 and has little activation by other ligands. (TrkA and TrkB also bind NT-3, but to a lesser extent.) TrkC is mostly expressed by proprioceptive sensory neurons. The axons of these proprioceptive sensory neurons are much thicker than those of nociceptive sensory neurons, which express trkA.
Regulation by p75NTREdit
p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) affects the binding affinity and specificity of Trk receptor activation by neurotrophins. The presence of p75NTR is especially important in increasing the binding affinity of NGF to TrkA. Although the dissociation constants of p75NTR and TrkA are remarkably similar, their kinetics are quite different. Reduction and mutation of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of either TrkA or p75NTR prevent the formation of high-affinity binding sites on TrkA. However, the binding of ligands in p75NTR is not required to promote high-affinity binding. Therefore, the data suggest that the presence of p75NTR affects the conformation of TrkA, preferentially the state with high-affinity binding site for NGF. Surprisingly, although the presence of p75NTR is essential to promote high-affinity binding, the NT3 binding to the receptor is not required.
Apart from affecting the affinity and specificity for Trk receptors, the P75 neurotrophin receptor (P75NTR) can also reduce ligand-induced receptor ubiquitination, and delay receptor internalization and degradation.
Essential roles in differentiation and functionEdit
Precursor cell survival and proliferationEdit
Numerous studies, both in vivo and in vitro, have shown that neurotrophins have proliferation and differentiation effects on CNS neuro-epithelial precursors, neural crest cells, or precursors of the enteric nervous system. TrkA that expresses NGF not only increase the survival of both C and A delta classes of nocireceptor neurons, but also affect the functional properties of these neurons.4 As mentioned before, BDNF improves the survival and function of neurons in CNS, particularly cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, as well as neurons in the hippocampus and cortex.
BDNF belongs to the neurotrophin family of growth factors and affects the survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system, particularly in brain regions susceptible to degeneration in AD. BDNF improves survival of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, as well as neurons in the hippocampus and cortex.
Control of target innervationEdit
Each of the neurotrophins mentioned above[vague] promotes neurite outgrowth. NGF/TrkA signaling regulates the advance of sympathetic neuron growth cones; even when neurons received adequate trophic (sustaining and nourishing) support, one experiment showed they did not grow into relating compartments without NGF.[vague] NGF increases the innervation of tissues that receive sympathetic or sensory innervation and induces aberrant innervation in tissues that are normally not innervated.
NGF/TrkA signaling upregulates BDNF, which is transported to both peripheral and central terminals of nocireceptive sensory neurons. In the periphery, TrkB/BDNF binding and TrkB/NT-4 binding acutely sensitizing nocireceptive pathway that require the presence of mast cells.
Sensory neuron functionEdit
Trk receptors and their ligands (neurotrophins) also affect neurons' functional properties. Both NT-3 and BDNF are important in the regulation and development of synapses formed between afferent neurons and motor neurons. Increased NT-3/trkC binding results in larger monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and reduced polysynaptic components. On the other hand, increased NT-3 binding to trkB to BDNF[vague] has the opposite effect, reducing the size of monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and increasing polysynaptic signaling.
Formation of ocular dominance columnEdit
In the development of mammalian visual system, axons from each eyes crosses through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and terminate in separate layers of striate cortex. However, axons from each LGN can only be driven by one side of the eye, but not both together. These axons that terminate in layer IV of the striate cortex result in ocular dominance columns. A study shows that The density of innervating axons in layer IV from LGN can be increased by exogenous BDNF and reduced by a scavenger of endogenous BDNF. Therefore, it raises the possibility that both of these agents are involved in some sorting mechanism that is not well comprehended yet. Previous studies with cat model has shown that monocular deprivation occurs when input to one of the mammalian eyes is absent during the critical period (critical window). However, A study demonstrated that the infusion of NT-4 (a ligand of trkB) into the visual cortex during the critical period has been shown to prevent many consequences of monocular deprivation. Surprisingly, even after losing responses during the critical period, the infusion of NT-4 has been shown to be able to restore them.
Synaptic strength and plasticityEdit
In mammalian hippocampus, the axons of the CA3 pyramidal cells project into CA1 cells through the Schaffer collaterals. The long-term potentiation (LTP) may induce in either of these pathways, but it is specific only to the one that is stimulated with tetanus.[vague] The stimulated axon does not impact spill over to the other pathway. TrkB receptors are expressed in most of these hippocampal neurons, including dentate granule cells, CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells, and inhibitory interneurons. LTP can be greatly reduced by BDNF mutants. In a similar study on a mouse mutant with reduced expression of trkB receptors, LTP of CA1 cells reduced significantly. TrkB loss has also been linked to interfere with the memory acquisition and consolidation in many learning paradigm.
Role of Trk oncogenes in cancerEdit
Although originally identified as an oncogenic fusion in 1982, only recently has there been a renewed interest in the Trk family as it relates to its role in human cancers because of the identification of NTRK1 (TrkA), NTRK2 (TrkB) and NTRK3 (TrkC) gene fusions and other oncogenic alterations in a number of tumor types. A number of Trk inhibitors are (in 2015) in clinical trials and have shown early promise in shrinking human tumors.
Trk inhibitors in developmentEdit
Entrectinib (formerly RXDX-101) is an investigational drug developed by Ignyta, Inc., which has potential antitumor activity. It is a selective pan-trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting gene fusions in trkA, trkB, and trkC (coded by NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 genes) that is currently in phase 2 clinical testing.
Originally targeting soft tissue sarcomas, Larotrectinib (tradename Vitrakvi) was approved in November 2018 as a tissue-agnostic inhibitor of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC developed by Array BioPharma for solid tumors with NTRK fusion mutations.
Trk receptors dimerize in response to ligand, as do other tyrosine kinase receptors. These dimers phosphorylate each other and enhance catalytic activity of the kinase. Trk receptors affect neuronal growth and differentiation through the activation of different signaling cascades. The three known pathways are PLC, Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathways. These pathways involve the interception of nuclear and mitochondrial cell-death programs. These signaling cascades eventually led to the activation of a transcription factor, CREB (cAMP response element-binding), which in turn activate the target genes.
The binding of neurotrophin will lead to the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) by trk receptor. This phosphorylation of PLC induces an enzyme to catalyze the breakdown of lipids to diacyglycerol and inositol(1,4, 5). Diacyglycerol may indirectly activate PI3 kinase or several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, whereas inositol(1,4, 5) promotes release of calcium from intracellular stores.
The signaling through Ras/MAPK pathway is important for the neurotrophin-induced differentiation of neuronal and neuroblastoma cells. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the Trk receptors led to the activation of Ras molecules, H-Ras and K-Ras. H-ras is found in lipid rafts, embedded within the plasma membrane, while K-Ras is predominantly found in disordered region of the membrane. RAP, a vesicle bounded molecule that also takes part in the cascading, is localized in the intracellular region.
The activation of these molecules result in two alternative MAP kinase pathways. Erk 1,2 can be stimulated through the activation cascades of K-Ras, Raf1, and MEK 1,2, whereas ERK5 is stimulated through the activation cascades of B-Raf, MEK5, and Erk 5. However, whether PKC (protein kinase C) could activate MEK5 is not yet known.
PI3 pathway signaling is critical for both mediation of neurotrophin-induced survival and regulation of vesicular trafficking. The trk receptor stimulates PI3K heterodimers, which causes the activation of kinases PDK-1 and Akt. Akt in turn stimulates FRK (Forkhead family transcription factor), BAD, and GSK-3.
TrkA vs TrkCEdit
Some studies have suggested that NGF/TrkA coupling causes preferential activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, whereas NT3/TrkC coupling causes preferential activation of the PI3 pathway.
- Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 8: Atypical neurotransmitters". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071481274.
Another common feature of neurotrophins is that they produce their physiologic effects by means of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptor family (also known as the tyrosine receptor kinase family). ...
All neurotrophins bind to a class of highly homologous receptor tyrosine kinases known as Trk receptors, of which three types are known: TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC. These transmembrane receptors are glycoproteins whose molecular masses range from 140 to 145 kDa. Each type of Trk receptor tends to bind specific neurotrophins: TrkA is the receptor for NGF, TrkB the receptor for BDNF and NT-4, and TrkC the receptor for NT-3.However, some overlap in the specificity of these receptors has been noted.
- Huang EJ, Reichardt LF (2003). "Trk receptors: roles in neuronal signal transduction". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 609–642. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.72.121801.161629. PMID 12676795.
- Segal, Rosalind A. (2003). "Selectivity in Neurotrophin Signalling: Theme and Variations". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 26: 299–330. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.26.041002.131421. PMID 12598680.
- Martin-Zanca D, Hughes SH, Barbacid M (1986). "A human oncogene formed by the fusion of truncated tropomyosin and protein tyrosine kinase sequences". Nature. 319 (6056): 743–748. doi:10.1038/319743a0. PMID 2869410.
- Barbacid M, Lamballe F, Pulido D, Klein R (1991). "The trk family of tyrosine protein kinase receptors". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1072 (2–3): 115–127. doi:10.1016/0304-419X(91)90010-I. PMID 1751544.
- Chen, Z; Simon, MT & Perry, RT et al. (2007), Genetic Association of Neurotrophic Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Type 2 (NTRK2) With Alzheimer's Disease., vol. 67 issue: 1., Birmingham, Alabama.: Wiley-Liss.
- Fan G, Egles C, Sun Y, Minichiello L, Renger JJ, et al. (2000). "Knocking the NT4 gene into the BDNF locus rescues BDNF deficient mice and reveals distinct NT4 and BDNF activities". Nat. Neurosci. 3 (4): 350–357. doi:10.1038/73921. PMID 10725924.
- Huang EJ, Reichardt LF (2001). "Neutrophins: Roles in Neuronal Development and Function". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 24: 677–746. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.677. PMC 2758233.
- Berchtold, Nicole C.; MS, Carl W.; Cotman (2004). "BDNF and Alzheimer's Disease—What's the Connection?". Alzheimer Research Forum. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 2008-11-26..
- Pulciani S, Santos E, Lauver AV, Long LK, Aaronson SA, Barbacid M (1982). "Oncogenes in solid human tumours". Nature. 300 (5892): 539–42. doi:10.1038/300539a0. PMID 7144906.
- Vaishnavi A, Le AT, Doebele RC (2015). "TRKing down an old oncogene in a new era of targeted therapy". Cancer Discov. 5 (1): 25–34. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-0765. PMC 4293234. PMID 25527197.
- Doebele RC, Davis LE, Vaishnavi A, Le AT, Estrada-Bernal A, Keysar S, Jimeno A, Varella-Garcia M, Aisner DL, Li Y, Stephens PJ, Morosini D, Tuch BB, Fernandes M, Nanda N, Low JA (2015). "An oncogenic NTRK fusion in a soft tissue sarcoma patient with response to the tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) inhibitor LOXO-101". Cancer Discov. 5: 1049–57. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0443. PMC 4635026. PMID 26216294.
- "Ignyta Announces Updated Data from Entrectinib Phase 1 Clinical Trials at the 2016 AACR Annual Meeting".
- "FDA approves larotrectinib for solid tumors with NTRK gene fusions". www.fda.gov. November 26, 2018.