Trisquel (full name Trisquel GNU/Linux) is a computer operating system, a Linux distribution, derived from another distribution, Ubuntu.[6] The project aims for a fully free software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses a version of Ubuntu's modified kernel, with the non-free code (binary blobs) removed.[7] Trisquel relies on user donations.[8] Its logo is a triskelion, a Celtic symbol.[9] Trisquel is listed by the Free Software Foundation as a distribution that contains only free software.[10]

Trisquel GNU/Linux
Trisquel 11.0 desktop
DeveloperThe Trisquel Project[1] and Sognus, S.L.U.
OS familyLinux (Unix-like)
Working stateCurrent[2]
Initial releaseJanuary 30, 2007; 16 years ago (2007-01-30)[3]
Latest release11.0[4] / March 19, 2023; 8 months ago (2023-03-19)
Marketing targetHome users, small enterprises and educational centers[1]
Update methodLong-term support
Package managerAPT, Synaptic (GTK+ frontend), dpkg
Platformsamd64 and i386
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux-libre[5])
user interface


Four basic versions are available.


The standard Trisquel distribution includes the MATE desktop environment and graphical user interface (GUI), and English, Spanish and 48 other localizations, 50 in total, on a 2.6 GB live DVD image. Other translations can be downloaded if an internet connection is present during installation.[11]

Trisquel Mini

Trisquel Mini is an alternative to mainline Trisquel, designed to run well on netbooks and older hardware. It uses the low-resource environment LXDE and lightweight GTK+ and X Window System alternatives to GNOME and Qt-KDE applications.[12] The LXDE desktop only includes English and Spanish localizations, and can install from a 1.2 GB live DVD image.[citation needed]


Triskel is another alternative to mainline Trisquel using the KDE graphical interface, available as a 2.0 GB ISO DVD live image.[13]

Trisquel Sugar TOAST

Sugar is a free and open source desktop environment designed with the goal of being used by children for interactive learning. Sugar replaces the standard MATE desktop environment available with Trisquel.[14]

Trisquel NetInstall

NetInstall consists of a 25MB CD iso image with just the minimal amount of software to start the installation via a text based network installer and fetch the remaining packages over the Internet.[14]


The full installation includes 51 languages (Albanian, Arabic, Aranese, Asturian, Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Central Khmer, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Finnish, French, Galician, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Low German, Norwegian Bokmål, Norwegian Nynorsk, Occitan, Punjabi, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, Valencian and Vietnamese) pre-installed in a downloadable 1.2-gigabyte DVD image.[15]

Source code for the full Trisquel installation is also available in a downloadable 3-gigabyte DVD image.[citation needed]


The project began in 2004 with sponsorship of the University of Vigo for Galician language support in education software and was officially presented in April 2005 with Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU Project, as a special guest.[16] According to project director Rubén Rodríguez, the support for Galician has created interest in South American and Mexican communities of emigrants from the Province of Ourense.[17]

By December 2008, Trisquel was included by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) in its list of Linux distributions endorsed by the Free Software Foundation.[18]

Release history

Legend: Old version, not maintained Older version, still maintained Current stable version Latest preview version Future release
Version Code name Release date Supported until Kernel Desktop environment Based on
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0 Arianrhod 2007-01-30[3] Linux GNOME 2.14 Debian 4.0 (Etch)
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.0 LTS Robur 2008-07-24[19] 2014-03-02[20][21] Linux 2.6.24 GNOME 2.22 Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0 STS Dwyn 2009-09-08[22] 2011-05-11[20][23] Linux-libre 2.6.28 GNOME 2.26 Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.5 STS Awen 2010-03-22[24] 2011-07-14[20][25] Linux-libre 2.6.31 GNOME 2.28 Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala)
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0 LTS Taranis 2010-09-18[26] 2015[27] Linux-libre 2.6.32 GNOME 2.30 Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx)
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.5 STS Slaine 2011-03-24[28] 2012-09-15[20][29] Linux-libre 2.6.35 GNOME 2.32 Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat)
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.0 STS Dagda 2011-09-17[30] 2014-03-02[20][21] Linux-libre 2.6.38 GNOME 2.32 Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal)
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.5 STS Brigantia 2012-04-16[31] 2014-03-02[20][21] Linux-libre 3.0 GNOME 3.2 Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot)
Old version, no longer maintained: 6.0 LTS Toutatis 2013-03-09[32] 2017[32] Linux-libre 3.2 GNOME 3.4 Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin)
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.0 LTS Belenos 2014-11-03[33] 2019[33] Linux-libre 3.13 GNOME 3.12 Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr)
Old version, no longer maintained: 8.0 LTS Flidas[34] 2018-04-18 2021[35] Linux-libre 4.4 MATE 1.12 Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus)
Old version, no longer maintained: 9.0 LTS Etiona[36] 2020-10-16[13] 2023-04[37] Linux-libre 4.15 MATE 1.20 Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver)
Older version, yet still maintained: 10.0 LTS Nabia[38] 2022-02-01[39] 2025[39] Linux-libre 5.4 MATE 1.24 Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa)
Current stable version: 11.0 LTS Aramo[40] 2023-03-19[41] 2027[41] Linux-libre 5.15[42] MATE 1.26 Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish)

The releases that use GNOME 3.x use GNOME Classic/Flashback, rather than the default GNOME Shell. All Trisquel releases starting with version 6 are only based on Ubuntu LTS releases.[43]

Current versions include this common software:

  • Abrowser, a rebranded version of Firefox that never suggests non-free add-ons, and includes no trademarked art or names. It features privacy enhancing modifications such as not starting network connections on its own.[44] It is rebranded because the Mozilla Trademark Policy forbids modifications that include their trademark without consent.[45]

Prior editions:

Trisquel LTSP classroom server, managed via iTALC.
  • Trisquel Pro was business-oriented and small. It was part of the Trisquel 2.0 LTS Robur (2008), but no other release followed.[47]
  • Trisquel Edu was education-oriented, for schools and universities. Like Trisquel Pro, no other release followed Trisquel 2.0 Robur (2008).[48]
  • Trisquel on Sugar was education-oriented, based on the Sugar desktop environment for interactive learning for children. It was released at the same time as Trisquel 7.
  • Trisquel Gamer was an independent edition maintained by David Zaragoza. It included 55 free software games and could boot from a live DVD or USB drive. It was released with Trisquel 3.5 (2010), which is no longer supported.[49]


Trisquel 6 Desktop running GNOME Fallback Mode

Jesse Smith of DistroWatch reviewed the 4.0 release, Taranis, and described it as refined and dependable. He portrayed difficulty with removing software as his main problem with the release. He complimented it as an operating system that showcased utility instead of mere compliance with free software criteria.[6]

Jesse Smith also reviewed Trisquel 7.0 in 2014, writing "Whenever I boot up Trisquel I find myself wondering whether the free software only distribution will be able to hold its own when it comes to hardware drivers, multimedia support and productivity software. The answer I came to when running Trisquel 7.0 is that, yes, the distribution appears to be nearly as capable as operating systems that do not stick to the FSF's definition of free software. Some people who use hardware that requires binary blobs or non-free drivers may face problems and Flash support isn't perfect when using the free Gnash player, but otherwise Trisquel appears to be every bit as functional as other mainstream Linux distributions. The software Trisquel ships with appears to be stable, functional and user friendly. The distribution is easy to install, I found it pleasant to use and I didn't encounter any problems. People who value or wish to promote free software should definitely try running Trisquel, it's an excellent example of what can be accomplished with free software."[50]

Jim Lynch of Desktop Linux Reviews reviewed the 5.5 release, Brigantia, and described it as "well-ordered and well developed" and recommended it to users whether they care about only using free software or not. Lynch stated that the release was suitable for beginners and advanced users.[51]

Chris Fisher and Matt Hartley of The Linux Action Show! praised the design, ease of use, and hardware support of Trisquel 5.5 and Trisquel 5.5 Mini, but found that the Linux-libre kernel found in Trisquel impedes functionality of proprietary wireless devices. They argued that the distribution was targeting power users and that new users should use a different distribution.[52]

Richard Stallman announced in January 2015 that he is using Trisquel on a Thinkpad X60 instead of his former computer the Lemote Yeeloong.[53]


IA-32 and x86-64 CPU architectures were supported since Trisquel 5.5, which includes free software compatible chipsets.[54] However, 32-bit support was dropped with the release of Trisquel 10.[55]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!". Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Download - Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  3. ^ a b The Trisquel Project (30 January 2007). "Publicación de Trisguel 1.0". Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  4. ^ ""Trisquel 11.0 LTS Aramo"".
  5. ^ "Documentation | Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!". Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  6. ^ a b Smith, Jesse (4 October 2010). "Trisquel GNU/Linux - a free distribution". DistroWatch. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  7. ^ "How Trisquel is Made". Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  8. ^ "Siete factores antes de usar 'software'" (in Spanish). El Comercio. 14 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  9. ^ "How is "Trisquel" pronounced?". The Trisquel Project. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  10. ^ "List of Free GNU/Linux Distributions". Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  11. ^ "Download Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!". Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  12. ^ "Trisquel Mini". The Trisquel Project. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  13. ^ a b "Release announcement: Trisquel 9.0.1 Etiona security update | Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!".
  14. ^ a b "Editions | Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!".
  15. ^ "Which languages is Trisquel available in? | Trisquel GNU/Linux - Run free!".
  16. ^ "Richard Stallman, defensor del software libre, sorprendió a los universitarios". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 28 April 2005. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  17. ^ García, Ana (17 May 2007). "Software libre da terra, compartindo cultura" (in Galician). El Progreso. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  18. ^ "Free GNU/Linux distributions". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  19. ^ "Proxecto Trisquel" (in Galician). 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Index of /trisquel/dists". Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  21. ^ a b c "[Trisquel-announce] [Trisquel-devel] Robur, Dagda and Brigantia moved to oldarchive". 2 March 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  22. ^ "Trisquel 3.0 STS "Dwyn" has landed!". The Trisquel Project. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  23. ^ "[Trisquel-announce] Trisquel 3.0 STS Dwyn reaches end of life, 3.5 soon to follow". 11 May 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  24. ^ "Trisquel 3.5 Awen release announcement". The Trisquel Project. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  25. ^ "[Trisquel-devel] Trisquel 5.0 development repository up, 3.5 reaches end of life". 15 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  26. ^ "Trisquel 4.0 LTS "Taranis" strikes!". The Trisquel Project. 18 September 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  27. ^ "Versions". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  28. ^ "Trisquel 4.5 "Slaine" released". The Trisquel Project. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  29. ^ "[Trisquel-announce] Trisquel 4.5 Slaine reached end of life". 15 September 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  30. ^ "Trisquel 5.0 Release announcement". The Trisquel Project. 17 September 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  31. ^ "Trisquel 5.5 STS Brigantia release announcement". The Trisquel Project. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  32. ^ a b "Trisquel 6.0 LTS "Toutatis" has arrived!". The Trisquel Project. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  33. ^ a b "Trisquel 7.0 LTS Belenos". The Trisquel Project. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  34. ^ "Update config file for next Trisquel release". Trisquel at Gitlab. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  35. ^ "Trisquel 8.0 LTS Flidas". 18 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Trisquel 9.0 development plans". 18 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Release announcement: Trisquel 9.0.1 Etiona security update". 15 September 2023.
  38. ^ "Trisquel 10 name". 4 December 2020.
  39. ^ a b "Trisquel 10.0 Nabia release announcement". 1 February 2022.
  40. ^ "Trisquel 11 Needs A Name". 1 February 2022.
  41. ^ a b "Trisquel 11.0 Aramo release announcement". 19 March 2023.
  42. ^ Trisquel. "Aramo". Archived from the original on 19 April 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  43. ^ "2013-03-05 Meeting". Trisquel. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  44. ^ "Trisquel 8.0 LTS Flidas". Trisquel. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  45. ^ "Mozilla Trademark Policy". Mozilla. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  46. ^ Baader, Hans-Joachim (20 September 2011). "Trisquel 5.0 veröffentlicht" [Trisquel 5.0 published] (in German). Pro-Linux. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  47. ^ "Trisquel Pro". The Trisquel Project. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  48. ^ "Trisquel Edu". The Trisquel Project. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  49. ^ Zaragoza, David. "Trisquel Gamer". The Trisquel Project. Archived from the original on 6 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  50. ^ " Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD".
  51. ^ Lynch, Jim (24 April 2012). "Trisquel 5.5". Desktop Linux Reviews. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  52. ^ Fisher, Chris; Hartley, Matt (2 September 2012). "Trisquel GNU/Linux Review - LAS - s23e05". Jupiter Broadcasting. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  53. ^ Stallman, Richard. "Richard Stallman's personal site - How I do my computing". Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  54. ^ "ThinkPenguin". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  55. ^ "Trisquel 10.0 Nabia release announcement". Retrieved 27 June 2022.

External links