Trets (English: //; French pronunciation: [tʁɛ(t)s]; Provençal: Tretz) is a commune (town or township, in English) in the Bouches-du-Rhône department of the Provence-Alpes-Côtes d’Azur region in the southeast of France. With a population of over 10,000, it is one of 44 communes in the Aix-en-Provence arrondissement or district. It is often described as a medieval town because of its development during the Middle Ages of European history and retention of medieval architecture.
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||Pascal Chauvin|
|70.31 km2 (27.15 sq mi)|
|• Density||150/km2 (390/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||217–810 m (712–2,657 ft) |
(avg. 249 m or 817 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Trets is situated in the Upper Valley of the Arc river, between painter Paul Cézanne's beloved Montagne Sainte-Victoire 11 km to the north and the Aurélien hills (Monts Auréliens) to the east, at the foot of Mount Olympus to the south.
Population and historyEdit
The founding site of Trets has been described variously as a Greek colony or an “ancient Roman settlement.” By some accounts Trets was originally named Trittia or Tritea by the Phocean settlers of Massalia, in homage to the daughter of the Greek god Triton.
The first historical account identifying the populace now known as Trets appears in 950 AD, when the king of Burgundy and Provence Conrad the Peaceful transferred hereditary rule over the lands of the Upper Valley of the Arc as a fisc to the first Seigneur (or Lord) of Trets. A succession of lords ruled until the French Revolution of 1789.
Romanesque, and gothic buildings and vaulted passageways of the medieval period line the narrow, winding streets of the town. The center of Trets was surrounded the ramparts and its 8 towers (4 left), for defense against successive invasions over the centuries. A 2200 sqm garden along the town walls (Jardins des Remparts) was opened in 2011.
Several gates (porte) were opened in the city walls. The rectangular Gate of Pourrières and its preserved machicolations were built in the 14th century. It served as the main gateway access into town. On the East side of city, the Gate Saint-Jean also known as the Gate of Amont (14th) provides uptown access and was used to store munitions. On the North end stood the Gate of Clastre (14th), the Porte Neuve and the Gate of Puyloubier, all destroyed by the mid-19th century.
Now the grounds of the Edmond Brun elementary school, a hospital named Hôpital Saint Jacques was established circa 1300 near the church of the same patronage and later transferred, in 1794, to the Observantins convent.
The low, vaulted passageway called Le Trou de Madame Lion gave access to the wall-walk. It is thought to have been either a way of confining any epidemic outbreak to the grounds of the hospital or a way of defending against mounted attacks.
To the southeast is the feudal castle (Château des Remparts) with its staircase in dimension stone with a ramp from the 17th century, French-style painted ceilings and a baroque chimney. Its construction started in the late 12th or the early 13th century. In June 2013 a number of renovations were completed, with a modern performance space in the courtyard.
The classified 14th-century Church of Our Lady of Nazareth was built upon a 4th-century priory of the Roman-Provençal style with an open vaulted arch, gothic chapels, and a massive unfinished tower. Its massive altarpiece (1693) was executed by the native Christophe Veyrier in stucco and marble.
La Chapelle Saint-Jean-du-Puy, a former 5th-century hermitage, features a Romanesque apse, garden sanctuary and 18th-century watch tower that is an observatory overlooking the town and the Valley of the Arc. It was rebuilt with the addition of two Gallo-Roman columns.
The 14th-century papal Studium of Trets put forth what may have been the only record of its kind in the Vatican archives of that time, a register of the local economy detailing the material life of schoolchildren and their teachers.
The Hôtel de la Vallée de l’Arc, at the center of town, was an 18th-century relay post.
Henri Raybaud executed the War memorial on the townhall square depicting an "angel of victory" .
Cultural encounters and traditionsEdit
The influence of both Greek and Roman cultures is said to have led to the cultivation of wine and wheat. After the Romans came the Goths, the Merovingians, the Carlovingians and the Saracens; then, after a period of viscounts of Marseille, Trets came under local papal governance through the diocese of Aix, according to the papal bull of Urban II in 1088.
Holidays and festivals reflect historical encounters and traditions, including:
- (May/June) La Fête de Saint Jean has been observed since 1793.
- (July) La Fête de la Saint Eloi, patron saint of goldsmiths and blacksmiths since 659 AD, celebrates Provençal culture, language and arts.
- (August) Les Médiévales de Trets celebrate the occasion of The Good King René welcoming his nephew Louis XI of France, with period events and dress.
While the Jews were expelled from France in 1182, local governance permitted construction of a synagogue in a manor on the present-day street called Rue Paul Bert. A surrounding Jewish quarter was established by local edict in the early 14th century.
- Raimbaud de Reillanne, archbishop of Arles.
- Raymond de Gaufredi, son of the lord Burgondion de Trets and Mabile d'Agoult, minister general of the Order of Friars Minor from 1289 to 1295.
- Bertrand Bezaudun, archbishop of Genova from 1349 to 1358.
- Christophe Veyrier, born in Trets on 26 January 1637, died in Toulon on 10 June 1689 (sculptor), nephew and follower of Pierre Puget.
- Jean-Jacques Clérion, born in Trets on 16 April 1637, died in Paris on 28 August 1714 (sculptor for Louis XIV of France).
- Urbain Dubois, born in Trets on 26 May 1818, died in Nice on 14 March 1901, chef to the King of Prussia from 1860 to 1870. He published several recipe books and is credited with the invention of the Veal Orloff.
- "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- "Populations légales 2018". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2020.
- "Sainte-Victoire". Atelier Paul Cézanne [Cézanne Studio and Gardens]. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Trets et son histoire". Excerpt from Regards sur Trets en Provence. Les Amis du Village. 1991. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Baring-Gould, Sabine (2008. Rept. 1890). In Troubador-Land. ReadHowYouWant. p. 150. ISBN 9781442903500. Check date values in:
- Pallies, Antonin (April 7, 1895). "Les communes de Provence: Trets". Petites annales de Provence: Politiques, historiques, artistiques et littéraires (in French) (50): 1. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Marshall, Archibald (1920). A Spring Walk in Provence. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 86. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "A voir sur Trets et les alentours". Site Officiel de Trets-en-Provence, Based on Regards sur Trets en Provence by Guy Van Oost et al. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
- Feraud, Jean Claude (13 June 2013). "la Cour du Château épouse son siècle". Site Officiel de Trets-en-Provence. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Auguste, Longnon (1898). "Discours d'ouverture du Président" (PDF). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. pp. 732–752. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- Tassy, Roger; Guy Van Oost (1999). "Trets, une ville médiévale" (PDF). Based on Regards sur Trets by Les Amis du Village, 1991 and Trets, ville médiévale by la Société d'Études et de Recherches de la Haute Vallée de l’Arc (SERHVA),1999. Maison du Tourisme. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Pallies, Antonin (7 April 1895). "Les communes de Provence: Trets". Petites annales de Provence: Politiques, historiques, artistiques et littéraires (50): 2. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Ville de Trets: Votre agenda culturel (Le guide culturel 2013-2014)" (PDF). Official site of Trets-en-Provence. la Maison du Tourisme. p. 22. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
Literary, historical and archaeological works about TretsEdit
- Chauvin, Fernand. Trets et sa région.
- Chaillan, Abbé Marius. 1893. Recherches archéologiques & historiques sur Trets et sa vallée. Marseille: H. Aubertin/Marpon & Flammarion.
- Papon. 1777. Histoire générale de Provence.
- Rolland, Victor. 1938. “Trittia”-Trets. Société nouvelle des impr. toulonnaises.
- SERHVA (la Société d'Études et de Recherches de la Haute Vallée de l’Arc) et al. 1984. Trets, ville médiévale cheminement de visite du centre ancien, et monographie sommaire des principaux édifices. Conseil général des Bouches-du-Rhône, Comité départemental du tourisme en Marseille.
- Sumeire, Gabriel Jean. 1960. La Communauté de Trets à la veille de la Révolution. Aix en Provence: La Pensée universitaire.
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