Treaty of Tunis

The Treaty of Tunis was an agreement during the Eighth Crusade. It was signed in November 1270 between the Hafsid Sultan Muhammad I al-Mustansir and Crusaders shortly after Louis IX of France's death. The treaty guaranteed a truce between the two armies. The treaty was quite beneficial to Charles of Anjou, who received one-third of a war indemnity from the Tunisians, and was promised that Hohenstaufen refugees in the sultanate would be expelled. During this treaty, the parties agreed on cessation of hostilities, the release of captives, security for businessmen, the freedom of missionaries to propagate Christianity and build churches in Tunisia, annual ransom payment by the Hafsids, and others.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2005). The Crusades: A History. pp. 209–210.
  • Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, Cairo 1997. English translation by Bohn, Henry G., The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, 1969.
  • Beebe, Bruce, "The English Baronage and the Crusade of 1270," in Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, vol. xlviii (118), November 1975, pp. 127–148.
  • Lower, Michael (2018). The Tunis Crusade of 1270: A Mediterranean History. Oxford University Press.
  • Narbaitz, Pierre (2007). Navarra o cuando los vascos tenían reyes. Tafalla: Editorial Txalaparta.
  • Paterson, Linda (2003). "Lyric allusions to the crusades and the Holy Land." Colston Symposium.
  • Richard, Jean. The Crusades, C.1071-c.1291, Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-62566-1
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2005) [1987]. The Crusades: A History (2nd ed.). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-8264-7270-0.
  • Strayer, Joseph R. (1969). "The Crusades of Louis IX". In R. L. Wolff; H. W. Hazard (eds.). A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades (1189–1311). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 486–518.
  • Throop, Palmer A., "Criticism of Papal Crusade Policy in Old French and Provençal." Speculum, Vol. 13, No. 4. (October, 1938), pp. 379–412.