Treaty of Péronne (1641)
The Treaty of Péronne was signed on September 14, 1641, in Péronne, France between Honoré II, Prince of Monaco, and Louis XIII, King of France. Based on the terms of the treaty, Prince Honoré permitted Monaco to become a French protectorate in return for guarantees entailing the preservation of his rights as sovereign. Moreover, Honoré wanted to be included in all French treaties and be given grants of land in France as compensation for any privately-owned territories he might lose in Habsburg Spain. Overall, the treaty led to the removal of the Spanish garrison in Monaco by the French and ultimately regulated the relations between France and Monaco for 150 years.
|Signed||September 14, 1641|
|Location||Péronne, Kingdom of France|
In the context of Franco-Spanish rivalry and the Thirty Years' War, the Prince of Monaco sought to get rid of Spanish tutelage. Cardinal Richelieu, Chief Minister of France, sought to take advantage of weakening Habsburg power and strengthen France by extending French influence over the Rock of Monaco.
- The 14-article treaty removed the Prince of Monaco from Spanish protection, instead accepting the protection of the king of France. Article 6 provided for France to recognise the prince's sovereignty over Monaco, Menton and Roquebrune.
- A garrison of 500 men would permanently be stationed in the princely territory, at the expense of the royal treasury but placed under the direct orders of the prince, in order to protect the principality. In the absence of the prince, the command of the garrison would be entrusted to a lieutenant appointed by the king but approved by the prince.
- As protector of the prince, his family, his privileges and his property, the king of France would pay the prince an annual rent of 75,000 livres.
- With the Spanish properties of Honoré II having been confiscated by Philip IV of Spain, the king of France granted to the prince the Duchy of Valentinois, the Marquisate of Baux, the County of Carladès, the city of Chabeuil, the Baronies of Calvinet and Buis and the Lordship of Saint-Rémy-de-Provence in compensation.
- The territorial clauses of the treaty were confirmed by letters patent awarded at Saint-Germain-en-Laye in February 1643.
- Duursma, p. 262. As the Spanish protectorate became too dominant, the Prince of Monaco concluded the Treaty of Péronne on 14 September 1641 with King Louis XIII of France...
- The Gentleman's Magazine, p. 33. "He had long been scheming with Richelieu to exchange the Spanish for a French protectorate, and in 1641 the treaty of Péronne regulated for the next century and a half the relations of Monaco and France. A French garrison was to occupy the fortress, but the Prince was to preserve his sovereign rights, to be included in all French treaties, and be compensated for the property which he will lose in Spain by grants of lands in France. The fortress was captured by means of a surprise, the French garrison established, and the Prince created Duc de Valentinois — a title which still runs in the family — and received with the greatest honours at the French Court."