Treaty of La Pointe

The Treaty of La Pointe may refer to either of two treaties made and signed in La Pointe, Wisconsin between the United States and the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Native American peoples. In addition, the Isle Royale Agreement, an adhesion to the first Treaty of La Pointe, was made at La Pointe.

Symbolic 1849 petition attributed to Chief Buffalo protesting the violation of the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe

1842 Treaty of La PointeEdit

Map showing the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe land cession area of what now is Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior, Wisconsin and Michigan

The first treaty of La Pointe was signed by Robert Stuart for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe Bands of Lake Superior and the Mississippi River on October 4, 1842 and proclaimed on March 23, 1843, encoded into the laws of the United States as 7 Stat. 591. By this treaty, the Ojibwa ceded extensive tracts of land that are now parts of the states of Wisconsin and Michigan, specifically the latter's Upper Peninsula.

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was signed on August 9, 1842, between Great Britain and the United States, officially ending their boundary dispute on what now is the Arrowhead Region of Minnesota, as well as settling other claims. This news did not reach the United States parties to the La Pointe Treaty negotiation. Consequently, the Grand Portage Band, then considered to be in Canadian British territory, was not invited to join the signing of this treaty. It is now considered to occupy territory in the United States.

In 1844, the United States and Grand Portage Band signed the Isle Royale Agreement as an adhesion to this treaty.

As determined subsequently by the United States Supreme Court, the signatory tribes retain hunting, fishing and gathering rights on their former lands in this region. In addition, the Supreme Court held that the treaty obligated the United States to provide reservations for peoples of the signatory bands. For instance, it acquired land in the 1930s for the Bay Mills Indian Community, whose people had historically long been located on Lake Superior in Michigan.


The Ojibwe treaty signatories were:

# Location Recorded name Name (translation/"alias") Title
1 Crow Wing River Po go ne gi shik Bagonegiizhig (Hole in the Day) 1st chief
2 Crow Wing River Son go com ick Zoongakamig (Firm Ground) 2d chief
3 Sandy Lake Band Ka non do ur uin zo Gaa-nandawaawinzo (He that Gathers Berries/"le Brocheux") 1st chief
4 Sandy Lake Band Na tum e gaw bon Netamigaabawi (Stands First) 2d chief
5 Gull Lake Ua bo jig Waabojiig (White Fisher) 1st chief
6 Gull Lake Pay pe si gon de bay Bebiizigindibe (Curly Head) 2d chief
7 Red Ceder Lake Kui ui sen shis Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy) 1st chief
8 Red Ceder Lake Ott taw wance Odaawaans (Little Ottawa) 2d chief
9 Pokegama Bai ie jig Bayezhig (Lone Man) 1st chief
10 Pokegama Show ne aw Zhooniyaa (Silver) 2d chief
11 Wisconsin River Ki uen zi Akiwenzii (Old Man) 1st chief
12 Wisconsin River Wi aw bis ke kut te way Wayaabishkigoodewe (Has a White Skirt) 2d chief
13 Lac du Flambeau Band A pish ka go gi Apishkaagaagi (Magpie/"White Crow") 1st chief
14 Lac du Flambeau Band May tock cus e quay Metaakozige ([Smokes] Pure Tobacco) 2d chief
15 Lac du Flambeau Band She maw gon e Zhimaagani (Lance) 2d chief
16 Lake Bands Ki ji ua be she shi Gichi-waabizheshi (Big Marten) 1st chief
17 Lake Bands Ke kon o tum Geganoodam (Intercessor) 2d chief
18 Fond du Lac Band Shin goob Zhingob (Balsam) 1st chief
19 Fond du Lac Band Na gan nab Naagaanab (Foremost Sitter) 2d chief
20 Fond du Lac Band Mong o zet Maangozid (Loon's Foot) 2d chief
21 La Pointe Band Gitchi waisky Gichi-weshkiinh (Great-renewer/"Buffalo") 1st chief
22 La Pointe Band Mi zi Mizay (Eel) 2d chief
23 La Pointe Band Ta qua gone e Dagwagaane (Two Lodges Meet) 2d chief
24 Ontonagon O kon di kan Okandikan (Bouy) 1st chief
25 Ontonagon Kis ke taw wac Giishkitawag (Cut Ear) 2d chief
26 L'Anse Pe na shi Bineshiinh (Bird) 1st chief
27 L'Anse Guck we san sish Akakwijenzhish (Bad Little Groundhog) 2d chief
28 Lac Vieux Desert Band Ka she osh e Gezhiiyaashi (Sails Fast) 1st chief
29 Lac Vieux Desert Band Medge waw gwaw wot[1] Bimijiwaagaakwad (Oblique-edged Ax) 2d chief
30 Mille Lacs Indians Ne qua ne be Negwanebi ([Quill]feather) 1st chief
31 Mille Lacs Indians Ua shash ko kum Wazhashkokon (Muskrat's Liver) 2d chief
32 Mille Lacs Indians No din Noodin (Wind) 2d chief
33 St. Croix Band Be zhi ki Bizhiki (Buffalo) 1st chief
34 St. Croix Band Ka bi na be Gaa-biimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet mouth") 2d chief
35 St. Croix Band Ai aw bens Ayaabens (Little Buck) 2d chief
36 Snake River Sha go bi Zhaagobe (Six) 1st chief
37 Chippewa River Ua be she shi Waabizheshi (Marten) 1st chief
38 Chippewa River Que way zhan sis Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy) 2d chief
39 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Ne na nang eb Nenaa'angebi (Beautifying Bird) 1st chief
40 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Be bo kon uen 2d chief
41 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Ki uen zi Akiwenzii (Old Man) 2d chief
Name given in Dakota.

Treaty area boundary adjustmentsEdit

In Michigan, no boundary adjustments have been made.

In Wisconsin, for regulatory purposes, the southeastern boundaries of the 1842 treaty-area have been adjusted to follow distinct landmarks such as roads and streams. Furthermore, in Wisconsin, with consent of the property-owner and with tribally issued license, all treaty rights of hunting, fishing and gathering may be exercised by the members of the signatory bands.

In Minnesota, no boundary adjustments have been made. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources have been mainly concerned over hunting regulations as related to this treaty. Minnesota does not acknowledge the 1842 land cession area as giving the tribes privilege over Minnesota's own claim over Lake Superior. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources approved an extension of the 1854 Treaty of La Pointe tribal fishing rights for the Grand Portage Band over a portion of the state's Lake Superior claims.

1844 Isle Royale AgreementEdit

Map showing the 1844 Webster-Ashburton Treaty area of what now is Minnesota, the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe area, and their overlap over Isle Royale, which precipitated the need for the Isle Royale Agreement

The Isle Royale Agreement is an adhesion to the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe, conducted at La Pointe, Wisconsin Territory on August 20, 1844. Commissioner Robert Stuart again represented the United States. The Grand Portage Band was using the resources on Isle Royale and believed it and they were in British territory. After boundary clarification was settled via the Webster Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the Grand Portage Band signed the Isle Royale Agreement with the United States as a treaty adhesion. The 1842 treaty signatories re-affirmed their treaty.

# Recorded name Name (translation/"alias") Location
01 Wab-ish-gag-gang-e[2] Waabishkaagaagi (White Crow) Lac du Flambeau Band
02 She-mang-un-ish Zhimaaganish (Lance) Lac du Flambeau Band
03 Knisteno Ginishtinoo (Cree) Lac du Flambeau Band
04 Ude-kum-ag Adikameg (Whitefish) Lac du Flambeau Band
05 Now-uj-e-wun Naawajiwan (Middle of the Current) Lac du Flambeau Band
06 Medge-wok-gok-wud Bimijiwaagaakwad (Oblique-edged Ax) Lac du Flambeau Band
07 Ah-mon-se Aamoons (Wasp) Lac du Flambeau Band
08 San-gan-e-may Lac du Flambeau Band
09 Ke-che-wais-keenh Gichi-weshkiinh (Great-renewer/"le Bœuf") La Pointe Band
10 Tug-wug-aun-e Dagwagaane (Two Lodges Meet) La Pointe Band
11 Mis-ia[3] Mizay (Eel) La Pointe Band
12 Muk-ud-a-be-nase Makade-bines (Black Bird) La Pointe Band
13 Ke-che-waub-e-sash-e Gichi-waabizheshi (Big Marten) Pelican Lake
14 Nig-gig Nigig (Otter) Pelican Lake
15 Osh-kau-bay-wis Oshkaabewis (Waiter) Wisconsin River
16 Kay-she-aush Gezhiiyaashi (Sails Fast) Lac Vieux Desert Band
17 Rim-idj-wang-auk-wad[4] Bimijiwaagaakwad (Oblique-edged Ax) Lac Vieux Desert Band
18 Bin-ash-een Bineshiinh (Bird) L'Anse
19 Ke-nen-ance L'Anse
20 Bug-um-aug-un Bagamaagan (War-club) L'Anse
21 Shin-goop Zhingob (Spruce) Fond du Lac Band
22 Nug-un-ub Naagaanab (Foremost Sitter) Fond du Lac Band
23 Mon-go-sit Maangozid (Loon's Foot) Fond du Lac Band
24 Kah-rum-dum-ah-winso[5] Gaa-nandawaawinzo (He that Gathers Berries/"le Brocheux") Sandy Lake Band
25 Win-je-ke-shik-uk Wenji-giizhigak (Whence from the Sky) Sandy Lake Band
26 Bug-on-a-ke-shing Bagonegiizhig (Hole in the Day) Crow Wing
27 Song-uk-um-ig Zoongakamig (Firm Ground) Crow Wing
28 I-ansh-ow-eke-shik[6] Aayaazhawi-giizhig (Crossing Sky) Red Cedar Lake
29 Otto-wance Odaawaans (Little Ottawa) Red Cedar Lake
30 Waub-o-geeg Waabojiig (White Fisher) Gull Lake
31 Na-quon-abe Negwanebi (["Tallest" Quill]feather) Mille Lacs Band
32 Be-dud Pítad (Muskrat's Liver) Mille Lacs Band
33 No-din Noodin (Wind) Mille Lacs Band
34 Shin-e-yah Zhooniyaa (Silver) Pokegama
35 Boin-ance Bwaanens (Little Sioux) Pokegama
36 Kow-e-tas-sy St. Croix Band
37 Ah-cab-ay[7] Ayaabe[ns] ([Little] Buck) St. Croix Band
38 Ke-che-no-din Gichi-noodin (Big Wing) St. Croix Band
39 Gah-be-mah-be Gaa-biimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet Mouth") St. Croix Band
40 Waub-e-sash-e Waabizheshi (Marten) Chippewa River
41 Que-we-san-sish Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy) Chippewa River
42 Mah-een-gun Ma'iingan (Wolf) Chippewa River
43 Ke-wan-se Akiwenzii (Old Man) Lac Courte Oreilles Band
44 Ke-che-be-nas-sy Gichi-binesi (Big Bird) Lac Courte Oreilles Band
45 Omad-ag-um-e Omadaagamii (Choppy Waters) Lake Chetac
46 Nay-nuk-aung-abe Nenaa'angebi (Beautifying Bird) Lake Chetac
47 Ka-kake Gegek (Hawk) Lake Chetac
48 Ky-aush-ke-bar[8] Gayaashkobaa (Gull-narrows) Lake Chetac
49 Shag-un-aush-eens Zhaaganaashiins (Little Englishman) Grand Portage Band
50 Ad-dik-ons Adikoons (Little Reindeer) Grand Portage Band

Name given in Dakota

  • Wm. McDonald
  • Jno. Hulbert
  • Clement H Beaulieu
  • Chas. H. Oakes
  • J Russell
  • Jas. P. Hays, United States Indian Sub-Agent
  • Wm. W. Warren, Interpreter

1854 Treaty of La PointeEdit

Land ceded in 1854 in the Treaty of La Pointe, designated 332 (pink) on the map

The second treaty of La Pointe was signed by Henry C. Gilbert and David B. Herriman for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe of Lake Superior and the Mississippi on September 30, 1854, proclaimed on January 29, 1855, and codified as 10 Stat. 1109. The treaty ceded all of the Lake Superior Ojibwe lands to the United States in the Arrowhead Region of Northeastern Minnesota, in exchange for reservations for the Lake Superior Ojibwe in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. The signatory tribes retain hunting, fishing and gathering right within this region. The portions left unceded were given claims to the Mississippi Ojibwe. The Indian reservations established under this treaty are:

along with general land grants to the Metis.

Mole Lake and St. Croix Bands lost their federal recognition due to not being included in this treaty. Mole Lake Band and St. Croix Band's eastern half in Wisconsin re-gained their federal recognition under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, but the St. Croix Band's western half in Minnesota are not independently recognized and are considered part of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe.


The Ojibwe treaty signatories were:

# Location Recorded name Name (translation/"alias") Title
1 La Pointe Band Ke-che-waish-ke Gichi-weshkiinh (Great-renewer/"Buffalo") 1st chief
2 La Pointe Band Chay-che-que-oh Jechiikwii'o (Snipe) 2d chief
3 La Pointe Band A-daw-we-ge-zhick Edawi-giizhig (Each Side of the sky) 2d chief
4 La Pointe Band O-ske-naw-way Oshkinawe (Youth) 2d chief
5 La Pointe Band Maw-caw-day-pe-nay-se Makade-binesi (Black Bird) 2d chief
6 La Pointe Band Naw-waw-naw-quot Naawaanakwad (Middle of the Cloud) headman
7 La Pointe Band Ke-wain-zeence Akiwenziins (Old Man) headman
8 La Pointe Band Waw-baw-ne-me-ke Waabanimikii (White Thunderer) 2d chief
9 La Pointe Band Pay-baw-me-say Bebaamise (Soarer) 2d chief
10 La Pointe Band Naw-waw-ge-waw-nose Naawajiwanose (Walks through the Middle of the Current) 2d chief
11 La Pointe Band Maw-caw-day-waw-quot Makade-anaakwad (Black Cloud) 2d chief
12 La Pointe Band Me-she-naw-way Mizhinawe (Disciple) 2d chief
13 La Pointe Band Key-me-waw-naw-um Gimiwana'am (Canoes in the Rain) headman
14 La Pointe Band She-gog Zhigaag (Skunk) headman
15 Ontonagon Band O-cun-de-cun Okandikan (Buoy) 1st chief
16 Ontonagon Band Waw-say-ge-zhick Waase-giizhig (Clear Sky) 2d chief
17 Ontonagon Band Keesh-ke-taw-wug Giishkitawag (Cut Ear) headman
18 L'Anse Band David King 1st chief
19 L'Anse Band John Southwind headman
20 L'Anse Band Peter Marksman headman
21 L'Anse Band Naw-taw-me-ge-zhick Netamigiizhig (First Sky) 2d chief
22 L'Anse Band Aw-se-neece Asiniins (Little Rock) headman
23 Lac Vieux Desert Band May-dway-aw-she Medweyaashi (Sound by the Wind) 1st chief
24 Lac Vieux Desert Band Posh-quay-gin Bashkwegin (Leather) 2d chief
25 Grand Portage Band Shaw-gaw-naw-sheence Zhaaganaashiins (Little Englishman) 1st chief
26 Grand Portage Band May-mosh-caw-wosh Memashkawaash (Strong Wind) headman
27 Grand Portage Band Aw-de-konse Adikoons (Little Reindeer) 2d chief
28 Grand Portage Band Way-we-ge-wam headman
29 Fond du Lac Band Shing-goope Zhingob (Balsam) 1st chief
30 Fond du Lac Band Mawn-go-sit Maangozid (Loon's Foot) 2d chief
31 Fond du Lac Band May-quaw-me-we-ge-zhick Mekwamiiwi-giizhig (Icy Day) headman
32 Fond du Lac Band Keesh-kawk headman
33 Fond du Lac Band Caw-taw-waw-be-day Gaa-dawaabide (Cracked Tooth/"Broken Tooth") headman
34 Fond du Lac Band O-saw-gee Ozaagii (Sauk) headman
35 Fond du Lac Band Ke-che-aw-ke-wain-ze Gichi-akiwenzii (Big Old Man) headman
36 Fond du Lac Band Naw-gaw-nub Naagaanab (Foremost Sitter) 2d chief
37 Fond du Lac Band Ain-ne-maw-sung Enimaasing (Sails Away) 2d chief
38 Fond du Lac Band Naw-aw-bun-way headman
39 Fond du Lac Band Wain-ge-maw-tub Wenji-maadab (Where He Moves From Sitting) headman
40 Fond du Lac Band Aw-ke-wain-zeence Akiwenziins (Little Old Man) headman
41 Fond du Lac Band Shay-way-be-nay-se Azhewe-binesi (Ingressive Bird) headman
42 Fond du Lac Band Paw-pe-oh Baabii'o (Awaits) headman
43 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Aw-ke-wain-ze Akiwenzii (Old Man) 1st chief
44 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Key-no-zhance Ginoozhens (Little Jack Fish) 1st chief
45 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Key-che-pe-nay-se Gichi-binesi (Big Bird) 2d chief
46 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Ke-che-waw-be-shay-she Gichi-waabizheshi (Big Marten) 2d chief
47 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Waw-be-shay-sheence Waabizheshiins (Little Marten) headman
48 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Quay-quay-cub Gwekwekab (Turns Around Sitting) headman
49 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Shaw-waw-no-me-tay Zhaawano-mide (Southern Medicine) headman
50 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Nay-naw-ong-gay-be Nenaa'angebi (Dressing Bird) 1st chief
51 Lac Courte Oreilles Band O-zhaw-waw-sco-ge-zhick Ozhaawashko-giizhig (Blue Sky) 2d chief
52 Lac Courte Oreilles Band I-yaw-banse Ayaabens (Little Buck) 2d chief
53 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Ke-che-e-nin-ne Gichi-inini (Big Man) headman
54 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Haw-daw-gaw-me Naadagaame (Paddle to Shore) headman
55 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Way-me-te-go-she Wemitigoozhi (Frenchman) headman
56 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Pay-me-ge-wung Bemijiwang (Swift Current) headman
57 Lac du Flambeau Band Aw-mo-se Aamoons (Wasp) 1st chief
58 Lac du Flambeau Band Ke-nish-te-no Ginishtinoo (Cree) 2d chief
59 Lac du Flambeau Band Me-gee-see Migizi (Eagle) 2d chief
60 Lac du Flambeau Band Kay-kay-co-gwaw-nay-aw-she Gekekogwaneyaashi (Blown Hawk-feather) headman
61 Lac du Flambeau Band O-che-chog Ojichaag (Soul) headman
62 Lac du Flambeau Band Nay-she-kay-gwaw-nay-be Nezhikegwanebi (Lone Wing-feather) headman
63 Lac du Flambeau Band O-scaw-bay-wis Oshkaabewis (Waiter) 1st chief
64 Lac du Flambeau Band Que-we-zance Gwiiwizens (White Fish) 2d chief
65 Lac du Flambeau Band Ne-gig Nigig (Otter) 2d chief
66 Lac du Flambeau Band Nay-waw-che-ge-ghick-may-be headman
67 Lac du Flambeau Band Quay-quay-ke-cah Gwekwekikaa (Keeps Turning) headman
68 Bois Forte Band Kay-baish-caw-daw-way (Clear Round the Prairie) 1st chief
69 Bois Forte Band Way-zaw-we-ge-zhick-way-sking Wezaawi-giizhigweshking (Sky-Yellower) headman
70 Bois Forte Band O-saw-we-pe-nay-she Ozaawi-bineshiinh (Yellow Bird) headman
71 Mississippi Bands Que-we-san-se Gwiiwizensi (Boy/"Hole in the Day") head chief
72 Mississippi Bands Caw-nawn-daw-waw-win-zo Gaa-nandawaawinzo (Ripe-Berry Hunter) 1st chief
73 Mississippi Bands Waw-bow-jieg Waabojiig (White Fisher) 2d chief
74 Mississippi Bands Ot-taw-waw Odaawaa (Ottawa) 2d chief
75 Mississippi Bands Que-we-zhan-cis Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy) 2d chief
76 Mississippi Bands Bye-a-jick Bayezhig (Lone Man) 2d chief
77 Mississippi Bands I-yaw-shaw-way-ge-zhick Aayaazhawi-giizhig (Crossing Sky) 2d chief
78 Mississippi Bands Maw-caw-day Makode' (Bear's Heart) 2d chief
79 Mississippi Bands Ke-way-de-no-go-nay-be Giiwedinogwanebi (Northern Feather) 2d chief
80 Mississippi Bands Me-squaw-dace Miskwaadesi (Painted Turtle) headman
81 Mississippi Bands Naw-gaw-ne-gaw-bo Naagaanigaabaw (Standing Ahead) headman
82 Mississippi Bands Wawm-be-de-yea headman
83 Mississippi Bands Waish-key Weshki (New One) headman
84 Mississippi Bands Caw-way-caw-me-ge-skung Gaawekamigishkaang (Return Through the Ground) headman
85 Mississippi Bands My-yaw-ge-way-we-dun Mayaajiiwewidang (One who carries the Voice) 2d chief


  1. ^ "Medge waw gwaw wot" should be "Be medge waw gauc wot"
  2. ^ "Wab-ish-gag-gang-e" should be "Wab-ish-gag-gaug-e"
  3. ^ "Mis-ia" should be "Mis-ai"
  4. ^ "Rim-idj-wang-auk-wad" should be "Bim-idj-waug-auk-wad"
  5. ^ "Kah-rum-dum-ah-winso" should be "Kah-nun-du-wah-winso"
  6. ^ "I-ansh-ow-eke-shik" should be "I-aush-ow-eke-shik"
  7. ^ "Ah-cab-ay" should be "Ah-eab-ay"
  8. ^ "Ky-aush-ke-bar" should be "Ky-aush-ko-bar"

External linksEdit