Trap is a style of hip hop music that originated in the Southern United States during the late 1990s. Early producers creating trap music included Lil Jon from Atlanta, Georgia, where the term originated as a reference to buildings where drugs are sold illegally, who along with Mannie Fresh from New Orleans and DJ Paul from Memphis, Tennessee worked with local acts in Atlanta including Dungeon Family, Outkast, Goodie Mob, and Ghetto Mafia. The genre is typified by sub-divided hi-hats, heavy, sub-bass layered kick drums in the style of the Roland TR-808 drum machine, typically in half time syncopated rhythms, layered with abstract or orchestral synthesizers and an overall melancholy to dark ambience and lyrical content.
|Cultural origins||Late 1990s – early 2000s, Atlanta, Georgia, United States|
Typical lyrical themes include general life and culture in the "trap" or in the actual southern "trap house" where narcotics are being sold. The term "trap" referred to places where drug deals take place. Other topics also include street life, club life, the Atlanta strip club scene, violence, classic American vehicles, and life experiences that artists have faced in their southern American surroundings.
Trap music employs multilayered thin- or thick-textured monophonic drones with sometimes a melodic accompaniment expressed with synthesizers; crisp, grimy, and rhythmic snares, deep 808 kick drums, double-time, triple-time, and similarly divided hi-hats, and a cinematic and symphonic use of string, brass, woodwind, and keyboard instruments to create an energetic, hard-hitting, deep, and variant atmosphere. These primary characteristics, the signature sound of trap music, originated from producer Shawty Redd. Trap may use a range of tempos, from 50 BPM (programmed at 100 BPM to achieve finer hi-hat subdivision) to 88 (176) BPM, but the tempo of a typical trap beat is around 70 (140) BPM.
Early producers creating trap music included Lil Jon from Atlanta, Georgia, where the term originated as a reference to places where drug deals are made, who along with Mannie Fresh from New Orleans and DJ Paul from Memphis, Tennessee worked with local acts in Atlanta including Dungeon Family, Outkast, Goodie Mob, and Ghetto Mafia. In 1992, one of the earliest records to release was UGK's "Cocaine In The Back of the Ride" from their debut EP, "The Southern Way". Later in 1992, they released the popular "Pocket Full of Stones" from their major-label debut album Too Hard to Swallow. It was also featured in the 1993 film Menace II Society. In 1996, Master P released his single "Mr. Ice Cream Man" from his fifth studio album Ice Cream Man. Fans and critics started to refer to rappers whose primary lyrical topic was drug dealing as "trap rappers". David Drake of Complex wrote that "the trap in the early 2000's wasn't a genre, it was a real place", and the term was later adopted to describe the "music made about that place."
During the early- to mid-2000s, trap music began to emerge as a recognized genre after the mainstream success of a number of albums and singles with lyrics that covered life in "the trap", drug dealing and the struggle for success. Several Southern rappers with drug dealer personas such as T.I., Young Jeezy, Gucci Mane, Yo Gotti, and Rick Ross produced crossover hits and helped expand the popularity of the genre, with trap records beginning to appear more heavily on mixtapes and radio stations outside of the South. Though trap artists were somewhat diverse in their production styles, the signature and quintessential trap sound (typically based around synth, orchestra, and string swells with tight, bass-heavy 808 kick drums) that would come to be associated with the genre developed in Atlanta during trap's mid-2000s breakthrough. Some of the notable trap producers during the mid to late 2000s include DJ Toomp, Fatboi, Drumma Boy, Shawty Redd, D. Rich, and Zaytoven. The first wave of the trap sound was influenced by earlier Southern producers such as Lil Jon, Mannie Fresh, and DJ Paul.
With the exception of Outkast, let me think, Goodie Mob... with the exception of that, before I came in the game, it was Lil Jon, Outkast, Goodie Mob, okay so you had crunk music and you had Organized Noize. There was no such thing as trap music, I created that, I created that. I coined the term, it was my second album, Trap Muzik it dropped in 2003. After that, there was an entire new genre of music created. An open lane for each of you to do what you do, and live your lives, on T.V., and be accepted by the masses. The masses have accepted you 'cause I opened the door and you walked through it. Don't forget who opened that door, cuz.
By the end of the decade, a second wave of trap artists gained momentum and frequently topped the Billboard hip hop charts. Trap producer Lex Luger gained huge popularity, and produced more than 200 songs in 2010 and 2011, including a number of singles for mainstream rap artists such as Rick Ross' "B.M.F. (Blowin' Money Fast)", Since Luger's rise, his signature trap sound has been the heavy use of 808s, crisp snares, fast hihats, synth keys, and orchestration of brass, strings, woodwind, and keyboards. Many of his sounds have been adopted by other hip hop producers, trying to replicate his success, as Luger is often credited with popularizing the modern trap sound. Since the 2010s, an array of modern trap producers have gained industry popularity, most notably 808 Mafia's Southside and TM88, Sonny Digital, Young Chop, DJ Spinz, Tay Keith and Metro Boomin. Some producers expanded their range to other genres, such as contemporary R&B (Mike WiLL Made It) and electronic music (AraabMuzik).
Throughout 2011 and 2012, trap music maintained a strong presence on the mainstream Billboard music charts with a number of records released by rappers such as Young Jeezy, Chief Keef and Future. Jeezy's single "Ballin" reached number 57 on the Billboard charts and was considered one of Jeezy's best tracks in some time. Future's single, "Turn On the Lights", was certified gold and entered at number 50 on the Billboard Hot 100 and Keef's "I Don't Like" and "Love Sosa" generated over 30 million views on YouTube, spawning a new subgenre within trap called drill. Music critics called drill production style the "sonic cousin to skittish footwork, southern-fried hip-hop and the 808 trigger-finger of trap." Young Chop is frequently identified by critics as the genre's most characteristic producer. The sound of trap producer Lex Luger's music is a major influence on drill, and Young Chop identified Shawty Redd, Drumma Boy and Zaytoven as important precursors to the drill movement. "I Don't Like" inspired fellow Chicago native, notable hip hop producer and rapper Kanye West to create a remix of the song, which was included on his label GOOD Music's compilation album Cruel Summer. Stelios Phili of GQ called trap music "the sound of hip hop in 2012."
In May 2015, trap music once again surfaced the top of mainstream music charts as New Jersey rapper Fetty Wap's hit single "Trap Queen" peaked at number two on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. Fetty Wap's subsequent singles, "My Way" and "679", also reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Brooklyn-based rapper Desiigner gained major recognition in 2016 upon the release of "Panda" as his debut mixtape single which topped the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. The commercial success of trap songs also began to be assisted by Internet memes, as was the case with Rae Sremmurd and Gucci Mane's "Black Beatles" which reached number-one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart after exposure through the 'Mannequin Challenge' internet phenomenon. Similarly, in 2017 the collaboration between Migos and Lil Uzi Vert "Bad and Boujee", with the now popularly spread lyrics "Raindrop (Drip), Drop top (Drop Top)" reached number-one after internet meme exposure. Rapper Cardi B became extremely popular with her song "Bodak Yellow", which went to number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in 2017.
In 2018, in promotion for his album Dime Trap, T.I. opened a pop-up TrapMusic Museum in Atlanta: "We curated it from conception. The purpose of it was to acknowledge the most significant contributors to the culture. Secondly, inform those who may be least knowledgeable about the genre. And inspire those who are in the environment that inspires the genre." The museum also includes an escape room entitled 'Escape the Trap'.
Influence and cross-pollinationEdit
Since maintaining a strong presence on the mainstream music charts, trap music has been influential to non-hip hop artists. R&B singer Beyoncé's songs "Drunk in Love", "Flawless" and "7/11", all from her 2013 album Beyoncé, also contained trap influences. American dance-pop singer Lady Gaga recorded a trap-inspired song titled "Jewels 'n Drugs" for her 2013 album Artpop, featuring rappers T.I., Too Short and Twista. The combination of pop and trap music was met with mixed responses from critics. In September 2013, American pop singer Katy Perry released a song titled "Dark Horse" featuring rapper Juicy J, from her 2013 album Prism, that incorporated trap elements. The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 by the end of January 2014. In more recent history, pop singer Ariana Grande's 2019 album Thank U, Next heavily experiments with trap music on multiple of its songs, such as "7 Rings," "Break Up with Your Girlfriend, I'm Bored," and "In My Head."
In 2015, a new movement of trap music referred to as "Latin trap" began to emerge. Also known as Spanish-language trap, Latin trap similar to mainstream trap which details "'la calle,' or the streets—hustling, sex, and drugs". Prominent artists of Latin trap include Fuego, Anuel AA, La Zowi, and Bad Bunny. In July 2017, The Fader wrote "Rappers and reggaetoneros from Puerto Rico to Colombia have taken elements of trap—the lurching bass lines, jittering 808s and the eyes-half-closed vibe—and infused them into banger after banger." In an August 2017 article for Billboard's series, "A Brief History Of," they enlisted some of the key artists of Latin trap—including Ozuna, De La Ghetto, Bad Bunny, Farruko and Messiah—to narrate a brief history on the genre. Elias Leight of Rolling Stone noted "[Jorge] Fonseca featured Puerto Rican artists like Anuel AA, Bryant Myers and Noriel on the compilation Trap Capos: Season 1, which became the first "Latin trap" LP to reach number one on Billboard's Latin Rhythm Albums chart." A remixed version of Cardi B's single "Bodak Yellow" (which had previously reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart), dubbed the "Latin Trap Remix", was officially released on August 18, 2017 and features Cardi B rapping in Spanish with Dominican hip hop recording artist Messiah contributing a guest verse. In November 2017, Rolling Stone wrote that "a surging Latin trap sound is responding to more recent developments in American rap, embracing the slow-rolling rhythms and gooey vocal delivery popularized by Southern hip-hop."
On 5 May 2018, rapper and musician Childish Gambino released "This Is America," which is "built on the sharp contrast between jolly, syncretic melodies and menacing trap cadences". It debuted at number 1 on the Billboard Charts and was streamed over 65 million times in the first week of its release.
In 2019, Lil Nas X's "Old Town Road" crossed trap with Western and country music. The song debuted at number 19 on the Hot Country Songs before being kicked out of the chart a week later. A remix with Billy Ray Cyrus released on April 5, 2019 and later became the longest running number one hip-hop single of all time and the overall longest number one single of all time on the Billboard Hot 100, at 19 weeks, surpassing the record set by Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men's One Sweet Day & Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee's Despacito featuring Justin Bieber.
- Goldsmith, Melissa Ursula Dawn (2019). Hip Hop around the World: An Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 701. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
- Phili, Stelios. "Fighting Weight: From the Trap to the Treadmill". GQ. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "The trap phenomenon explained". DJ Mag. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "Quit Screwing with Trap Music: An Interview with Houston-Born Producer Lōtic". Vice. June 11, 2012. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012.
- Raymer, Miles. "Who owns trap?". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Joseph Patterson (January 19, 2013). "Trap Music: The Definitive Guide". Topman. Sabotage Times. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- It's a Trap! An 11-Part History of Trap Music, From DJ Screw to Gucci Mane to Flosstradamus Archived 2014-04-28 at Wikiwix Miami New Times
- Alex Pappademas (November 4, 2011). "Lex Luger Can Write a Hit Rap Song in the Time It Takes to Read This". NY Times. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "DJ Johnny Terror Spins BASE @ Space". Theylife. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Drake, David. "The Commodification of Southern Rap's Drug-Fueled Subgenre". Complex. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Rose Lilah (18 December 2012). "T.I. Speaks on Trap Music Genre, Says He Created It". HotNewHipHop. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- Johnson, James (22 March 2016). "Lex Luger 'Lex Luger Experience: The Tour Vol. 1'". Mass Appeal. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- Matthew Schnipper (Aug 26, 2011). "Beat Construction: Lil Lody". Fader. Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Hip-Hop in 2013... for Dummies (Part 2: The Producers)". Fact. April 19, 2013. Archived from the original on July 26, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Battan, Carrie (December 28, 2012). "One Nation Under Drill". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Cho, Jaeki (February 7, 2013). "Young Chop Talks Lex Luger, Chief Keef, and Studio Habits". XXL. Archived from the original on May 19, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Delerme, Felipe (August 21, 2012). "Chief Keef: Lost Boys". The Fader. Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Phili, Stelios. "Fighting Weight: From the Trap to the Treadmill". GQ. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "The Break Presents: Fetty Wap", XXL, November 18, 2014, archived from the original on February 22, 2015, retrieved February 25, 2015
- "Cheerleader" spends third week at No. 1 on Hot 100". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on 2016-06-13.
- "Desiigner's 'Panda' Claws to No. 1 on Hot 100, Bringing Americans Back to the Top". Billboard. Archived from the original on 2017-01-19. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- "Rae Sremmurd's 'Black Beatles' Blasts to No. 1 on Hot 100". Billboard. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Migos (Ft. Lil Uzi Vert) – Bad and Boujee, archived from the original on 2017-03-10, retrieved 2017-03-08
- "Migos' 'Bad and Boujee,' Featuring Lil Uzi Vert, Tops Hot 100". Billboard. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- McIntyre, Hugh. "Migos' 'Bad And Boujee' Jumps To No. 1 on the Hot 100". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
- Trust, Gary (September 25, 2017). "Cardi B 'Moves' to No. 1 on Billboard Hot 100 With 'Bodak Yellow,' Post Malone Debuts at No. 2 With 'Rockstar'". Billboard. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
- Trust, Gary. "J Balvin, Willy William & Beyoncé Blast to No. 3 on Billboard Hot 100 With 'Mi Gente', Cardi B No. 1 for Third Week". Billboard. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "T.I. Shines Spotlight on Trap with Pop-Up 'Escape The Trap' Museum Experience & 'Dime Trap' Album". Billboard.com. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- "T.I. On Making Grown Up Trap Music, Bar Hopping with Dave Chappelle & Recording With Outkast". Billboard.com. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- "How T.I.'s Trap Music Museum turns pain into art". rollingout.com. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- Branigin, Anne. "T.I. Will Curate New Atlanta Pop-Up Museum Dedicated to Trap Music". Thegrapevine.theroot.com. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- Lee, Christina (June 16, 2017). "2 Chainz Explains Why 'Pretty Girls Like Trap Music,' Talks His Bucket List and Benihana". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "Lady Gaga Artpop". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- "Lady Gaga 'ARTPOP' review: What's the verdict?". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- Lipshutz, Jason (September 6, 2013). "Katy Perry's 'Prism' Album Preview: 10 Things You Need To Know". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "Listen: Katy Perry goes trap with Juicy J on "Dark Horse"". Consequence of Sound. September 17, 2013. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Trust, Gary. "Katy Perry's 'Dark Horse' Gallops to No. 1 on Hot 100". Billboard. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Ozuna, Bad Bunny, De La Ghetto, Farruko & Messiah Narrate a Brief History of Latin Trap". Archived from the original on 2017-09-21.
- Portilla, Christina (August 23, 2017). "Latin Trap Brings New Music to Miami". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017.
- "Trap's Latin American Takeover". Archived from the original on 2017-09-15.
- "Rappers Discuss Brief History Of Latin Trap". 21 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017.
- "Inside Latin Trap, the Viral Sound Too Hot for American Radio". Archived from the original on 2017-09-17.
- "Bodak Yellow (feat. Messiah) [Latin Trap Remix] – Single by Cardi B on Apple Music". 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017.
- "Cardi B Drops Spanish Remix of 'Bodak Yellow' With Messiah – XXL". XXL Mag. Archived from the original on 2017-09-15.
- "Cardi B Premieres "Bodak Yellow" Spanish Remix With Messiah". 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017.
- "Rico Nasty Celebrates 4/20 With New Song 'Hit That': Premiere". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
- "Happy Birthday, Lil Yachty! – XXL". XXL Mag. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
- ""This Is America" by Childish Gambino Review – Pitchfork". pitchfork.com.
- Trust, Gary (May 14, 2018). "Childish Gambino's 'This Is America' Blasts in at No. 1 on Billboard Hot 100". Billboard.
- Elias Leight (March 26, 2019). "Lil Nas X's 'Old Town Road' Was a Country Hit. Then Country Changed Its Mind". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Adjei-Kontoh, Hubert (2019-04-02). "Lil Nas' song was removed from Billboard for not being 'country' enough. But who gets to decide categories?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
- "Lil Nas X's 'Old Town Road' Leads Billboard Hot 100 for 19th Week, Ariana Grande & Social House's 'Boyfriend' Debuts in Top 10". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-08-13.