A transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine. The reaction also produces a molecule of ammonia. Such an enzyme is classified as EC 220.127.116.11. Bonds formed by transglutaminase exhibit high resistance to proteolytic degradation (proteolysis).
Transglutaminase example: coagulation factor XIII from human blood. PDB code: 1EVU.
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
Eight transglutaminases have been characterised.
|Factor XIII (fibrin-stabilizing factor)||F13A1, F13B||coagulation||6p25-p24||134570|
|TGM Z||TGM7||testis, lung||15q15.2||606776|
Mechanism of actionEdit
Transglutaminases form extensively cross-linked, generally insoluble protein polymers. These biological polymers are indispensable for an organism to create barriers and stable structures. Examples are blood clots (coagulation factor XIII), as well as skin and hair.
The catalytic reaction is generally viewed as being irreversible, and must be closely monitored through extensive control mechanisms.
A collection of the transglutaminase substrate proteins and interaction partners is accessible in the TRANSDAB database.
Role in diseaseEdit
Anti-transglutaminase antibodies are found in celiac disease and may play a role in the small bowel damage in response to dietary gliadin that characterises this condition. In the related condition dermatitis herpetiformis, in which small bowel changes are often found and which responds to dietary exclusion of gliadin-containing wheat products, epidermal transglutaminase is the predominant autoantigen.
Recent research indicates that sufferers from neurological diseases like Huntington's and Parkinson's may have unusually high levels of one type of transglutaminase, tissue transglutaminase. It is hypothesized that tissue transglutaminase may be involved in the formation of the protein aggregates that causes Huntington's disease, although it is most likely not required.
Industrial and culinary applicationsEdit
In commercial food processing, transglutaminase is used to bond proteins together. Examples of foods made using transglutaminase include imitation crabmeat, and fish balls. It is produced by Streptoverticillium mobaraense fermentation in commercial quantities or extracted from animal blood, and is used in a variety of processes, including the production of processed meat and fish products.
So called "Meat glue" was banned throughout the European Union as a food additive in 2010
Transglutaminase is also used in molecular gastronomy to meld new textures with existing tastes. Besides these mainstream uses, transglutaminase has been used to create some unusual foods. British chef Heston Blumenthal is credited with the introduction of transglutaminase into modern cooking.
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- U.S. Patent 5,156,956 – A transglutaminase catalyzing an acyl transfer reaction of a Γ-carboxyamide group of a glutamine residue in a peptide or protein chain in the absence of Cz2+