In mythology, folklore, and speculative fiction, shapeshifting is the ability to physically transform oneself through unnatural means. The idea of shapeshifting is in the oldest forms of totemism and shamanism, as well as the oldest existent literature and epic poems such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Iliad. The concept remains a common literary device in modern fantasy, children's literature, and popular culture. Example can be vampires and werewolves.

Tsarevna Frog (or The Frog Princess), by Viktor Vasnetsov, tells of a frog that metamorphoses into a princess.
Louhi, Mistress of the North, attacking Väinämöinen in the form of a giant eagle with her troops on her back in 2003 when she was trying to steal Sampo; in the Finnish epic poetry Kalevala by Elias Lönnrot. (The Defense of the Sampo, Akseli Gallen-Kallela, 1896)
"The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the duke's daughter into a white hind." by Arthur Rackham
Loge feigns fear as Alberich turns into a giant snake. Wotan stands in the background; illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Das Rheingold

Folklore and mythology

1722 German woodcut of a werewolf transforming

Popular shapeshifting creatures in folklore are werewolves and vampires (mostly of European, Canadian, and Native American/early American origin), ichchadhari naag and ichchadhari naagin (shapeshifting cobras) of India, shapeshifting fox spirits of East Asia such as the huli jing of China, the obake of Japan, the Navajo skin-walkers, and gods, goddesses, and demons and demonesses such as the Norse Loki or the Greek Proteus. Shapeshifting to the form of a wolf is specifically known as lycanthropy, and creatures who undergo such change are called lycanthropes. It was also common for deities to transform mortals into animals and plants.

The prefix "were-" comes from the Old English word for "man".

While the popular idea of a shapeshifter is of a human being who turns into something else, there are numerous stories about animals that can transform themselves as well.[1]


Vertumnus, in the form of an old woman, wooing Pomona, by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout.

Examples of shapeshifting in classical literature include many examples in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Circe's transforming of Odysseus' men to pigs in Homer's The Odyssey, and Apuleius's Lucius becoming a donkey in The Golden Ass. Proteus was noted among the gods for his shapeshifting; both Menelaus and Aristaeus seized him to win information from him, and succeeded only because they held on during his various changes. Nereus told Heracles where to find the Apples of the Hesperides for the same reason.

The Oceanid Metis, the first wife of Zeus and the mother of the goddess Athena was believed to be able to change her appearance into anything she wanted. In one story, she was so proud, that her husband, Zeus, tricked her into changing into a fly. He then swallowed her because he feared that he and Metis would have a son who would be more powerful than Zeus himself. Metis, however, was already pregnant. She stayed alive inside his head and built armor for her daughter. The banging of her metalworking made Zeus have a headache, so Hephaestus clove his head with an axe. Athena sprang from her father's head, fully grown, and in battle armor.

The Children of Lir, transformed into swans in Irish tales

In Greek mythology, the transformation is often a punishment from the gods to humans who crossed them.

  • Zeus transformed King Lycaon and his children into wolves (hence lycanthropy) as a punishment for either killing Zeus' children or serving him the flesh of Lycaon's own murdered son Nyctimus, depending on the exact version of the myth.
  • Ares assigned Alectryon to keep watch for Helios the sun god during his affair with Aphrodite, but Alectryon fell asleep, leading to their discovery and humiliation that morning. Ares turned Alectryon into a rooster, which always crows to signal the morning and the arrival of the sun.
  • Demeter transformed Ascalabus into a lizard for mocking her sorrow and thirst during her search for her daughter Persephone. She also turned King Lyncus into a lynx for trying to murder her prophet Triptolemus.
  • Athena transformed Arachne into a spider for challenging her as a weaver and/or weaving a tapestry that insulted the gods. She also turned Nyctimene into an owl, though in this case it was an act of mercy, as the girl wished to hide from the daylight out of shame of being raped by her father.
  • Artemis transformed Actaeon into a stag for spying on her bathing, and he was later devoured by his hunting dogs.
  • Galanthis was transformed into a weasel or cat after interfering in Hera's plans to hinder the birth of Heracles.
  • Atalanta and Hippomenes were turned into lions after making love in a temple dedicated to Zeus or Cybele.
  • Io was a priestess of Hera in Argos, a nymph who was raped by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection.
  • Hera punished young Tiresias by transforming him into a woman and, seven years later, back into a man.
  • King Tereus, his wife Procne, and her sister Philomela were all turned into birds (a hoopoe, a swallow and a nightingale respectively), after Tereus raped Philomela and cut out her tongue, and in revenge she and Procne served him the flesh of his murdered son Itys (who in some variants is resurrected as a goldfinch).
  • Callisto was turned into a bear by either Artemis or Hera for being impregnated by Zeus.
  • Selene transformed Myia into a fly when she became a rival for the love of Endymion.

While the Greek gods could use transformation punitively – such as Medusa, who turned to a monster for having sexual intercourse (raped in Ovid's version) with Poseidon in Athena's temple – even more frequently, the tales using it are of amorous adventure. Zeus repeatedly transformed himself to approach mortals as a means of gaining access:[2]

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Apollo pursuing an unwilling Daphne who transforms into a laurel tree

Vertumnus transformed himself into an old woman to gain entry to Pomona's orchard; there, he persuaded her to marry him.

In other tales, the woman appealed to other gods to protect her from rape, and was transformed (Daphne into laurel, Corone into a crow). Unlike Zeus and other gods' shapeshifting, these women were permanently metamorphosed.

In one tale, Demeter transformed herself into a mare to escape Poseidon, but Poseidon counter-transformed himself into a stallion to pursue her, and succeeded in the rape. Caenis, having been raped by Poseidon, demanded of him that she be changed to a man. He agreed, and she became Caeneus, a form he never lost, except, in some versions, upon death.

Clytie was a nymph who loved Helios, but he did not love her back. Desperate, she sat on a rock with no food or water for nine days looking at him as he crossed the skies, until she was transformed into a purple, sun-gazing flower, the heliotropium.

As a final reward from the gods for their hospitality, Baucis and Philemon were transformed, at their deaths, into a pair of trees.

Eos, the goddess of the dawn, secured immortality for her lover the Trojan prince Tithonus, but not eternal youth, so he aged without dying as he shriveled and grew more and more helpless. In the end, Eos transformed him into a cicada.

In some variants of the tale of Narcissus, he is turned into a narcissus flower.

"Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's Teeth" by Maxfield Parrish

Sometimes metamorphoses transform objects into humans. In the myths of both Jason and Cadmus, one task set to the hero was to sow dragon's teeth; on being sown, they would metamorphose into belligerent warriors, and both heroes had to throw a rock to trick them into fighting each other to survive. Deucalion and Pyrrha repopulated the world after a flood by throwing stones behind them; they were transformed into people. Cadmus is also often known to have transformed into a dragon or serpent towards the end of his life. Pygmalion fell in love with Galatea, a statue he had made. Aphrodite had pity on him and transformed the stone into a living woman.

British and Irish


Fairies, witches, and wizards were all noted for their shapeshifting ability. Not all fairies could shapeshift, some having only the appearance of shapeshifting, through their power, called "glamour", to create illusions, and some were limited to changing their size, as with the spriggans, and others to a few forms.[3] But others, such as the Hedley Kow, could change to many forms, and both human and supernatural wizards were capable of both such changes, and inflicting them on others.[4]

Witches could turn into hares and in that form steal milk and butter.[5]

Many British fairy tales, such as Jack the Giant Killer and The Black Bull of Norroway, feature shapeshifting.

Celtic mythology


Pwyll was transformed by Arawn into Arawn's shape, and Arawn transformed himself into Pwyll's so that they could trade places for a year and a day.

Llwyd ap Cil Coed transformed his wife and attendants into mice to attack a crop in revenge; when his wife is captured, he turns himself into three clergymen in succession to try to pay a ransom.

Math fab Mathonwy and Gwydion transform flowers into a woman named Blodeuwedd, and when she betrays her husband Lleu Llaw Gyffes, who is transformed into an eagle, they transform her again, into an owl.

Gilfaethwy committed rape on Goewin, Math fab Mathonwy's virgin foothold, with help from his brother Gwydion. Both were transformed into animals, for one year each. Gwydion was transformed into a stag, sow, and wolf, and Gilfaethwy into a hind, boar, and she-wolf. Each year, they had a child. Math turned the three young animals into boys.

Gwion, having accidentally taken some of the wisdom potions that Ceridwen was brewing for her son, fled from her through a succession of changes that she answered with changes of her own, ending with his being eaten, a grain of corn, by her as a hen. She became pregnant, and he was reborn in a new form, as Taliesin.

Tales abound about the selkie, a seal that can remove its skin to make contact with humans for only a short amount of time before it must return to the sea. Clan MacColdrum of Uist's foundation myths include a union between the founder of the clan and a shape-shifting selkie.[6] Another such creature is the Scottish selkie, which needs its sealskin to regain its form. In The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry the (male) selkie seduces a human woman. Such stories surrounding these creatures are usually romantic tragedies.

Kelpie by Herbert James Draper: transformed into a human

Scottish mythology features shapeshifters, which allows the various creatures to trick, deceive, hunt, and kill humans. Water spirits such as the each-uisge, which inhabit lochs and waterways in Scotland, were said to appear as a horse or a young man.[4] Other tales include kelpies who emerge from lochs and rivers in the disguise of a horse or woman to ensnare and kill weary travelers. Tam Lin, a man captured by the Queen of the Fairies is changed into all manner of beasts before being rescued. He finally turned into a burning coal and was thrown into a well, whereupon he reappeared in his human form. The motif of capturing a person by holding him through all forms of transformation is a common thread in folktales.[7]

Perhaps the best-known Irish myth is that of Aoife who turned her stepchildren, the Children of Lir, into swans to be rid of them. Likewise, in the Tochmarc Étaíne, Fuamnach jealously turns Étaín into a butterfly. The most dramatic example of shapeshifting in Irish myth is that of Tuan mac Cairill, the only survivor of Partholón's settlement of Ireland. In his centuries-long life, he became successively a stag, a wild boar, a hawk, and finally a salmon before being eaten and (as in the Wooing of Étaín) reborn as a human.

The Púca is a Celtic faery, and also a deft shapeshifter. He can transform into many different, terrifying forms.

Sadhbh, the wife of the famous hero Fionn mac Cumhaill, was changed into a deer by the druid Fer Doirich when she spurned his amorous interests.



There is a significant amount of literature about shapeshifters that appear in a variety of Norse tales.[8]

In the Lokasenna, Odin and Loki taunt each other with having taken the form of females and nursing offspring to which they had given birth. A 13th-century Edda relates Loki taking the form of a mare to bear Odin's steed Sleipnir which was the fastest horse ever to exist, and also the form of a she-wolf to bear Fenrir.[9]

Svipdagr angered Odin, who turned him into a dragon. Despite his monstrous appearance, his lover, the goddess Freyja, refused to leave his side. When the warrior Hadding found and slew Svipdagr, Freyja cursed him to be tormented by a tempest and shunned like the plague wherever he went.[citation needed] In the Hyndluljóð, Freyja transformed her protégé Óttar into a boar to conceal him. She also possessed a cloak of falcon feathers that allowed her to transform into a falcon, which Loki borrowed on occasion.

The Volsunga saga contains many shapeshifting characters. Siggeir's mother changed into a wolf to help torture his defeated brothers-in-law with slow and ignominious deaths. When one, Sigmund, survived, he and his nephew and son Sinfjötli killed men wearing wolfskins; when they donned the skins themselves, they were cursed to become werewolves.[10]

The dwarf Andvari is described as being able to magically turn into a pike. Alberich, his counterpart in Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, using the Tarnhelm, takes on many forms, including a giant serpent and a toad, in a failed attempt to impress or intimidate Loki and Odin/Wotan.

Fafnir was originally a dwarf, a giant, or even a human, depending on the exact myth, but in all variants, he transformed into a dragon—a symbol of greed—while guarding his ill-gotten hoard. His brother, Ótr, enjoyed spending time as an otter, which led to his accidental slaying by Loki.

In Scandinavia, there existed, for example, the famous race of she-werewolves known by the name of Maras, women who took on the appearance of huge half-human and half-wolf monsters that stalked the night in search of human or animal prey. If a woman gives birth at midnight and stretches the membrane that envelopes the child when it is brought forth, between four sticks and creeps through it, naked, she will bear children without pain; but all the boys will be shamans, and all the girls Maras.[citation needed]

The Nisse is sometimes said to be a shapeshifter. This trait also is attributed to Hulder.

Gunnhild, Mother of Kings (Gunnhild konungamóðir) (c. 910  –  c. 980), a quasi-historical figure who appears in the Icelandic Sagas, according to which she was the wife of Eric Bloodaxe, was credited with magic powers – including the power of shapeshifting and turning at will into a bird. She is the central character of the novel Mother of Kings by Poul Anderson,[11] which considerably elaborates on her shapeshifting abilities.


  • Shapeshifting cobra: A common male cobra will become an ichchadhari naag (male shapeshifting cobra) and a common female cobra will become an ichchadhari naagin (female shapeshifting cobra) after 100 years of tapasya (penance). After being blessed by Lord Shiva, they attain a human form of their own, can shapeshift into any living creature, and can live for more than a hundred years without getting old.
  • Yoginis were associated with the power of shapeshifting into female animals.[12]
  • In the Indian fable The Dog Bride from Folklore of the Santal Parganas by Cecil Henry Bompas, a buffalo herder falls in love with a dog that has the power to turn into a woman when she bathes.
  • In Kerala, there was a legend about the Odiyan clan, who in Kerala folklore are men believed to possess shapeshifting abilities and can assume animal forms. Odiyans are said to have inhabited the Malabar region of Kerala before the widespread use of electricity.



In Armenian mythology, shapeshifters include the Nhang, a serpentine river monster that can transform itself into a woman or seal, and will drown humans and then drink their blood; or the beneficial Shahapet, a guardian spirit that can appear either as a man or a snake.[13]



Philippine mythology includes the Aswang, a vampiric monster capable of transforming into a bat, a large black dog, a black cat, a black boar, or some other form to stalk humans at night. The folklore also mentions other beings such as the Kapre, the Tikbalang, and the Engkanto, which change their appearances to woo beautiful maidens. Also, talismans (called "anting-anting" or "birtud" in the local dialect), can give their owners the ability to shapeshift. In one tale, Chonguita the Monkey Wife,[14] a woman is turned into a monkey, only becoming human again if she can marry a handsome man.



Tatar folklore includes Yuxa, a hundred-year-old snake that can transform itself into a beautiful young woman, and seeks to marry men to have children.

"Madame White Snake" Picture on long veranda in the Summer Palace, Beijing, China



Chinese mythology contains many tales of animal shapeshifters, capable of taking on human form. The most common such shapeshifter is the huli jing, a fox spirit that usually appears as a beautiful young woman; most are dangerous, but some feature as the heroines of love stories. Madame White Snake is one such legend; a snake falls in love with a man, and the story recounts the trials she and her husband faced.


Kuzunoha the fox woman, casting a fox shadow

In Japanese folklore obake are a type of yōkai with the ability to shapeshifting. The fox, or kitsune is among the most commonly known, but other such creatures include the bakeneko, the mujina, and the tanuki.



Korean mythology also contains a fox with the ability to shapeshift. Unlike its Chinese and Japanese counterparts, the kumiho is always malevolent. Usually its form is of a beautiful young woman; one tale recounts a man, a would-be seducer, revealed as a kumiho.[15] The kumiho has nine tails and as she desires to be a full human, she uses her beauty to seduce men and eat their hearts (or in some cases livers where the belief is that 100 livers would turn her into a real human).



In Somali mythology Qori ismaris ("One who rubs himself with a stick") was a man who could transform himself into a "Hyena-man" by rubbing himself with a magic stick at nightfall and by repeating this process could return to his human state before dawn.

Southern Africa


ǀKaggen is a demi-urge and folk hero of the ǀXam people of southern Africa.[16] He is a trickster god who can shape shift, usually taking the form of a praying mantis but also a bull eland, a louse, a snake, and a caterpillar.[17]

South American


Amazon river dolphins are curious and lack of fear of foreign objects,[18] are apex predators,[19] and the male Amazon river dolphins are very physically aggressive during their mating period, particularly around the courtship practice of object carrying.[20][21]

Amazon river dolphins, known by the natives as the boto, encantados or toninhas, are very prevalent in the mythology of the native South Americans. They are frequently characterized in mythology with superior musical ability, seductiveness and love of sex, resulting in illegitimate children, and attraction to parties. Despite the fact that the Encante are said to come from a utopia full of wealth which is also without pain or death, they crave the pleasures and hardships of human societies.[22]

Transformation into human form is said to be rare, and usually occurs at night. The encantado will often be seen running from a festa, despite protests from the others for it to stay, and can be seen by pursuers as it hurries to the river and reverts to dolphin form. When it is under human form, it wears a hat to hide its blowhole, which does not disappear with the shapeshift.[22]

Besides the ability to shapeshift into human form, encantados frequently wield other magical abilities, such as controlling storms, hypnotizing humans into doing their will, transforming humans into encantados, and inflicting illness, insanity, and even death. Shamans often intervene in these situations.[22]

Along with shapeshifting, kidnapping is also a common theme in such folklore. Encantados are said to be fond of abducting humans with whom they fall in love, children born of their illicit love affairs, or just about anyone near the river who can keep them company, and taking them back to the Encante. The fear of this is so great among people who live near the Amazon River that both children and adults are terrified of going near the water between dusk and dawn, or entering water alone. Some who supposedly have encountered encantados while out in their canoes have been said to have gone insane, but the creatures seem to have done little more than follow their boats and nudge them from time to time.[22] The myth is suggested to have arisen in part because dolphin genitalia bear a resemblance to those of humans. Others believe the myth served (and still serves) as a way of hiding the incestuous relations which are quite common in some small, isolated communities along the river.[23] Legend also states that "if a person makes eye contact with an Amazon river dolphin, they will have lifelong nightmares".[24]

Trinidad and Tobago


The Ligahoo or loup-garou is the shapeshifter of Trinidad and Tobago's folklore. This unique ability is believed to be handed down in some old creole families, and is usually associated with witch-doctors and practitioners of African magic.[25] [26]

Mapuche (Argentina and Chile)


The name of the Nahuel Huapi Lake in Argentina derives from the toponym of its major island in Mapudungun (Mapuche language): "Island of the Jaguar (or Puma)", from nahuel, "puma (or jaguar)", and huapí, "island". There is, however, more to the word "Nahuel" – it can also signify "a man who by sorcery has been transformed into a puma" (or jaguar).

Slavic mythology


In Slavic mythology, one of the main gods Veles was a shapeshifting god of animals, magic and the underworld. He was often represented as a bear, wolf, snake or owl.[27] He also became a dragon while fighting Perun, the Slavic storm god.[28]


  • In the Finnish tale The Magic Bird, three young sorceresses attempt to murder a man who keeps reviving. His revenge is to turn them into three black mares and have them harnessed to heavy loads until he is satisfied.
  • In The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh, a Northumbrian legend from about the thirteenth century, Princess Margaret of Bamburgh is transformed into a dragon by her stepmother; her motive sprung, like Snow White's stepmother's, from the comparison of their beauty.[29]
  • In Child ballad 35, "Allison Gross", the title witch turns a man into a wyrm for refusing to be her lover. This is a motif found in many legends and folktales.[30]
  • In the German tale The Frog's Bridegroom, recorded by folklorist and ethnographer Gustav Jungbauer, the third of three sons of a farmer, Hansl, is forced to marry a frog, which eventually turns out to be a beautiful woman transformed by a spell.
  • In some variants of the fairy tales, both The Frog Prince or more commonly The Frog Princess and Beast, of Beauty and the Beast, are transformed as a form of punishment for some transgression. Both are restored to their true forms after earning a human's love despite their appearance.
  • In the most famous Lithuanian folk tale Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Eglė irreversibly transforms her children and herself into trees as a punishment for betrayal while her husband is able to reversibly morph into a serpent at will.
  • In East of the Sun and West of the Moon, the hero is transformed into a bear by his wicked stepmother, who wishes to force him to marry her daughter.[31]
  • In The Marmot Queen by Italo Calvino, a Spanish queen is turned into a rodent by Morgan le Fay.
  • In The Mare of the Necromancer, a Turin Italian tale by Guido Gozzano, the Princess of Corelandia is turned into a horse by the baron necromancer for refusing to marry him. Only the love and intelligence of Candido save the princess from the spell.
  • The White Doe, a French tale written by Madame d'Aulnoy, describes the transformation of Princess Desiree into a doe by a jealous fairy.
  • From a Croatian book of tales, Sixty Folk-Tales from Exclusively Slavonic Sources by A. H. Wratislaw, the fable entitled "The she-wolf" tells of a huge she-wolf with a habit of turning into a woman from time to time by taking off her skin. One day a man witnesses the transformation, steals her pelt and marries her.
  • The Merchant's Sons is a Finnish story of two brothers, one of whom tries to win the hand of the tsar's wicked daughter. The girl does not like her suitor and endeavors to have him killed, but he turns her into a beautiful mare which he and his brother ride. In the end he turns her back into a girl and marries her.
  • In Dapplegrim, if the youth found the transformed princess twice, and hid from her twice, they would marry.
  • In literary fairy tale The Beggar Princess, to save her beloved prince, Princess Yvonne fulfills the tasks of cruel king Ironheart and is changed into an old woman.[32]
  • Journey to the West, one of China's Four Great Classical Novels, greatly features shapeshifting, as many gods, demons, and other mythical beings are capable of the act. The most famous case would be the Monkey King, a mischievous trickster who often utilizes his power of 72 transformations to thwart his foes.



Shapeshifting may be used as a plot device, such as when Puss in Boots in the fairy tales tricks the ogre into becoming a mouse to be eaten. Shapeshifting may also include symbolic significance, like the Beast's transformation in Beauty and the Beast indicates Belle's ability to accept him despite his appearance.[33]

When a form is taken on involuntarily, the thematic effect can be one of confinement and restraint; the person is bound to the new form. In extreme cases, such as petrifaction, the character is entirely disabled. On the other hand, voluntary shapeshifting can be a means of escape and liberation. Even when the form is not undertaken to resemble a literal escape, the abilities specific to the form allow the character to act in a manner that was previously impossible.

Examples of this are in fairy tales. A prince who is forced into a bear's shape (as in East of the Sun and West of the Moon) is a prisoner, but a princess who takes on a bear's shape voluntarily to flee a situation (as in The She-Bear) escapes with her new shape.[34] In the Earthsea books, Ursula K. Le Guin depicts an animal form as slowly transforming the wizard's mind, so that the dolphin, bear or other creature forgets it was human, making it impossible to change back. This makes an example of a voluntary shapeshifting becoming an imprisoning metamorphosis.[35] Beyond this, the uses of shapeshifting, transformation, and metamorphosis in fiction are as protean as the forms the characters take on. Some are rare, such as Italo Calvino's "The Canary Prince" is a Rapunzel variant in which shape-shifting is used to gain access to the tower.

Punitive changes


In many cases, imposed forms are punitive. This may be a just punishment, the nature of the transformation matching the crime for which it occurs; in other cases, the form is unjustly imposed by an angry and powerful person. In fairy tales, such transformations are usually temporary, but they commonly appear as the resolution of myths (as in many of the Metamorphoses) or produce origin myths.

"Svipdag transformed" by John Bauer

Transformation chase


In many fairy tales and ballads, as in Child Ballad #44, The Twa Magicians or Farmer Weathersky, a magical chase occurs where the pursued endlessly takes on forms in an effort to shake off the pursuer, and the pursuer answers with shapeshifting, as, a dove is answered with a hawk and a hare with a greyhound. The pursued may finally succeed in escape or the pursuer in capturing.

The Grimm Brothers' fairy tale Foundling-Bird contains this as the bulk of the plot.[36] In the Italian Campania Fables collection of Pentamerone by Gianbattista Basile, tells of a Neapolitan princess who, to escape from her father who had imprisoned her, becomes a huge she-bear. The magic happens due to a potion given to her by an old witch. The girl, once gone, can regain her human aspect.

In other variants, the pursued may transform various objects into obstacles, as in the fairy tale "The Master Maid", where the Master Maid transforms a wooden comb into a forest, a lump of salt into a mountain, and a flask of water into a sea. In these tales, the pursued normally escapes after overcoming three obstacles.[36] This obstacle chase is literally found worldwide, in many variants in every region.[37]

In fairy tales of the Aarne–Thompson type 313A, The Girl Helps the Hero Flee, such a chase is an integral part of the tale. It can be either a transformation chase (as in The Grateful Prince, King Kojata, Foundling-Bird, Jean, the Soldier, and Eulalie, the Devil's Daughter, or The Two Kings' Children) or an obstacle chase (as in The Battle of the Birds, The White Dove, or The Master Maid).[38]

In a similar effect, a captive may shapeshift to break a hold on him. Proteus and Nereus's shapeshifting was to prevent heroes such as Menelaus and Heracles from forcing information from them.[39] Tam Lin, once seized by Janet, was transformed by the faeries to keep Janet from taking him, but as he had advised her, she did not let go, and so freed him.[40] The motif of capturing a person by holding him through many transformations is found in folktales throughout Europe,[7] and Patricia A. McKillip references it in her Riddle-Master trilogy: a shape-shifting Earthmaster finally wins its freedom by startling the man holding it.



One motif is a shape change in order to obtain abilities in the new form. Berserkers were held to change into wolves and bears to fight more effectively. In many cultures, evil magicians could transform into animal shapes and thus skulk about.

In many fairy tales, the hero's talking animal helper proves to be a shapeshifted human being, able to help him in its animal form. In one variation, featured in The Three Enchanted Princes and The Death of Koschei the Deathless, the hero's three sisters have been married to animals. These prove to be shapeshifted men, who aid their brother-in-law in a variant of tale types.[41]

In an early Mayan text, the Shapeshifter, or Mestaclocan, can change his appearance and manipulate the minds of animals. In one tale, the Mestaclocan finds a dying eagle. Changing into the form of an eagle, he convinces the dying bird that it is, in fact, not dying. As the story goes they both soar into the heavens and live together for eternity.



Beauty and the Beast has been interpreted as a young woman's coming-of-age, in which she changes from being repulsed by sexual activity and regarding a husband therefore bestial, to a mature woman who can marry.[42]

Needed items

Valkyries as swan maidens, having shed their swan skins.

Some shapeshifters can change form only if they have some item, usually an article of clothing. In Bisclavret by Marie de France, a werewolf cannot regain human form without his clothing, but in wolf form does no harm to anyone. However, the most common use of this motif is in tales where a man steals the article and forces the shapeshifter, trapped in human form, to become his bride. This lasts until she discovers where he has hidden the article, and she can flee. Selkies feature in these tales. Others include swan maidens and the Japanese tennin.

Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf, in The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, included a version of the story with the typical elements (fisherman sees mermaids dancing on an island and steals the sealskin of one of them, preventing her from becoming a seal again so that he could marry her) and linked it to the founding of the city of Stockholm.[43]

Inner conflict


The power to externally transform can symbolize an internal savagery; a central theme in many strands of werewolf mythology,[44] and the inversion of the "liberation" theme, as in Dr Jekyll's transformation into Mr. Hyde.


Sister Alenushka Weeping about Brother Ivanushka by Viktor Vasnetsov, Russian variant of Brother and Sister: Alenushka laments her brother's transformation into a goat.

Some transformations are performed to remove the victim from his place so that the transformer can usurp it. Bisclaveret's wife steals his clothing and traps him in wolf form because she has a lover. A witch, in The Wonderful Birch, changed a mother into a sheep to take her place, and had the mother slaughtered; when her stepdaughter married the king, the witch transformed her into a reindeer to put her daughter in the queen's place. In the Korean Transformation of the Kumiho, a kumiho, a fox with magical powers, transforms itself into an image of the bride, only being detected when her clothing is removed. In Brother and Sister, when two children flee from their cruel stepmother, she enchants the streams along the way to transform them. While the brother refrains from the first two, which threaten to turn them into tigers and wolves, he is too thirsty at the third, which turns him into a deer. The Six Swans are transformed into swans by their stepmother,[45] as are the Children of Lir in Irish mythology.

Ill-advised wishes


Many fairy-tale characters have expressed ill-advised wishes to have any child at all, even one that has another form, and had such children born to them.[46] At the end of the fairy tale, normally after marriage, such children metamorphose into human form. Hans My Hedgehog was born when his father wished for a child, even a hedgehog. Even stranger forms are possible: Giambattista Basile included in his Pentamerone the tale of a girl born as a sprig of myrtle, and Italo Calvino, in his Italian Folktales, a girl born as an apple.

Sometimes, the parent who wishes for a child is told how to gain one but does not obey the directions perfectly, resulting in a transformed birth. In Prince Lindworm, the woman eats two onions but does not peel one, resulting in her first child being a lindworm. In Tatterhood, a woman magically produces two flowers, but disobeys the directions to eat only the beautiful one, resulting in her having a beautiful and sweet daughter, but only after a disgusting and hideous one.

Less commonly, ill-advised wishes can transform a person after birth. The Seven Ravens are transformed when their father thinks his sons are playing instead of fetching water to christen their newborn and sickly sister, and curses them.[47] In Puddocky, when three princes start to quarrel over the beautiful heroine, a witch curses her because of the noise.

Monstrous bride/bridegroom


Such wished-for children may become monstrous brides or bridegrooms. These tales have often been interpreted as symbolically representing arranged marriages; the bride's revulsion to marrying a stranger is symbolized by his bestial form.[48]

The heroine must fall in love with the transformed groom. The hero or heroine must marry, as promised, and the monstrous form is removed by the wedding. Sir Gawain thus transformed the Loathly lady; although he was told that this was halfway, she could at his choice be beautiful by day and hideous by night, or vice versa, he told her that he would choose what she preferred, which broke the spell entirely.[49] In Tatterhood, Tatterhood is transformed by her asking her bridegroom why he didn't ask her why she rode a goat, why she carried a spoon, and why she was so ugly, and when he asked her, denying it and therefore transforming her goat into a horse, her spoon into a fan, and herself into a beauty. Puddocky is transformed when her prince, after she had helped him with two other tasks, tells him that his father has sent him for a bride. A similar effect is found in Child ballad 34, Kemp Owyne, where the hero can transform a dragon back into a maiden by kissing her three times.[50]

Sometimes the bridegroom removes his animal skin for the wedding night, whereupon it can be burned. Hans My Hedgehog, The Donkey and The Pig King fall under this grouping. At an extreme, in Prince Lindworm, the bride who avoids being eaten by the lindworm bridegroom arrives at her wedding wearing every gown she owns, and she tells the bridegroom she will remove one of hers if he removes one of his; only when her last gown comes off has he removed his last skin, and become a white shape that she can form into a man.[1]

In some tales, the hero or heroine must obey a prohibition; the bride must spend a period not seeing the transformed groom in human shape (as in East of the Sun and West of the Moon), or the bridegroom must not burn the animals' skins. In The Brown Bear of Norway, The Golden Crab, The Enchanted Snake and some variants of The Frog Princess, burning the skin is a catastrophe, putting the transformed bride or bridegroom in danger. In these tales, the prohibition is broken, invariably, resulting in a separation and a search by one spouse for the other.[1]



Ghosts sometimes appear in animal form. In The Famous Flower of Serving-Men, the heroine's murdered husband appears to the king as a white dove, lamenting her fate over his own grave. In The White and the Black Bride and The Three Little Men in the Wood, the murdered – drowned – true bride reappears as a white duck. In The Rose Tree and The Juniper Tree, the murdered children become birds who avenge their own deaths. There are African folk tales of murder victims avenging themselves in the form of crocodiles that can shapeshift into human form.[51]

In some fairy tales, the character can reveal himself in every new form, and so a usurper repeatedly kills the victim in every new form, as in Beauty and Pock Face, A String of Pearls Twined with Golden Flowers, and The Boys with the Golden Stars. This eventually leads to a form in which the character (or characters) can reveal the truth to someone able to stop the villain.

Similarly, the transformation back may be acts that would be fatal. In The Wounded Lion, the prescription for turning the lion back into a prince was to kill him, chop him to pieces, burn the pieces, and throw the ash into the water. Less drastic but no less fatal, the fox in The Golden Bird, the foals in The Seven Foals, and the cats in Lord Peter and The White Cat tell the heroes of those stories to cut off their heads; this restores them to human shape.[52] In the Greek tale of Scylla, Scylla's father Nisus turns into an eagle after death and drowns her daughter for betraying her father.




  • In George MacDonald's The Princess and Curdie (1883) Curdie is informed that many human beings, by their acts, are slowly turning into beasts. Curdie is given the power to detect the transformation before it is visible and is assisted by beasts that had been transformed and are working their way back to humanity.[53]
  • In Carlo Collodi's story The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883), the boys who visit the Land of Toys turn into donkeys.
  • L. Frank Baum concluded The Marvelous Land of Oz (1904) with the revelation that Princess Ozma, sought by the protagonists, had been turned into a boy as a baby and that Tip (who had been searching for her) is that boy. He agrees to have the transformation reversed, but Glinda the Good disapproves of shapeshifting magic, so it is done by the evil witch Mombi.[54]
  • The science fiction short story "Who Goes There?" written by John W. Campbell (later adapted to film as The Thing from Another World and The Thing) concerns a shapeshifting alien lifeform that can assume the form and memories of any creature it absorbs.[55]
  • T. H. White, in the 1938 book The Sword in the Stone, has Merlin and Madam Mim fight a wizards' duel, in which the duelists would endlessly transform until one was in a form that could destroy the other.[56] He also had Merlin transform Arthur into various animals as an educational experience.[40]
  • In C. S. Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia, Eustace Scrubb transforms into a dragon,[57] and the war-monger Rabadash into a donkey.[58] Eustace's transformation is not strictly a punishment – the change simply reveals the truth of his selfishness. It is reversed after he repents and his moral nature changes. Rabadash is allowed to reverse his transformation, providing he does so in a public place, so that his former followers will know that he had been a donkey. He is warned that, if he ever leaves his capital city again, he will become a donkey permanently, and this prevents him from leading further military campaigns.
  • Both the Earthmasters and their opponents in Patricia A. McKillip's 1976 The Riddle-Master of Hed trilogy make extensive use of their shapeshifting abilities for the powers of their new forms.[59]
  • James A. Hetley's contemporary fantasy books Dragon's Eye and Dragon's Teeth centers on the Morgan family of Stonefort, Maine – present-day Americans who are secretly able to turn themselves into seals at will (and making extensive use of that ability in their fighting with various other characters).
  • In Harry Potter series, some wizards and witches called 'Animagus' can transform into a particular animal of their choice and are required to register with the Ministry of Magic about their ability.
  • The X-Files features a species known as the Colonists who are infiltrating Earth to colonize the planet.
  • In David Icke's works, reptilian shapeshifters secretly controls many aspects of human society by taking on human form and gaining political power to manipulate humanity.
  • In the Doctor Who serial "The Faceless Ones" (1967), featureless aliens known as the Chameleons shapeshift into humans in order to steel their identities. However, they need to keep the copied person alive in order to maintain their stolen identity.[60]
  • In the Doctor Who serial "Terror of the Zygons" (1975), the main antagonists, called the Zygons, can shapeshift into humans and other animals (such as horses). However, they need to keep the copied person or animal alive in order to be able to change back into their natural form.[61]
  • In the Doctor Who serial “Horror of Fang Rock” (1977), the alien species called the Rutans, ancient opponents to the Sontarans, possessed the ability to transform from their natural jellyfish like form to that of one of their human victims.[62]
  • The X-Men comics and films feature Mystique a shapeshifter who can look like any other person.
  • The DC Comics universe features a wide range of shapeshifters, the most prominent being Beast Boy, Plastic Man, Martian Manhunter, Miss Martian, and the Clayfaces.
  • Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991) features a shapeshifting female prisoner who is involved in nearly killing James T. Kirk, but is herself killed.
  • In Thunderheart (1992), starring Val Kilmer, the character Jimmy Looks Twice evades capture by shapeshifting at will into a series of animals.
  • Star Trek: Deep Space Nine features a species known as the Changelings, the race of psionically capable shapeshifters who founded the Dominion.
  • The Twilight Saga also features shapeshifters that can transform into wolves and have inhuman strength, speed, body temperature and aging process.[63]
  • In Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002), Zam Wesell attempts to assassinate Padmé Amidala. When Zam flees, Anakin pursues her and discovers she is a shapeshifter. Zam Wesell reverts to her natural form when her employer assassinates her.
  • In Supernatural, the shapeshifters are recurring creatures of the series. Shapeshifter first appeared in Season 1, Episode 6 titled "Skin".
  • In Fringe, shapeshifters are inorganic, human hybrids from the Alternate Universe.
  • In Encanto, Camilo has the ability to shapeshift.
  • In the Animorphs books, an alien species known as the Andalites has shapeshifting or "morphing" technology that is shared with the Animorphs, giving them the power to shapeshift into any living creature they can acquire the DNA of.
  • In the Heroes of Olympus book series, the demigod Frank Zhang possesses the ability to shapeshift as a gift from his ancestor Poseidon.
  • In the graphic novel (and subsequent movie of the same name) Nimona, the titular character is a mischievous shapeshifter.
  • In the Ben 10 franchise (notably Ben Tennyson himself), characters wielding the Omnitrix are able to shapeshift into various alien species.

See also





  1. ^ a b c Terri Windling, "Married to Magic: Animal Brides and Bridegrooms in Folklore and Fantasy[usurped]"
  2. ^ Richard M. Dorson, "Foreword", p xxiv, Georgias A. Megas, Folktales of Greece, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1970
  3. ^ Katharine Briggs (1976). "Glamour". An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures. p. 191. ISBN 0-394-73467-X.
  4. ^ a b Katharine Briggs (1976). "Shape-shifting". An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures. p. 360. ISBN 0-394-73467-X.
  5. ^ Eddie Lenihan and Carolyn Eve Green, Meeting The Other Crowd: The Fairy Stories of Hidden Ireland, p. 80 ISBN 1-58542-206-1
  6. ^ Scottish Highlanders and Native Americans: indigenous education in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world Margaret Szasz 2007 University of Oklahoma Press
  7. ^ a b Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, pp. 336–7, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  8. ^ Perabo, L. D. 2017. Shapeshifting in Old Norse-Icelandic Literature, Roda da Fortuna. Revista Eletrônica sobre Antiguidade e Medievo, 6(1): 135–158.
  9. ^ Gill, N. S. "Loki – Norse Trickster Loki". Retrieved 2010-06-18.; Stephan Grundy, "Shapeshifting and Berserkergang," in Translation, Transformation, and Transubstantiation, ed. Carol Poster and Richard Utz (Evanston: IL: Northwestern University Press, 1998), pp. 104–22.
  10. ^ Adkins, Christopher David (2023). "Carnivore Incarnate: Wicked Wolves and Noble Bears in Norse Tales of Shapeshifting". Preternature. 13 (1): 1–26. doi:10.5325/preternature.12.1.0001. ISSN 2161-2196.
  11. ^ Tor Books, 2003
  12. ^ Hatley, Shaman (2007). The Brahmayāmalatantra and Early Śaiva Cult of Yoginīs. University of Pennsylvania (PhD Thesis, UMI Number: 3292099. p. 14.
  13. ^ "Armenian Mythology" by Mardiros H. Ananikiam, in Bullfinch's Mythology
  14. ^ Fansler, Dean s. Filipino Popular Tales.
  15. ^ Heinz Insu Fenkl. "A Fox Woman Tale of Korea". The Endicott Studio. Archived from the original on 2006-11-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  16. ^ Dorothea F. Bleek (1956). Bushman Dictionary. Рипол Классик. p. 296. ISBN 9785882327261.
  17. ^ Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek (1875). A brief account of Bushman folklore and other texts. Cape Town: Juta. hdl:2263/12485.
  18. ^ Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801882210.
  19. ^ Gómez Salazar, Catalina Trujillo, Fernando Whitehead, Hal (2011). "Ecological factors influencing group sizes of river dolphins : Inia geoffrensis and Sotalia fluviatilis". Marine Mammal Science. 28 (2): E124–E142.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Bebej, Ryan. "Inia geoffrensis Amazon river dolphin (Also: boto; pink river dolphin)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  21. ^ Martin, A.R.; Da Silva, V.M.F.; Rothery, P. (Jun 23, 2008). "Object carrying as socio-sexual display in an aquatic mammal". Biology Letters. 4 (3): 243–245. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0067. PMC 2610054. PMID 18364306.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ a b c d Hall, Jamie (2003). Half Human, Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures. Authorhouse. pp. 55–88. ISBN 978-1-4107-5809-5.
  23. ^ Cravalho, Mark (Winter 1999). "Shameless creatures: An ethnozoology of the Amazon river dolphin". Ethnology. 38 (1): 47–58. doi:10.2307/3774086. JSTOR 3774086.
  24. ^ Waleska Gravena, Tomas Hrbek, Vera M. F. Da Silva, Izeni P. Farias (22 October 2008). "Amazon River dolphin love fetishes: From folklore to molecular forensics". Marine Mammal Science. 4 (24): 969–978. Bibcode:2008MMamS..24..969G. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00237.x.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ "TNT Folklore". Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  26. ^ "Caribbean History Archives". Gerard A. Besson. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  27. ^ Aleksandra Kojic (2016-08-18). "Veles – The Slavic Shapeshifting God of Land, Water and Underground". Slavorum. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  28. ^ Katičić, Radoslav (2008). Božanski boj: Tragovima svetih pjesama naše pretkršćanske starine (PDF). Zagreb: IBIS GRAFIKA. ISBN 978-953-6927-41-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-18.
  29. ^ Joseph Jacobs, English Fairy Tales, "The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh"
  30. ^ Child (1965), pp. 313–314.
  31. ^ Maria Tatar, p. 193, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  32. ^ Brady, Loretta Ellen. The Green Forest Fairy Book. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1920. pp. 132–169.
  33. ^ Wilson (1976), p. 94.
  34. ^ Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers, p. 353 ISBN 0-374-15901-7
  35. ^ Colbert (2001), pp. 28–29.
  36. ^ a b Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 57, ISBN 0-292-78376-0
  37. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p. 56, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  38. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p. 89, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  39. ^ Colbert (2001), p. 23.
  40. ^ a b Grant & Clute, p. 960, "Transformation".
  41. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, pp. 55–56, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  42. ^ Jones (1995), p. 84.
  43. ^ Online text of Ch. VII in The Wonderful Adventures of Nils [1]
  44. ^ Steiger (1999), p. xix.
  45. ^ Tatar (2004), p. 226.
  46. ^ Maria Tatar, Off with Their Heads! p. 60 ISBN 0-691-06943-3
  47. ^ Tatar (2004), p. 136.
  48. ^ Maria Tatar, Off with Their Heads! pp. 140–141 ISBN 0-691-06943-3
  49. ^ Wilson (1976), p. 89.
  50. ^ Child (1965), p. 306.
  51. ^ Steiger (1999), p. 67.
  52. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, pp. 174–5, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  53. ^ Stephen Prickett, Victorian Fantasy p. 86 ISBN 0-253-17461-9
  54. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, pp. 176–7 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
  55. ^ Steiger (1999), p. 385.
  56. ^ This scene is omitted in the story as depicted in The Once and Future King; see L. Sprague de Camp, Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy, p. 266 ISBN 0-87054-076-9
  57. ^ Erik J. Wielenberg, "Aslan the Terrible" pp. 226–7 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  58. ^ James F. Sennett, "Worthy of a Better God" p. 243 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  59. ^ Grant & Clute, p. 858, "Shapeshifting".
  60. ^ "Doctor Who The Faceless Ones Blu-ray".
  61. ^ "The Zygon Who Fell to Earth".
  62. ^ "Clip: Horror of Fang Rock: Part 4". 24 September 1977.
  63. ^ Meyer, Stephenie (2008). Breaking Dawn. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 9780316032834.



Further reading

  • Hall, Jamie (2003). Half Human, Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4107-5809-5.
  • Kachuba, John B. 2019. Shapeshifters: A History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Wood, Felicity. "The Shape-Shifter on the Borderlands: A Comparative Study of the Trickster Figure in African Orality and in Oral Narratives Concerning one South African Trickster, Khotso Sethuntsa." English in Africa (2010): 71–90.
  • Zaytoun, Kelli D. ""Now Let Us Shift" the Subject: Tracing the Path and Posthumanist Implications of La Naguala/The Shapeshifter in the Works of Gloria Anzaldúa." MELUS: Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 40.4 (2015): 69–88.