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Training and development involves improving the effectiveness of organizations and the individuals and teams within them.[1] Training may be viewed as related to immediate changes in organizational effectiveness via organized instruction, while development is related to the progress of longer-term organizational and employee goals. While training and development technically have differing definitions, the two are oftentimes used interchangeably and/or together. Training and development has historically been a topic within applied psychology but has within the last two decades become closely associated with human resources management, talent management, human resources development, instructional design, human factors, and knowledge management.[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The first training-related article was published in 1918 in the Journal of Applied Psychology. This article explored an undergraduate curriculum designed for applied psychologists.[2] World War II influenced the focus of applied psychology research to be on effectiveness of training programs, particularly in military contexts. By the 1960s and 70s, the field began developing theories and conducting theory-based research because up until that point, the field had been rooted in trial-and-error intervention research.[2] This era also brought along the development of new training methods such as the use of computers, television, case studies, and role playing.[2][3] The scope of training and development also expanded to include cross-cultural training, focus on the development of the individual employee, and the use of new organization development literature to frame training programs.[3] The 1980s marked a shift to focus on how employees were receiving and implementing training programs, and encouraged the collection of data for evaluation purposes, particularly management training programs.[4] The development piece of training and development became increasingly popular in the 1980s and 90s, with employees more frequently being influenced by the concept of "lifelong learning".[5] It was in this decade that research revealing the impact and importance of fostering a training and development-positive culture (including management and co-worker) was first conducted.[5] The turn of the century brought more research in topics such as team-training, for example cross-training.[6] Cross-training emphasizes training in coworkers' responsibilities.[6]

PracticeEdit

Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development.[7][8][9]

The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others.[10]

Especially in the last couple decades, training has become more trainee-focused, which allows those being trained more flexibility and active learning opportunities.[11] For example, these active learning techniques include exploratory/discovery learning,[12] error management training,[13] guided exploration,[14] and mastery training.[11] Typical projects in the field include executive and supervisory/management development, new-employee orientation, professional-skills training, technical/job training, customer-service training, sales-and-marketing training, and health-and-safety training. Training is particularly critical in high-reliability organizations, which rely on high safety standards in order to prevent catastrophic damage to employees, equipment, or the environment (e.g. nuclear power plants, operating rooms).[15]

BenefitsEdit

Training has been used in organizations for the past several decades. Although training and development requires investments of many types, there are cited benefits to integrating training and development into organizations:

  • Increased productivity and job performance [1]
  • Skills development [1]
  • Team development [1][16]
  • Decreasing safety-related accidents [17]

However, if the training and development is not strategic and pointed at specific goals, it can lead to more harm than good.[18] Needs assessments, especially when the training is being conducted on a large-scale, are frequently conducted in order to gauge what needs to be trained, how it should be trained, and how extensively.[19] Needs assessments in the training and development context often reveal employee and management-specific skills to develop (e.g. for new employees), organizational-wide problems to address (e.g. performance issues), adaptations needed to suit changing environments (e.g. new technology), or employee development needs (e.g. career planning). The degree of effectiveness of training and development programs can be predicted by the needs assessment and how closely the needs were met, the execution of the training (i.e. how effective the trainer was), and trainee characteristics (e.g. motivation, cognitive abilities).[20] Effectiveness of training is typically done on an individual or team-level, with few studies investigating the impacts on organizations.[1]

OccupationEdit

The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) cites training and development specialists as having a bright outlook, meaning that the occupation will grow rapidly or have several job openings in the next few years.[21] Related professions include training and development managers, (chief) learning officers, industrial-organizational psychologists, and organization development consultants. Training and development specialists are equipped with the tools to conduct needs analyses, build training programs to suit the needs of the organization by using a variety of training techniques, create training materials, and execute and guide training programs.[21]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Aguinis, Herman; Kraiger, Kurt (January 2009). "Benefits of Training and Development for Individuals and Teams, Organizations, and Society". Annual Review of Psychology. 60 (1): 451–474. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163505. ISSN 0066-4308. PMID 18976113.
  2. ^ a b c Bell, Bradford S.; Tannenbaum, Scott I.; Ford, J. Kevin; Noe, Raymond A.; Kraiger, Kurt (2017). "100 years of training and development research: What we know and where we should go". Journal of Applied Psychology. 102 (3): 305–323. doi:10.1037/apl0000142. ISSN 1939-1854. PMID 28125262.
  3. ^ a b Campbell, J P (January 1971). "Personnel Training and Development". Annual Review of Psychology. 22 (1): 565–602. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.22.020171.003025. ISSN 0066-4308.
  4. ^ Burke, Michael J.; Day, Russell R. (1986). "A cumulative study of the effectiveness of managerial training". Journal of Applied Psychology. 71 (2): 232–245. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.71.2.232. ISSN 0021-9010.
  5. ^ a b Birdi, Kamal; Allan, Catriona; Warr, Peter (1997). "Correlates and perceived outcomes of 4 types of employee development activity". Journal of Applied Psychology. 82 (6): 845–857. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.82.6.845. ISSN 0021-9010.
  6. ^ a b Marks, Michelle A.; Sabella, Mark J.; Burke, C. Shawn; Zaccaro, Stephen J. (2002). "The impact of cross-training on team effectiveness". Journal of Applied Psychology. 87 (1): 3–13. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.1.3. ISSN 0021-9010.
  7. ^ Rosemary Harrison (2005). Learning and Development. CIPD Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 9781843980506.
  8. ^ Patrick J. Montana & Bruce H. Charnov (2000). "Training and Development". Management. Barron Educationally Series. p. 225. ISBN 9780764112768.
  9. ^ Thomas N. Garavan; Pat Costine & Noreen Heraty (1995). "Training and Development: Concepts, Attitudes, and Issues". Training and Development in Ireland. Cengage Learning EMEA. p. 1. ISBN 9781872853925.
  10. ^ Derek Torrington; Laura Hall & Stephen Taylor (2004). Human Resource Management. Pearson Education. p. 363. ISBN 9780273687139.
  11. ^ a b Bell, Bradford S.; Kozlowski, Steve W. J. (2008). "Active learning: Effects of core training design elements on self-regulatory processes, learning, and adaptability". Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (2): 296–316. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.296. ISSN 1939-1854. PMID 18361633.
  12. ^ McDaniel, Mark A.; Schlager, Mark S. (June 1990). "Discovery Learning and Transfer of Problem-Solving Skills". Cognition and Instruction. 7 (2): 129–159. doi:10.1207/s1532690xci0702_3. ISSN 0737-0008.
  13. ^ Keith, Nina; Frese, Michael (2005). "Self-Regulation in Error Management Training: Emotion Control and Metacognition as Mediators of Performance Effects". Journal of Applied Psychology. 90 (4): 677–691. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.677. ISSN 1939-1854. PMID 16060786.
  14. ^ Wood, Robert; Kakebeeke, Bastiaan; Debowski, Shelda; Frese, Michael (April 2000). "The Impact of Enactive Exploration on Intrinsic Motivation, Strategy, and Performance in Electronic Search". Applied Psychology. 49 (2): 263–283. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00014. ISSN 0269-994X.
  15. ^ Roberts, Karlene H. (July 1990). "Managing High Reliability Organizations". California Management Review. 32 (4): 101–113. doi:10.2307/41166631. ISSN 0008-1256. JSTOR 41166631.
  16. ^ Kozlowski, Steve W. J.; Bell, Bradford S. (15 April 2003), "Work Groups and Teams in Organizations", Handbook of Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., doi:10.1002/0471264385.wei1214, ISBN 0471264385
  17. ^ Salas, Eduardo; Frush, Karen (24 August 2012). Improving patient safety through teamwork and team training. Salas, Eduardo,, Frush, Karen. New York. ISBN 9780199875542. OCLC 811142213.
  18. ^ Rebecca., Page-Tickell (3 July 2014). Learning and development (1st ed.). London. ISBN 9780749469894. OCLC 883248797.
  19. ^ Brown, Judith (December 2002). "Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program". Public Personnel Management. 31 (4): 569–578. doi:10.1177/009102600203100412. ISSN 0091-0260.
  20. ^ Tannenbaum, S I; Yukl, G (January 1992). "Training and Development in Work Organizations". Annual Review of Psychology. 43 (1): 399–441. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.43.020192.002151.
  21. ^ a b "13-1151.00 - Training and Development Specialists". www.onetonline.org. Retrieved 1 March 2019.

Further readingEdit

  • Anthony Landale (1999). Gower Handbook of Training and Development. Gower Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780566081224.
  • Diane Arthur (1995). "Training and Development". Managing Human Resources in Small & Mid-Sized Companies. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. ISBN 9780814473115.
  • Shawn A. Smith & Rebecca A. Mazin (2004). "Training and Development". The HR Answer Book. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. ISBN 9780814472231.
  • Cohn JM, Khurana R, Reeves L (October 2005). "Growing talent as if your business depended on it". Harvard Business Review. 83 (10): 62–70. PMID 16250625.