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Trafficking in Persons Report

The Report on a map, based on 2013 data.

The Trafficking in Persons Report, or TIP Report, is an annual report issued by the U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. It ranks governments based on their perceived efforts to acknowledge and combat human trafficking.[1][2]

Contents

Ranking SystemEdit

The report divides nations into tiers based on their compliance with standards outlined in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000.

These tiers are:

  • Tier 1 Countries whose governments fully comply with the TVPA's minimum standards.
  • Tier 2 Countries whose governments do not fully comply with an TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.
  • Tier 2 Watchlist Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards AND: a) The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing; or b) There is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year; or c) The determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional future steps over the next year.
  • Tier 3 Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so.

There also a few "Special Cases" such as Yemen, where the civil conflict and humanitarian crisis make gaining information difficult, and Sint Maarten where the devastation caused by Hurricane Irma has made reporting difficult.

 
Findings of the legislative framework in place in different countries to prevent/reduce human trafficking. The findings are from the 2010 Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report[3]
 
Findings of the legislative framework in place in different countries to prevent/reduce human trafficking. The findings are from the 2011 Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report[4]
Trafficking in Persons Report Tier Placementsa
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Main article
Afghanistan Central Asia 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Afghanistan
Albania Southeast Europe 2 2 2w 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Albania
Algeria Northeast Africa 3 3 3 3 3 3 2w 2w Human trafficking in Algeria
Angola Central Africa 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Angola
Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean Sea 2 2 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina South America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Human trafficking in Argentina
Armenia Eurasia 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 Human trafficking in Armenia
Aruba Caribbean Sea 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
Australia Oceania 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Australia
Austria Central Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Austria
Azerbaijan Eurasia 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Azerbaijan
Bahamas Atlantic Ocean 2w 2w 2 2 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in the Bahamas
Bahrain Middle East 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 1 Human trafficking in Bahrain
Bangladesh South Asia 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Bangladesh
Barbados Lesser Antilles 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Barbados
Belarus Eastern Europe 2 2w 2w 2w 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Belarus
Belgium Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Belgium
Belize Central America 2 2 2 2w 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Belize
Benin West Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Benin
Bhutan South Asia - - 2 2 2 2 2 2w
Bolivia South America 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 Human trafficking in Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina Central Europe
Southeast Europe
1 2 2 2w 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana Southern Africa 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Botswana
Brazil South America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Brazil
Brunei Southeast Asia 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Brunei
Bulgaria Eastern Europe 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Bulgaria
Burkina Faso Western Africa 2 2 2 2 2w 2 2w 2 Human trafficking in Burkina Faso
Burma Southeast Asia 3 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 2w 3 Human trafficking in Burma
Burundi Eastern Africa 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Burundi
Cambodia Southeast Asia 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Cambodia
Cameroon Western Africa 2w 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Cameroon
Canada North America 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Canada
Cape Verde Atlantic Ocean - 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2
Central African Republic Central Africa 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2w Human trafficking in the Central African Republic
Chad Central Africa 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Chad
Chile South America 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Chile
China East Asia 2w 2w 3 2w 2w 2w 3 3 Human trafficking in China
Colombia South America 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Colombia
Comoros Indian Ocean 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 3 3 3
Congo, Democratic
Republic of the
Central Africa 3 3 3 3 2w 2w 3 3 Human trafficking in the
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Congo, Republic of the Central Africa 2w 2w 2 2 2w 2w 3 3 Human trafficking in the Republic of the Congo
Costa Rica Central America 2w 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire West Africa - 2 2 2 2 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia Central Europe 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Croatia
Cuba Caribbean Sea 3 3 3 3 2w 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Cuba
Curaçao Caribbean Sea 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Cyprus Eastern Mediterranean 2w 2 2 2w 2 1 2 1 Human trafficking in Cyprus
Czech Republic Central Europe 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in the Czech Republic
Denmark Northern Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Denmark
Djibouti Horn of Africa 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 2w 2 Human trafficking in Djibouti
Dominican Republic Hispaniola 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in the Dominican Republic
Ecuador South America 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Ecuador
Egypt North Africa 2 2 2 2 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Egypt
El Salvador Central America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea Horn of Africa 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Eritrea
Estonia Northern Europe 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
Ethiopia Horn of Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Ethiopia
Fiji Melanesia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Fiji
Finland Northern Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Finland
France Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in France
Gabon Central Africa 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 3 Human trafficking in Gabon
Gambia West Africa 2w 2w 2w 3 3 3 2w 2w Human trafficking in the Gambia
Georgia Eurasia 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Georgia
Germany Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Germany
Ghana West Africa 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Ghana
Greece Southeast Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Greece
Guatemala Central America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Guatemala
Guinea West Africa 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 2w Human trafficking in Guinea
Guinea-Bissau West Africa 3 2w 3 3 3 3 3 2w Human trafficking in Guinea-Bissau
Guyana South America 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 1 1 Human trafficking in Guyana
Haiti Caribbean Sea - 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 2w 2w Human trafficking in Haiti
Honduras Central America 2 2 2w 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Honduras
Hong Kong Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Hong Kong
Hungary Central Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Hungary
Iceland North Atlantic 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Human trafficking in Iceland
India South Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in India
See Child trafficking in India
Indonesia Southeast Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Indonesia
Iran Central Asia
Western Asia
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Iran
Iraq Western Asia 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Iraq
Ireland Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Human trafficking in Ireland
Israel Western Asia 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Israel
Italy Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Italy
Jamaica Greater Antilles 2 2w 2 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Jamaica
Japan Pacific Ocean 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Human trafficking in Japan
Jordan Western Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Jordan
Kazakhstan Eastern Europe
Central Asia
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Kazakhstan
Kenya East Africa 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Kenya
Kiribati Pacific Ocean 2w 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Kiribati
Korea, Democratic
People’s Republic of
Eastern Asia 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Korea, Republic of Eastern Asia 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in South Korea
Kosovo Southeast Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Kuwait Western Asia 3 3 3 3 3 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan Central Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Kyrgyzstan
Laos Southeast Asia 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 Human trafficking in Laos
Latvia Northern Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Latvia
Lebanon Western Asia 3 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Lebanon
Lesotho Southern Africa 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Lesotho
Liberia Southeast Asia 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Liberia
Libya Northern Africa 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Libya
Lithuania Northern Europe 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Lithuania
Luxembourg Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Human trafficking in Luxembourg
Macau Asia 2 2w 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Macau
Macedonia Southeast Europe 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Macedonia
Madagascar Indian Ocean 3 3 2w 2w 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Madagascar
Malawi Southeast Africa 2 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Malawi
Malaysia Southeast Asia 2w 2w 2w 3 2w 2w 2 2w Human trafficking in Malaysia
Maldives Indian Ocean 2w 2w 2w 2 2w 2w 2 2w
Mali Western Africa 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 2w Human trafficking in Mali
Malta Mediterranean Sea 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Malta
Marshall Islands Pacific Ocean 2 2 2w 2w 3 3 2w 2
Mauritania West Africa 3 2w 3 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Mauritania
Mauritius Indian Ocean 1 1 2 2 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Mauritius
Mexico North America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Mexico
Micronesia Oceania 3 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 2
Moldova Eastern Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2 Human trafficking in Moldova
Mongolia East Asia
Central Asia
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Mongolia
Montenegro Southeast Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Montenegro
Morocco North Africa 2 2 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Morocco
Mozambique Southeast Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Mozambique
Namibia Southern Africa 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Namibia
Nepal South Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Nepal
Netherlands Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in the Netherlands
New Zealand Oceania 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in New Zealand
Nicaragua Central America 2 1 1 1 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Nicaragua
Niger Western Africa 2w 2w 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Niger
Nigeria Western Africa 1 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w Human trafficking in Nigeria
Norway Northern Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Norway
Oman Southwest Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Oman
Pakistan South Asia 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Pakistan
Palau Pacific Ocean 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Palau
Panama Central America 2w 2 2 2w 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Panama
Papua New Guinea Oceania 3 3 3 3 2w 3 2w 3 Human trafficking in Papua New Guinea
Paraguay South America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Paraguay
Peru South America 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Peru
Philippines Southeast Asia 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Human trafficking in the Philippines
Poland Central Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Poland
Portugal Western Europe 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Portugal
Qatar Middle East 2w 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Qatar
Romania Central Europe 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Romania
Russia Northern Eurasia 2w 2w 3 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Russia
Rwanda Eastern Africa 2 2 2w 2w 2 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Rwanda
Saint Lucia Lesser Antilles 2 2 2w 2 2 2w 2 2
Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines
Windward Islands 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saudi Arabia Middle East 3 3 3 3 2w 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Saudi Arabia
Senegal Western Africa 2 2w 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Senegal
Serbia Central Europe
Southeast Europe
2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Serbia
Seychelles Indian Ocean 2 2w 2w 2 2 2w 2 2w
Sierra Leone West Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Sierra Leone
Singapore Southeast Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Singapore
Sint Maarten Lesser Antilles - - 2 2 2 1 1
Slovakia Central Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Slovakia
Slovenia Central Europe
Southeast Europe
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Slovenia
Solomon Islands Oceania 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2
South Africa Southern Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in South Africa
South Sudan North Africa - 2w 2w 2w 3 3 3 3
Spain Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Spain
Sri Lanka South Asia 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Sri Lanka
Sudan North Africa 3 3 3 2w 2w 3 3 2w Human trafficking in Sudan
Suriname South America 2 2 2w 2w 2w 3 2w 2w Human trafficking in Suriname
Swaziland Southern Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2w 2w Human trafficking in Swaziland
Sweden Northern Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Sweden
Switzerland Western Europe 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Switzerland
Syria Western Asia 2w 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Syria
Taiwan Asia 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in Taiwan
Tajikistan Central Asia 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Tajikistan
Tanzania East Africa 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Tanzania
Thailand Southeast Asia 2w 2w 2w 3 3 2w 2w 2 Human trafficking in Thailand
Timor-Leste Southeast Asia 2 2 2 2w 2w 2 2 2 Human trafficking in East Timor
Togo West Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w Human trafficking in Togo
Tonga South Pacific 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2 2
Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Sea 2 2 2w 2 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia Northern Africa 2w 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Tunisia
Turkey Western Asia
Eastern Europe
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Turkey
Turkmenistan Central Asia
Eastern Europe
3 2w 2w 2w 2w 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Turkmenistan
Uganda East Africa
Eastern Europe
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Uganda
Ukraine Eastern Europe 2 2 2w 2w 2w 2w 2 2 Human trafficking in Ukraine
United Arab Emirates Southwest Asia
Eastern Europe
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking
in the United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom Western Europe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in the United Kingdom
United States North America 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Human trafficking in the United States
Uruguay South America 2 2 2w 2w 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Uruguay
Uzbekistan Central Asia 2w 2w 3 3 2w 3 3 2w Human trafficking in Uzbekistan
Venezuela South America 3 2w 2w 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Venezuela
Vietnam Southeast Asia 2w 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Human trafficking in Vietnam
Yemen Middle East 3 3 3 3 3 Human trafficking in Yemen
Zambia Southern Africa 2 2 2 2 2 2 2w 2 Human trafficking in Zambia
Zimbabwe Southern Africa 2w 3 3 3 3 3 2w 2w Human trafficking in Zimbabwe

^a Tier designations:[4]
  • TIER 1: Countries whose governments fully comply with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s (TVPA) minimum standards.
  • TIER 2: Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.
  • TIER 2 WATCH LIST: Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards AND:
a) The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing;
b) There is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year; or
c) The determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional future steps over the next year.
  • TIER 3: Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so.

CriticismEdit

Some critics of the Trafficking in Persons Report focus on how its methodology could be improved. For example, one recent academic paper suggests how the rankings could better incorporate risk factors of trafficking in order to focus more on prevention.[12] Another critic argues that the Report should better incorporate "international rules that states (including the USA) have collectively developed and freely accepted," rather than focusing on criteria drawn up solely by U.S. politicians.[13]

Other critics more fundamentally question its methodology and sources, such as anthropologist Laura Agustín, who writes that the Report "relies on CIA, police and embassy guesstimates of situations that are not understood the same way across all cultures and social classes."[14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report". United States Department of State. June 20, 2013. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2013. 
  2. ^ "US downgrades China, Russia in its annual report on human trafficking". Washington Post. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2010". U.S. Department of State. 2010. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Trafficking in Persons Report 2011". U.S. Department of State. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2012". U.S. Department of State. 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2013". U.S. Department of State. 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  7. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2014". U.S. Department of State. 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  8. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2015". U.S. Department of State. 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2016". U.S. Department of State. 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  10. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2017". U.S. Department of State. 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  11. ^ "Trafficking in Persons Report 2018" (PDF). Retrieved 30 June 2018. 
  12. ^ Horning, Amber; et al. "The Trafficking in Persons Report: a game of risk". International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Routledge. 38 (3): 257–280. doi:10.1080/01924036.2013.861355. Retrieved July 30, 2014. 
  13. ^ Gallagher, Anne T. "Improving the Effectiveness of the International Law of Human Trafficking: A Vision for the Future of the US Trafficking in Persons Reports". Human Rights Review. 12 (3): 381–400. doi:10.1007/s12142-010-0183-6. Retrieved July 30, 2014. 
  14. ^ "The shadowy world of sex across borders". The Guardian. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 

External linksEdit