Trøndelag (Urban East Norwegian pronunciation: [²trønːdəˌlɑːɡ]) or Trööndelage (Southern Sami) is a county in the central part of Norway. It was created on 1 January 2018 when the old counties of Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag were merged together after being separated into two counties in 1804. Trøndelag county and the neighboring Møre og Romsdal county together form what is known as Central Norway.
Seierstad in July 2007
Trøndelag within Norway
|• Governor||Frank Jenssen
|• County mayor||Tore O. Sandvik
|• Total||41,260 km2 (15,930 sq mi)|
|Area rank||#2 in Norway, % of Norway's land area|
|• Rank||(% of country)|
|• Density||10/km2 (26/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||%|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+01)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+02)|
A person from Trøndelag is called a Trønder. The largest city in Trøndelag is the city of Trondheim. The administrative centre of the county is Steinkjer, although Trondheim is the seat of the county mayor. This is to make the county more efficient and not too centralized, as Trøndelag is the second largest county in Norway.
Trøndelag is one of the most fertile regions of Norway, with large agricultural output. The majority of the production ends up in the Norwegian cooperative system for meat and milk, but farm produce is a steadily growing business.
The Old Norse form of the name was Þrœndalǫg. The first element is the genitive plural of þrœndr which means "person from Trøndelag", while the second is lǫg (plural of lag which means "law; district/people with a common law" (compare Danelaw, Gulaþingslǫg and Njarðarlǫg). A parallel name for the same district was Þróndheimr which means "the homeland (heim) of the þrœndr". Þróndheimr may be older since the first element has a stem form without umlaut.
People have lived in this region for thousands of years. In the early iron-age Trøndelag was divided into several petty kingdoms called fylki. The different fylki had a common law, and an early parliament or thing. It was called Frostating and was held at the Frosta-peninsula. By some this is regarded as the first real democracy.
In the time after Håkon Grjotgardsson (838-900), Trøndelag was ruled by the Jarl of Lade. Lade is located in the eastern part of Trondheim, bordering the Trondheimsfjord. The powerful Jarls of Lade continued to play a very significant political role in Norway up to 1030.
|Source: Statistics Norway .|
Jarls of Lade (Ladejarl) were:
- Håkon Grjotgardsson, the first jarl of Lade.
- Sigurd Håkonsson, son of Håkon. Killed by Harald Greyhide.
- Håkon Sigurdsson, son of Sigurd. Conspired with Harald Bluetooth against Harald Greyhide, and subsequently became vassal of Harald Bluetooth, and in reality independent ruler of Norway. After the arrival of Olaf Trygvason, Håkon quickly lost all support, and was killed by his own slave, Tormod Kark, in 995.
- Eirik Håkonsson, son of Håkon. Together with his brother, Svein, governor of Norway under Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark from 1000 to 1012.
- Håkon Eiriksson, son of Eirik. Governor of Norway under Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark from 1012 to 1015.
Trøndelag (together with parts of Møre og Romsdal) was briefly ceded in 1658 to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde and was ruled by king Charles X until it was returned to Denmark-Norway after the Treaty of Copenhagen in 1660. During that time, the Swedes conscripted 2,000 men in Trøndelag, forcing young boys down to 15 years of age to join the Swedish armies fighting against Poland and Brandenburg. Charles X feared the Trønders would rise against their Swedish occupiers, and thought it wise to keep a large part of the men away. Only about one third of the men ever returned to their homes; some of them were forced to settle in the then Swedish province of Estonia, as the Swedes thought it would be easier to rule the Trønders there, utilising the ancient maxim of divide and rule.
In the fall of 1718, during the Great Northern War, General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt was ordered by king Charles XII of Sweden to lead a Swedish army of 10,000 men into Trøndelag and take Trondheim. Because of his poor supply lines back to Sweden, Armfeldt's army had to live off the land, causing great suffering to the people of the region. Armfeldt's campaign failed: the defenders of Trondheim succeeded in repelling his siege. After Charles XII was killed in the siege of Fredriksten in south Norway, Armfeldt was ordered back into Sweden. During the ensuing retreat, his 6,000 surviving threadbare and starving Caroleans were caught in a fierce blizzard. Thousands of Caroleans froze to death in the Norwegian mountains, and hundreds more were crippled for life.
The region's official theatre is the Trøndelag Teater in Trondheim. At Stiklestad in Verdal, the historical play called The Saint Olav Drama has been played each year since 1954. It depicts the last days of Saint Olaf.
Jazz on a very high level is frequently heard in Trondheim, due to the high-level jazz education in Trondheim. Trondheim is also the national centre of rock music; the popular music museum Rockheim opened there in 2010. Trøndelag is also known for its local variety of rock music, often performed in local dialect, called "trønderrock".
Food and drinkEdit
The region is popularly known for its moonshine homebrew, called karsk. Although officially prohibited, the art of producing as pure home-made spirits as possible still has a strong following in parts of Trøndelag. Traditionally served mixed with coffee, local variations apply. In southern regions, people tend to use normal filter coffee, while in the north they choose to serve karsk with as weak coffee as possible.
The "official dish" of the region is sodd which is made from sheep or beef meat and meatballs in boiled stock. The Norwegian Grey Troender sheep is an endangered breed of domesticated sheep that originated from Trøndelag in the late 19th century. There are currently approximately 50 individual animals remaining and efforts are being made to revive the breed.
- Berulfsen, Bjarne (1969). Norsk Uttaleordbok (in Norwegian). Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co (W Nygaard). p. 336.
- Vanvik, Arne (1985). Norsk Uttaleordbok: A Norwegian pronouncing dictionary (in Norwegian and English). Oslo: Fonetisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo. p. 311. ISBN 978-8299058414.
- Hofstad, Sigrun (2016-04-27). "Her bankes det for et samlet Trøndelag". NRK (in Norwegian).
- "Trøndelag fylke: English". Trøndelag fylke. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
- Statistics Norway - Church of Norway.
- Statistics Norway - Members of religious and life stance communities outside the Church of Norway, by religion/life stance. County. 2006-2010
- Gjerset, Knut (1915). History of the Norwegian People, Volumes II. The MacMillan Company. pp. 318–320.
- "Historien" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Haugan, Trond E (2008). Byens magiske rom: Historien om Trondheim kino. Tapir Akademisk Forlag. ISBN 9788251922425.)