Tourism in Egypt
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Tourism is one of the leading sources of income, crucial to Egypt's economy. At its peak in 2010 the sector employed about 12% of Egypt's workforce serving approximately 14.7 million visitors Egypt, and providing revenues of nearly $12.5 billion. as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14.4% of foreign currency revenues.
The number of tourists in Egypt stood at 0.1 million in 1951. Tourism became an important sector of the economy from 1975 onwards, as Egypt eased visa restrictions for almost all European and North American countries and established embassies in new countries like Austria, Netherlands, Denmark and Finland. In 1976, tourism was a focal point of the Five Year Plan of the Government, where 12% of the budget was allocated to upgrading state-owned hotels, establishing a loan fund for private hotels, and upgrading infrastructure (including road, rail, and air connectivity) for major tourist centers along the coastal areas. In 1979, tourism experts and advisors were brought in from Turkey and several new colleges were established with Turkish help between 1979 and 1981, to teach diploma courses in hospitality and tourism management. The tourist inflow increased to 1.8 million in 1981 and then to 5.5 million in 2000. Tourism reached a pinnacle in 2010 by reaching 14.7 million visitors. Revenues from tourism also reached a high point at $12.5 billion in 2010. Since then the number of tourists has significantly declined (down to 9.5 million in 2013) and revenue down to $5.9 billion due to security threats and civil unrest.
Significant security threats have had an ongoing effect on the industry over the past twenty years.[when?] Fifty-eight foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre. The industry was also affected by the September 11, 2001, attacks in the eastern United States, the 2004 Sinai bombings, April 2005 Cairo terrorist attacks, the July 23, 2005 Sharm el-Sheikh attacks, and the 2006 Dahab bombings. Militants have typically been motivated by a combination of Qutbism and opposition to the Mubarak government, therefore attacking foreigners who are generally non-Muslims while diminishing tourist industry income was seen as serving both agendas.
Impact of revolutions on tourismEdit
The 2011 Egyptian revolution that included attacks on foreign journalists such as British journalist Natasha Smith and South African Lara Logan in Cairo’s Tahrir Midan (Liberation Square), along with the series of 2012–13 Egyptian protests, have negatively affected tourism. The new regime has worked hard to create stability and the Red Sea resorts, in particular, have had increasing tourist numbers.
During the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the number of visitors plummeted by over 37% that year falling from 14 million in 2010 to 9 million by the end of 2011. This has impacted a diverse range of businesses directly or indirectly dependent on tourism, from travel accommodation and tourist attractions to car rental and air transportation, as well as health and wellness industries. Tour operators offering heavy discounts to encourage tourists back have been somewhat successful at the Red Sea resorts where prices remain lower compared to 2011.
In 2013, Egypt ranked 85th as the world's best country in terms of tourism and traveling, falling ten places from its ranking of 75 in 2011. However, it regained some ground in the 2017 rankings being rated 75th overall.
Israelis can cross into Egypt for 14 days without a visa at certain areas near Taba and they come to enjoy areas in the Red Sea Riviera. In 2017, the first group of Israelis visited the more popular tourist attractions- with the aid of strong security. It had been 18 months since a group of Israeli tourists had visited Egypt.
In 2017, Bloomberg said Egypt has "shed its years of social and political unrest" and makes the top 20 list of 2017 travel destinations. The latest United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has revealed that Egypt is one of the world's fast-growing tourist destination for 2017, it raised to 8 million compared to last year which was about 5.26 million.
Impact of terrorism on tourismEdit
A long series of terrorist attacks and threats targeting foreign tourists at Egyptian historic monuments and beach resorts have repeatedly crippled the Egyptian tourist trade, a vital part of the Egyptian economy. Tourism development in many parts of Egypt, especially Upper Egypt, have led to an increase in violent attacks by radical Muslim groups. Locals feel left behind by the government when key development projects are only aimed at tourism sectors. So, violence is directed at the government through tourists and the tourism industry--a main source of income for the country. -inspired Terrorism in Egypt dates back to the 1980s and includes the Luxor massacre, 2004 Sinai bombings, downing of Metrojet Flight 9268 and, most recently, the 2017 Hurghada attack. 2016 was a "tough year" for the tourism industry in Egypt.
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Major tourist destinations include the millennia-old monuments in the Nile Valley. Principal among them are the Pyramids and Great Sphinx at Giza, the Abu Simbel temples south of Aswan and the Karnak Temple Complex and Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Attractions in Cairo include the Cairo Museum and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha. The coast of the Sinai Peninsula has well-visited seaside resorts, in addition to Hurghada city on the Red Sea coast and the Famous El Gouna Resort 25 km Hurghada.
- Giza, 20 km southwest of Cairo, has several remains from the 26th century BC such as temples and monuments to pharaohs including the Great Sphinx, and the Great Pyramids of Giza.
- Saqqara, 30 km south of Cairo is a vast, ancient burial ground which served as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis. It features numerous pyramids, including the world's oldest standing step pyramid, as well as a number of mastabas.
- Luxor, about 500 km south of Cairo, is the site of the ancient city of Thebes. It includes the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor, which stand within the modern city. On the opposite side of the Nile River lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolis, which include the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens.
- Abu Simbel, about 850 km south of Cairo (near the Sudanese border) is an archaeological site comprising two massive rock temples originally carved out of a mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II (13th century BC). The complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s to avoid being submerged during the creation of Lake Nasser. They are now situated on an artificial hill made from a domed structure high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.
- Alexandria is a main summer resort, due to its beaches, ancient history and Museums, especially the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a modern project based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria.
- Sinai Peninsula- Sinai has the beach resorts of Sharm el-Sheikh, Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba as well as locations mentioned in the Bible such as Mount Sinai ("Jabal Musa"). Saint Catherine's Monastery may be the oldest working Christian monastery in the world.
- Ain Sukhna, about 110 km east of Cairo has a number of beach resorts.
- Assiut:in south of Egypt has historic buildings from the time of the pharaohs and ancient mosques.
- Hurghada and El Gouna resort on the Red Sea Coast, 25 km from Hurghada International Airport, are both famous for their beaches, snorkeling and diving, and El Gouna is famous for its nightlife.
The civilization of Ancient Egypt left many monuments and temples that have become attractions for modern-day visitors to Egypt. These include:
Pyramids: there are more than 70 pyramids along the Nile, with the three pyramids of Giza being the best-known. The Sphinx, a lion-bodied guard, stands beside pyramids in Giza. The pyramids were built more than 4,000 years ago in the eras of Kings Cheops, Kefren and Mykerinos. These three kings' bodies were buried within the pyramids. The pyramid of Cheops is the largest at 145 metres in height, and is referred to as the Great Pyramid.
Saqqara Complex: The vast necropolis of Saqqara including Memphis is located 24 kilometers south of central Cairo. Memphis was founded in about 3000 BC by Menes, along with 11 other pyramids. Memphis was the administrative capital of ancient Egypt. Saqqara has Zoser's funerary complex, Mereruka's tomb and the Serapeum, a large limestone structure housing a collection of mummified Apis bulls in gargantuan granite coffins of various kings such as Teti.
Valley of the Kings in Thebes: Due to theft from tombs within pyramids, 26 pharaohs of the eighteenth to twentieth Dynasties including Tutankhamun, Ramses the Great and Tuthmosis III had their tombs carved into the rock of the Valley of Kings. There are further tombs in the Valley of the Queens.
Cruises are offered along the Nile ranging from short tours between Luxor and Aswan to longer cruises that include the northern town of Dendera.
Many cruises are aboard a larger vessel that functions as a floating hotel. Other Nile trips can be on a felucca, a traditional sailboat, on which overnight journeys may require passengers to sleep in the open air on deck and the sailors to double as cooks.
Between October and mid April the daytime temperatures are cooler and the Nile's locks are open. From around the middle of April locks on the river are closed in order to manage water levels, requiring passengers to disembark on one side of the lock and transfer to another boat on the other side.
Passports and visas are required of foreign visitors except natives of several Middle Eastern countries. Travellers native to most of Africa must have proof of cholera and yellow fever vaccination.
Cairo International Airport is the main gateway to Egypt and is located about 15 miles northeast of the city in northern Egypt. Cairo’s three terminals receive flights from all major world cities including those in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. You can reach central Cairo by bus, while numerous taxis also run to the city and its hotels. Limousines are also available.
Located in central Egypt, Luxor International Airport serves the Nile Valley and acts as a gateway to tourist destinations of the region. It has connections from the UK, Germany, Russia, France, Italy, and Turkey. Two terminals serve international and domestic flights, with a number of Egyptian carriers including Air Cairo and Egypt Air operating from the airport. The airport is located close to the city centre and taxis, limos and regular buses are available for transfers into the city.
Egyptian Railways is the backbone of passenger transportation in Egypt, with 800 million passenger miles annually.
Air-conditioned passenger trains usually have 1st and 2nd class service, while non-airconditioned trains will have 2nd and 3rd class. Most of the network connects the densely populated area of the Nile delta with Cairo and Alexandria as hubs.
The Alexandria-Cairo-Luxor-Aswan link is served daily in both directions by air-conditioned sleeper trains of Abela Egypt. This service is especially attractive to tourists who can spend the night on the train as it covers the stretch between Cairo and Luxor. A luxury express train also connects Cairo with Marsa Matruh towards the Libyan border.
The currency in Egypt is the Egyptian pound E£ or ج.م – can also be abbreviated as EGP and sometimes, LE or L.E. (which stands for livre égyptienne, French for "Egyptian pound"). The 1/100th unit of EGP is the Piastre. The approximate official exchange rate for $1 USD is E£17.97 EGP as of December 2016. The Central Bank of Egypt controls the circulation of currency. As of May 2009, the currency notes in circulation have a denomination of EGP 200, 100, 50, 20, 5, 1 and Piastres 50, 25.
There is no limit on the amount of currency which the visitors may bring to Egypt, however, they must declare the currency and amount upon arrival and departure with bank receipts. There may be restrictions on the amount of currency that can be taken outside of Egypt so it is best to check with your hotel or a local bank to confirm the amount, but generally it should not exceed E£5,000.
Peak tourist season in Egypt runs from mid October to May, during winter and spring. From May until October daytime temperatures are relatively high, especially in Luxor and the southern parts of the country.
Egypt is one of the hottest and sunniest countries in the world. With the exception of a strip along the Mediterranean coast, Egypt has a desert climate, being entirely within the Sahara. The Mediterranean coastal strip has an average annual rainfall of 100–200 mm. In central and southern Egypt several years may pass without any significant rain.
Winters are generally warm in the south of Egypt, but temperatures fall abruptly at night, especially in the desert. In summer southern Egypt is very hot with low air humidity.
Al-Mahmeya, a National Protected Park in Hurghada
Al-Azhar Mosque, built in the Fatimid era in Cairo
The Mosque of Mohamed Ali Pasha in Cairo
The Mosque of the Imam Al-Husayn, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammed in Cairo
The Great Pyramids of Giza in Giza
The Luxor Temple in Luxor
Temple of Ramesses II in Abu Simbel
Temple of Nefertari in Abu Simbel
Archangel Michael's Coptic Orthodox Church in Coptic Style in Aswan
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