Toto Sudarto Bachtiar
His better-known poems include Pahlawan Tak Dikenal (Unknown Heroes), Gadis Peminta-minta (The Begging Girl), Ibukota Senja (Twilight Capital), Kemerdekaan (Independence), Ode I, Ode II, and Tentang Kemerdekaan (About Independence).
Bachtiar's poetry has been described as having "a haunting lyric grace", but it is notoriously difficult to understand. His verses do not correspond to syntactic units, he hardly uses any punctuation, and words often do not have a literal meaning. As A. Teeuw described it,
What makes this poetry so difficult to understand is the obscurity of its syntactical connections. ... and in addition to this there is his strongly associative, often symbolic use of words. ... Altogether this makes reading these poems very much a matter of groping in the dark. ... [However,] Toto Sudarto Bachtiar is one of the few really original [Indonesian] poets since 1950.— A. Teeuw, 1967. Modern Indonesian literature, p. 211.
- antaranews.com. "Penyair Totot Sudarto Bachtiar Meninggal Dunia - ANTARA News". Antara News (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2018-07-08.
- Burton Raffel, 1967. The Development of Modern Indonesian Poetry. SUNY Press.