TOP500

  (Redirected from Top500)

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world. The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year. The first of these updates always coincides with the International Supercomputing Conference in June, and the second is presented at the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference in November. The project aims to provide a reliable basis for tracking and detecting trends in high-performance computing and bases rankings on HPL,[1] a portable implementation of the high-performance LINPACK benchmark written in Fortran for distributed-memory computers.

TOP500
Top500 logo.png
Key people
Established24 June 1993 (1993-06-24)
Websitewww.top500.org

Currently the latest TOP500 list is the 56th published in November 2020. Since June 2020, the Japanese Fugaku is the world's most powerful supercomputer, reaching initially 415.53 petaFLOPS and 442.01 petaFlops after an update in November 2020 on the LINPACK benchmarks. China currently dominates the list with 212 supercomputers, leading the second place (United States) by a record margin of 113. Ranked by performance the post powerful supercomputers are located in the US (669 petaFLOPS). Followed by Japan (594 petaFLOPS) and China (564 petaFLOPS).

The TOP500 list is compiled by Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and until his death in 2014, Hans Meuer of the University of Mannheim, Germany.

The TOP500 project lists also Green500 and HPCG benchmark list.

HistoryEdit

 
Rapid growth of supercomputer performance, based on data from top500.org site. The loga­rithmic y-axis shows performance in GFLOPS.
  Combined performance of 500 largest supercomputers
  Fastest supercomputer
  Supercomputer in 500th place

In the early 1990s, a new definition of supercomputer was needed to produce meaningful statistics. After experimenting with metrics based on processor count in 1992, the idea arose at the University of Mannheim to use a detailed listing of installed systems as the basis. In early 1993, Jack Dongarra was persuaded to join the project with his LINPACK benchmarks. A first test version was produced in May 1993, partly based on data available on the Internet, including the following sources:[2][3]

  • "List of the World's Most Powerful Computing Sites" maintained by Gunter Ahrendt[4]
  • David Kahaner, the director of the Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP);[5] published a report in 1992, titled "Kahaner Report on Supercomputer in Japan"[3] which had an immense amount of data.[citation needed]

The information from those sources was used for the first two lists. Since June 1993, the TOP500 is produced bi-annually based on site and vendor submissions only.

Since 1993, performance of the No. 1 ranked position has grown steadily in accordance with Moore's law, doubling roughly every 14 months. As of June 2018, Summit was fastest with an Rpeak[6] of 187.6593 PFLOPS. For comparison, this is over 1,432,513 times faster than the Connection Machine CM-5/1024 (1,024 cores), which was the fastest system in November 1993 (twenty-five years prior) with an Rpeak of 131.0 GFLOPS.[7]

Architecture and operating systemsEdit

 
Share of processor architecture families in TOP500 supercomputers by time trend

As of November 2020, all supercomputers on TOP500 are 64-bit, mostly based on CPUs using the x86-64 instruction set architecture (of which 459 are Intel EMT64-based and 22 are AMD AMD64-based. The few exceptions are all based on RISC architectures). Thirteen supercomputers, including the no 2. and no. 3 are based on the Power ISA used by IBM POWER microprocessors, three on Fujitsu-designed SPARC64 chips. One computer uses another non-US design, the Japanese PEZY-SC (based on the British ARM[8]) as an accelerator paired with Intel's Xeon.

In recent years heterogeneous computing, mostly using Nvidia's graphics processing units (GPU) or Intel's x86-based Xeon Phi as coprocessors, has dominated the TOP500 because of better performance per watt ratios and often providing higher absolute performance. The only major recent exceptions being the aforementioned Fugaku, Sunway TaihuLight and K computer. Tianhe-2 is also an interesting exception, as while it does use accelerators (just not GPUs), i.e. Xeon Phi, US sanctions blocked the upgrade, but still the upgraded Tianhe-2A is faster with non-US-based Matrix-2000,[9] accelerators which where exploited ahead of schedule. Frontera supercomputer, ranked 5th at debut, based on 28-core (56-thread) Intel Xeon Platinum is also an exception, as it was measured without help of GPUs which were later added,[10] but it has two subsystems, both with Nvidia GPUs, and one of them additionally with POWER9 CPUs, and the other liquid immersion cooling.[11][12]

Two computers which first appeared on the list in 2018 are based on architectures never before seen on the Top500. One was a new x86-64 microarchitecture from Chinese manufacturer Sugon, using Hygon Dhyana CPUs (these result from a collaboration with AMD, and are a minor variant of Zen-based AMD EPYC) and is ranked 38th,[13] and the other was the first ever ARM-based computer on the list (then upgraded for June 2019) – using Cavium ThunderX2 CPUs.[14] Before the ascendancy of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up most TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC, and Alpha.

All the fastest supercomputers in the decade since the Earth Simulator supercomputer have used operating systems based on Linux. Since November 2017, all the listed supercomputers use an operating system based on the Linux kernel.[15][16]

Since November 2015, no computer on the list runs Windows. In November 2014, Windows Azure[17] cloud computer was no longer on the list of fastest supercomputers (its best rank was 165 in 2012), leaving the Shanghai Supercomputer Center's Magic Cube as the only Windows-based supercomputer on the list, until it was also dropped off from the list. It was ranked 436 in its last appearance on the list released in June 2015, while its best rank was 11 in 2008.[18] There are no longer any Mac OS computers on the list. It had at most five such systems at a time, one more than the Windows systems that came later, while the total performance share for Windows was higher. The relative performance share of the whole list was however similar, and never high for either.

It has been well over a decade since MIPS systems dropped entirely off the list[19] while the Gyoukou supercomputer that jumped to 4th place in November 2017 (after a huge upgrade) has MIPS as a small part of the coprocessors. Use of 2,048-core coprocessors (plus 8× 6-core MIPS, for each, that "no longer require to rely on an external Intel Xeon E5 host processor"[20]) make the supercomputer much more energy efficient than the other top 10 (i.e. it is 5th on Green500 and other such ZettaScaler-2.2-based systems take first three spots).[21] At 19.86 million cores, it is by far the biggest system: almost double that of the best manycore system in the TOP500, the Chinese Sunway TaihuLight, ranked 3rd.

TOP 500Edit

After an upgrade, as of 56th TOP500 in November 2020,

Fugaku grew its HPL performance to 442 petaflops, a modest increase from the 416 petaflops the system achieved when it debuted in June 2020. More significantly, Fugaku increased its performance on the new mixed precision HPC-AI benchmark to 2.0 exaflops, besting its 1.4 exaflops mark recorded six months ago. These represents the first benchmark measurements above one exaflop for any precision on any type of hardware.[22]

From the 52nd list (November 2018) to the 53rd list (June 2019), the Xeon Platinum-based Frontera is the only new top-10 supercomputer, then 5th fastest and the upgraded POWER9-based Lassen moved from 11th to 10th.[23] Sequoia became the last Blue Gene/Q model to drop completely off the list; it had been ranked 10th on the 52nd list (and 1st on the June 2012, 41st list, after an upgrade).

For the first time, all 500 systems deliver a petaflop or more on the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark, with the entry level to the list now at 1.022 petaflops." However, for a different benchmark "Summit and Sierra remain the only two systems to exceed a petaflop on the HPCG benchmark, delivering 2.9 petaflops and 1.8 petaflops, respectively. The average HPCG result on the current list is 213.3 teraflops, a marginal increase from 211.2 six months ago.[24]

Since November 2020, the last computer on the list delivers a Rmax performance of 1.3 petaflops.

Top 10 positions of the 56th TOP500 in November 2020[25]
Rank (previous) Rmax
Rpeak
(PFLOPS)
Name Model CPU cores Accelerator (e.g. GPU) cores Interconnect Manufacturer Site
country, year
Year Operating
system
1 442.010
537.212
Fugaku Supercomputer Fugaku 158.976 × 48 A64FX @2.2 GHz 0 Tofu interconnect D Fujitsu RIKEN Center for Computational Science
  Japan
2020 Linux (RHEL)
2  (1) 148.600
200.795
Summit IBM Power System
AC922
9.216 × 22 POWER9 @3.07 GHz 27.648 × 80 Tesla V100 InfiniBand EDR IBM Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  United States
2018 Linux (RHEL)
3  (2) 94.640
125.712
Sierra IBM Power System
S922LC
8.640 × 22 POWER9 @3.1 GHz 17.280 × 80 Tesla V100 InfiniBand EDR IBM Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  United States
2018 Linux (RHEL)
4  (3) 93.015
125.436
Sunway
TaihuLight
Sunway MPP 40.960 × 260 SW26010 @1.45 GHz 0 Sunway[26] NRCPC National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi
  China[26]
2016 Linux (Raise)
5  (7) 63.460
79.215
Selene Nvidia 1120 × 64 Epyc 7742 @2.25 GHz 4480 × 108 Ampere A100 Mellanox HDR Infiniband Nvidia Nvidia
  United States
2020 Linux (Ubuntu)
6  (5) 61.445
100.679
Tianhe-2A TH-IVB-FEP 35.584 × 12 Xeon E5–2692 v2 @2.2 GHz 35.584 × 128 Matrix-2000[27] TH Express-2 NUDT National Supercomputing Center in Guangzhou
  China
2013 Linux (Kylin)
7  (new) 44.120
70.980
JUWELS
(booster module)[28]
BULL Sequana XH2000 1872 × 24 AMD EPYC 7402 @2.8 GHz 3744 × 108 Ampere A100 Mellanox HDR Infiniband ATOS Forschungszentrum Jülich in   Germany 2020 Linux (CentOS)
8  (6) 35.450
51.721
HPC5 Dell 3.640 × 24 Xeon Gold 6252 @2.1 GHz 7280 × 80 Tesla V100 Mellanox HDR Infiniband Dell EMC Eni
  Italy
2020 Linux (CentOS)
9   (8) 23.516
38.746
Frontera Dell C6420 16.016 × 28 Xeon Platinum 8280 @2.7 GHz (subsystems with e.g.
POWER9 CPUs and Nvidia GPUs were added after official benchmarking[10])
0 InfiniBand HDR Dell EMC Texas Advanced Computing Center
  United States
2019 Linux (CentOS)
10 (new) 22.400
55.424
DAMMAM-7 CRAY CS-Storm 1978 × Xeon Gold 6248 @2.5 GHz 7912 × 80 Tesla V100 InfiniBand HDR 100 Cray Saudi Aramco
  Saudi Arabia
2020 Linux (RHEL)

Legend:[29]

  • Rank – Position within the TOP500 ranking. In the TOP500 list table, the computers are ordered first by their Rmax value. In the case of equal performances (Rmax value) for different computers, the order is by Rpeak. For sites that have the same computer, the order is by memory size and then alphabetically.
  • Rmax – The highest score measured using the LINPACK benchmarks suite. This is the number that is used to rank the computers. Measured in quadrillions of 64 bit floating point operations per second, i.e., petaFLOPS.[30]
  • Rpeak – This is the theoretical peak performance of the system. Computed in petaFLOPS.
  • Name – Some supercomputers are unique, at least on its location, and are thus named by their owner.
  • Model – The computing platform as it is marketed.
  • Processor – The instruction set architecture or processor microarchitecture, alongside GPU and accelerators when available.
  • Interconnect – The interconnect between computing nodes. InfiniBand is most used (38%) by performance share, while Gigabit Ethernet is most used (54%) by number of computers.
  • Manufacturer – The manufacturer of the platform and hardware.
  • Site – The name of the facility operating the supercomputer.
  • Country – The country in which the computer is located.
  • Year – The year of installation or last major update.
  • Operating system – The operating system that the computer uses.

Other rankingsEdit

Top countriesEdit

Numbers below represent the number of computers in the TOP500 that are in each of the listed countries or territories.

Distribution of supercomputers in the TOP500 list by country (June 2020)[31]
Country or Territory Systems
  China
213
  United States
113
  Japan
34
  France
18
  Germany
17
  Netherlands
15
  Ireland
14
  Canada
12
  United Kingdom
12
  Italy
6
  Saudi Arabia
5
  Brazil
4
  Singapore
4
  Taiwan
3
  Norway
3
   Switzerland
3
  India
3
  South Korea
3
  Sweden
2
  United Arab Emirates
2
  Finland
2
  Australia
2
  Poland
2
  Russia
2
  Czechia
1
  Hong Kong (China)
1
  Austria
1
  Spain
1
  Morocco
1

Systems ranked No. 1 since 1976Edit

Additional StatisticsEdit

By number of systems as of November 2020:[64]


The oldest system is currently the Endeavour at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at NASA Ames Research Center. It initially appeared on the 35th list in June 2010 with a Rmax of 50,3 teraFLOPS ranked as no. 112. After several updates this system is ranked as no. 328 with a Rmax of 1.654 teraFLOPS.

Sunway TaihuLight is the system with the most number of CPU-Cores (10.649.600). Tianhe-2 has the most GPU/accelerator cores (4.554.752). Fugaku is the system with the greatest power consumption with 29.900 megawatts. The highest CPU clock speed has an unnamed system which is ranked at no. 436 with 3.836 MHz.

New developments in supercomputingEdit

In November 2014, it was announced that the United States was developing two new supercomputers to exceed China's Tianhe-2 in its place as world's fastest supercomputer. The two computers, Sierra and Summit, will each exceed Tianhe-2's 55 peak petaflops. Summit, the more powerful of the two, will deliver 150–300 peak petaflops.[65] On 10 April 2015, US government agencies banned selling chips, from Nvidia to supercomputing centers in China as "acting contrary to the national security ... interests of the United States";[66] and Intel Corporation from providing Xeon chips to China due to their use, according to the US, in researching nuclear weapons – research to which US export control law bans US companies from contributing – "The Department of Commerce refused, saying it was concerned about nuclear research being done with the machine."[67]

On 29 July 2015, President Obama signed an executive order creating a National Strategic Computing Initiative calling for the accelerated development of an exascale (1000 petaflop) system and funding research into post-semiconductor computing.[68]

In June 2016, Japanese firm Fujitsu announced at the International Supercomputing Conference that its future exascale supercomputer will feature processors of its own design that implement the ARMv8 architecture. The Flagship2020 program, by Fujitsu for RIKEN plans to break the exaflops barrier by 2020 through the Fugaku supercomputer, (and "it looks like China and France have a chance to do so and that the United States is content – for the moment at least – to wait until 2023 to break through the exaflops barrier."[69]) These processors will also implement extensions to the ARMv8 architecture equivalent to HPC-ACE2 that Fujitsu is developing with ARM Holdings.[69]

In June 2016, Sunway TaihuLight became the No. 1 system with 93 petaflop/s (PFLOP/s) on the Linpack benchmark.[70]

In November 2016, Piz Daint was upgraded, moving it from 8th to 3rd, leaving the US with no systems under the TOP3 for only the 2nd time ever.[71][72]

Inspur has been one of the largest HPC system manufacturer based out of Jinan, China. As of May 2017, Inspur has become the third manufacturer to have manufactured 64-way system – a record which has been previously mastered by IBM and HP. The company has registered over $10B in revenues and have successfully provided a number of HPC systems to countries outside China such as Sudan, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela. Inspur was also a major technology partner behind both the supercomputers from China, namely Tianhe-2 and Taihu which lead the top 2 positions of Top500 supercomputer list up to November 2017. Inspur and Supermicro released a few platforms aimed at HPC using GPU such as SR-AI and AGX-2 in May 2017.[73]

In November 2017, for the second time in a row there were no system from the USA under the TOP3. #1 and #2 were installed in China, a system in Switzerland at #3, and a new system in Japan was #4 pushing the top US system to #5.[74]

In June 2018, Summit, an IBM-built system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, USA, took the #1 spot with a performance of 122.3 petaflop/s (PFLOP/s), and Sierra, a very similar system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA, USA took #3. These two system took also the first two spots on the HPCG benchmark. Due to Summit and Sierra, the USA took back the lead as consumer of HPC performance with 38.2% of the overall installed performance while China was second with 29.1% of the overall installed performance. For the first time ever, the leading HPC manufacturer is not a US company. Lenovo took the lead with 23.8 percent of systems installed. It is followed by HPE with 15.8 percent, Inspur with 13.6 percent, Cray with 11.2 percent, and Sugon with 11 percent. [75]

On 18 March 2019, the United States Department of Energy and Intel announced the first exaFLOP supercomputer would be operational at Argonne National Laboratory by the end of 2021. The computer, named Aurora, is to be delivered to Argonne by Intel and Cray.[76][77]

On 7 May 2019, The U.S. Department of Energy announced a contract with Cray to build the "Frontier" supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Frontier is anticipated to be operational in 2021 and, with a performance of greater than 1.5 exaflops, should then be the world's most powerful computer.[78]

As of June 2019, all TOP500 systems deliver a petaflop or more on the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark, with the entry level to the list now at 1.022 petaflops.[79]

Large machines not on the listEdit

Some major systems are not on the list. The largest example is the NCSA's Blue Waters which publicly announced the decision not to participate in the list[80] because they do not feel it accurately indicates the ability of any system to do useful work.[81] Other organizations decide not to list systems for security and/or commercial competitiveness reasons. Additional purpose-built machines that are not capable or do not run the benchmark were not included, such as RIKEN MDGRAPE-3 and MDGRAPE-4.

Computers and architectures that have dropped off the listEdit

IBM Roadrunner[82] is no longer on the list (nor is any other using the Cell coprocessor, or PowerXCell).

Although Itanium-based systems reached second rank in 2004,[83][84] none now remain.

Similarly (non-SIMD-style) vector processors (NEC-based such as the Earth simulator that was fastest in 2002[85]) have also fallen off the list. Also the Sun Starfire computers that occupied many spots in the past now no longer appear.

The last non-Linux computers on the list – the two AIX ones – running on POWER7 (in July 2017 ranked 494th and 495th[86] originally 86th and 85th), dropped off the list in November 2017.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A. Petitet, R. C. Whaley, J. Dongarra, A. Cleary (24 February 2016). "HPL – A Portable Implementation of the High-Performance Linpack Benchmark for Distributed-Memory Computers". ICL – UTK Computer Science Department. Retrieved 22 September 2016.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ "An Interview with Jack Dongarra by Alan Beck, editor in chief HPCwire". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  3. ^ a b "Statistics on Manufacturers and Continents".
  4. ^ "The TOP25 Supercomputer Sites". Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2015.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  5. ^ "Where does Asia stand? This rising supercomputing power is reaching for real-world HPC leadership". Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  6. ^ Rpeak – This is the theoretical peak performance of the system. Measured in PFLOPS.
  7. ^ "Sublist Generator". Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  8. ^ "PEZY-SC - PEZY". wikichip.org. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  9. ^ "Matrix-2000 - NUDT - WikiChip". en.wikichip.org. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Frontera named fifth fastest supercomputer in the world" (Press release). 17 June 2019. Frontera is unique among the top systems in the world in its use of Intel Xeon processors to provide its primary computing power. [..] Frontera will add a NVIDIA GPU subsystem later this summer, providing further performance.
  11. ^ "Frontera System - Texas Advanced Computing Center". www.tacc.utexas.edu. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  12. ^ Kharya, Paresh (3 September 2019). "World's Fastest Academic Supercomputer Wields GPUs | NVIDIA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  13. ^ "Advanced Computing System(PreE) - Sugon TC8600, Hygon Dhyana 32C 2GHz, Deep Computing Processor, 200Gb 6D-Torus | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Astra - Apollo 70, Cavium ThunderX2 CN9975-2000 28C 2GHz, 4xEDR Infiniband | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  15. ^ "Top500 – List Statistics". www.top500.org. November 2017.
  16. ^ "Linux Runs All of the World's Fastest Supercomputers". The Linux Foundation. 20 November 2017. Archived from the original on 26 November 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Microsoft Windows Azure".
  18. ^ "Magic Cube – Dawning 5000A, QC Opteron 1.9 GHz, Infiniband, Windows HPC 2008".
  19. ^ "ORIGIN 2000 195/250 MHz | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  20. ^ "PEZY-SC2 - PEZY". Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  21. ^ "The 2,048-core PEZY-SC2 sets a Green500 record". WikiChip Fuse. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017. Powering the ZettaScaler-2.2 is the PEZY-SC2. The SC2 is a second-generation chip featuring twice as many cores – i.e., 2,048 cores with 8-way SMT for a total of 16,384 threads. [..] The first-generation SC incorporated two ARM926 cores and while that was sufficient for basic management and debugging its processing power was inadequate for much more. The SC2 uses a hexa-core P-Class P6600 MIPS processor which share the same memory address as the PEZY cores, improving performance and reducing data transfer overhead. With the powerful MIPS management cores, it is now also possible to entirely eliminate the Xeon host processor. However, PEZY has not done so yet.
  22. ^ "November 2020 | TOP500". www.top500.org. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  23. ^ "June 2019 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  24. ^ "TOP500 Becomes a Petaflop Club for Supercomputers | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  25. ^ "November 2020 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  26. ^ a b "China Tops Supercomputer Rankings with New 93-Petaflop Machine – TOP500 Supercomputer Sites".
  27. ^ "Matrix-2000 - NUDT - WikiChip". en.wikichip.org. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  28. ^ "Forschungszentrum Jülich - Press releases - A turbocharger for the supercomputer JUWELS". www.fz-juelich.de. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  29. ^ "TOP500 DESCRIPTION". www.top500.org. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  30. ^ "FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS". www.top500.org. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  31. ^ "LIST STATISTICS". Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  32. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2020.
  33. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2019.
  34. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2019.
  35. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2018.
  36. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2018.
  37. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2017.
  38. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2017.
  39. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2016.
  40. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2016.
  41. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2015.
  42. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2015.
  43. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2014.
  44. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2014.
  45. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2013.
  46. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2013.
  47. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2012.
  48. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2012.
  49. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2011.
  50. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2011.
  51. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2010.
  52. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2010.
  53. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2009.
  54. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2009.
  55. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2008.
  56. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". June 2008.
  57. ^ "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". November 2007.
  58. ^ "June 2020". June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  59. ^ Summit, an IBM-built supercomputer now running at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), captured the number one spot June 2018 with a performance of 122.3 petaflops on High Performance Linpack (HPL), the benchmark used to rank the TOP500 list. Summit has 4,356 nodes, each one equipped with two 22-core Power9 CPUs, and six NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs. The nodes are linked together with a Mellanox dual-rail EDR InfiniBand network."TOP500 List - June 2018". The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  60. ^ Advanced reports that Oak Ridge National Laboratory was fielding the world’s fastest supercomputer were proven correct when the 40th edition of the twice-yearly TOP500 List of the world’s top supercomputers was released today (Nov. 12, 2012). Titan, a Cray XK7 system installed at Oak Ridge, achieved 17.59 Petaflop/s (quadrillions of calculations per second) on the Linpack benchmark. Titan has 560,640 processors, including 261,632 NVIDIA K20x accelerator cores."TOP500 List - November 2012". The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  61. ^ For the first time since November 2009, a United States supercomputer sits atop the TOP500 list of the world’s top supercomputers. Named Sequoia, the IBM BlueGene/Q system installed at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory achieved an impressive 16.32 petaflop/s on the Linpack benchmark using 1,572,864 cores."TOP500 List - June 2012". The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  62. ^ The DOE/IBM BlueGene/L beta-System was able to claim the No. 1 position on the new TOP500 list with its record Linpack benchmark performance of 70.72 Tflop/s (“teraflops” or trillions of calculations per second). This system, once completed, will be moved to the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif."TOP500 List - November 2004". The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 November 2004. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  63. ^ ASCI Red a Sandia National Laboratories machine with 7264 Intel cores nabbed the #1 position in June of 1997."TOP500 List -June 1997". The TOP500 List of the 500 most powerful commercially available computer systems known. The TOP500 project. 30 June 1997. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  64. ^ "List Statistics". Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  65. ^ Balthasar, Felix. "US Government Funds $425 million to build two new Supercomputers". News Maine. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  66. ^ "Nuclear worries stop Intel from selling chips to Chinese supercomputers". CNN. 10 April 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  67. ^ "US nuclear fears block Intel China supercomputer update".
  68. ^ "Executive Order -- Creating a National Strategic Computing Initiative" (Executive order). The White House – Office of the Press Secretary. 29 July 2015. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018.
  69. ^ a b Morgan, Timothy Prickett. "Inside Japan's Future Exascale ARM Supecomputer". The Next Platform. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  70. ^ "Highlights - June 2016 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
  71. ^ "Highlights - June 2017 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
  72. ^ "TOP500 List Refreshed, US Edged Out of Third Place | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
  73. ^ "Supermicro, Inspur, Boston Limited Unveil High-Density GPU Servers | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  74. ^ "Highlights - November 2017 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
  75. ^ "Highlights - June 2018 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
  76. ^ "U.S. Department of Energy and Intel to deliver first exascale supercomputer1". Argonne National Laboratory. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  77. ^ Clark, Don (18 March 2019). "Racing Against China, U.S. Reveals Details of $500 Million Supercomputer". The New York Times.
  78. ^ "U.S. Department of Energy and Cray to Deliver Record-Setting Frontier Supercomputer at ORNL". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  79. ^ "TOP500 Becomes a Petaflop Club for Supercomputers | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
  80. ^ Blue Waters Opts Out of TOP500 (article), 16 November 2012
  81. ^ Kramer, William, Top500 versus Sustained Performance – Or the Ten Problems with the TOP500 List – And What to Do About Them. 21st International Conference On Parallel Architectures And Compilation Techniques (PACT12), 19–23 September 2012, Minneapolis, MN, US
  82. ^ "Roadrunner – BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 GHz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband". Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  83. ^ "Thunder – Intel Itanium2 Tiger4 1.4GHz – Quadrics". Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  84. ^ "Columbia – SGI Altix 1.5/1.6/1.66 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband". Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  85. ^ "Japan Agency for Marine -Earth Science and Technology". Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  86. ^ "IBM Flex System p460, POWER7 8C 3.550GHz, Infiniband QDR". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites.

External linksEdit