Gulf of Tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnamese: Vịnh Bắc Bộ, simplified Chinese: 北部湾; traditional Chinese: 北部灣; pinyin: Běibù Wān; lit. Northern Gulf; formerly known as 东京湾 or 東京灣 during the ROC period) is a medium-sized gulf at the northwestern portion of the South China Sea, located off the coasts of Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and South China. It is defined in the west and northwest by the northern coastline of Vietnam down to the Hòn La Island, in the north by China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and to the east by the Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island.
|Gulf of Tonkin|
|Traditional Chinese||1. 北部灣|
|Simplified Chinese||1. 北部湾|
|Literal meaning||1. Northern Gulf|
2. Gulf of Tonkin
|Vietnamese||1. Vịnh Bắc Bộ|
2. Vịnh Bắc Phần
3. Vịnh Bắc Việt
|Chữ Nôm||1. 泳北部|
The bay's Vietnamese and Chinese names – Vịnh Bắc Bộ and Běibù Wān, respectively – both mean "Northern Bay". Bắc Bộ is the native Vietnamese name of Tonkin. The name Tonkin, written "東京" in Hán-Nôm characters and Đông Kinh in the Vietnamese alphabet, means "eastern capital", and is the former toponym for Hanoi, the present capital of Vietnam. It should not to be confused with Tokyo, which is also written "東京" and also means "eastern capital". During Vietnam's French colonial era, the northern region was called Tonkin.
On 2 August 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson falsely claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this event spawned the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 7 August 1964, ultimately leading to open war between North Vietnam and the United States. It furthermore foreshadowed the major escalation of the Vietnam War in South Vietnam, which began with the landing of US regular combat troops at Da Nang in 1965.
- "LBJ tape 'confirms Vietnam war error'." Martin Fletcher. The Times. 7 November 2001.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gulf of Tonkin.|
- Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James A., eds. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812243369.
- Churchman, Catherine (2016). The People Between the Rivers: The Rise and Fall of a Bronze Drum Culture, 200–750 CE. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442258600.
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