Thomas Edgar Wheeler (born April 5, 1946) is an American businessman and politician. He was the 31st Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission and a member of the Democratic Party.
|Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission|
November 4, 2013 – January 20, 2017
|Preceded by||Julius Genachowski|
|Succeeded by||Ajit Pai|
|Born||Thomas Edgar Wheeler|
April 5, 1946
Redlands, California, U.S.
|Alma mater||Ohio State University|
He was appointed by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate in November 2013. Prior to working at the FCC, Wheeler worked as a venture capitalist and lobbyist for the cable and wireless industry, whom the FCC is now responsible for regulating, and holding positions including President of the National Cable & Telecommunications Association (NCTA) and CEO of the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA). Following custom for an FCC chairman, Wheeler resigned his seat when the new administration of Donald Trump began on January 20, 2017.
Wheeler was born on April 5, 1946 in Redlands, California. He attended Ohio State University. From 1969 to 1976, Wheeler led the trade group Grocery Manufacturers of America. He then went on to work at the National Cable & Telecommunications Association from 1976 to 1984, becoming president of the trade group in 1979. For a year until its closure, Wheeler was president of NABU Network, before spending a number of years creating or running several different technology startups. In 1992, he became the CEO of the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association, a post he held until 2004. From 2005 Wheeler was a technology entrepreneur and executive at Core Capital Partners.
Originally considered a frontrunner for the position, Wheeler was confirmed as the new Federal Communications Commission chief in November 2013 following a confirmation hearing before the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Despite a letter written by several prominent former Obama administration officials endorsing Wheeler for the position, many people expressed concern over the consideration of Wheeler for the position due to his history of lobbying for industry.
In recognition of his work in promoting the wireless industry, Wheeler was inducted into the Wireless Hall of Fame in 2003 and in 2009, as a result of his work in promoting the growth and prosperity of the cable television industry and its stakeholders was inducted into the Cable Television Hall of Fame. He is the only person who is a member of both halls of fame. Cablevision magazine named Wheeler one of the 20 most influential individuals in its history during cable's 20th anniversary in 1995.
In late April 2014, the contours of a document leaked that indicated that the FCC under Wheeler would consider announcing rules that would violate net neutrality principles by making it easier for companies to pay ISPs (including cable companies and wireless ISPs) to provide faster "lanes" for delivering their content to Internet users. These plans received substantial backlash from activists, the mainstream press, and some other FCC commissioners. In May 2014, over 100 Internet companies—including Google, Microsoft, eBay, and Facebook—signed a letter to Wheeler voicing their disagreement with his plans, saying they represented a "grave threat to the Internet". As of May 15, 2014, the "Internet fast lane" rules passed with a 3–2 vote. They were then open to public discussion that ended July 2014.
In November 2014, President Obama gave a speech endorsing the classification of ISPs as utilities under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934. Wheeler stated in January 2015 that the FCC was "going to propose rules that say no blocking, no throttling, no paid prioritization" at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. On January 31, 2015, the Associated Press reported the FCC will present the notion of applying ("with some caveats") Title II (common carrier) of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on February 26, 2015. Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of telecommunications and, according to Wheeler, ensure US net neutrality. The FCC was expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to the New York Times.
On February 26, 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 of the Telecommunications act of 1996 to the Internet. Wheeler commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On March 12, 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On April 13, 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations.
Critics said that Wheeler was unduly influenced by Obama in changing his stance on net neutrality. In addition, journalists and advocates have expressed concern regarding the potential for inappropriate involvement by the White House over rule making at the FCC, which is supposed to be an independent agency. During a House Oversight Committee hearing in March 2015, Republicans disclosed that Wheeler had secretly met with top aides at the White House nine times while the new rules were being formulated. Wheeler responded that the new rules had not been discussed during the meetings. This prompted the committee chairman to state, "You meet with the White House multiple times ... and we're supposed to believe that one of the most important things the FCC has ever done, that this doesn't come up?"
- Wheeler, Tom, Take Command!: Leadership Lessons from the Civil War. New York: Currency Doubleday, 2000. ISBN 0385495188 OCLC 232697696
- Wheeler, Tom, Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: The Untold Story of How Abraham Lincoln Used the Telegraph to Win the Civil War. New York: Collins, 2006. ISBN 006112978X OCLC 70046076
- "Presidential Nominations Sent to the Senate". White House Press Secretary. May 9, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Tom Southwick (July 26, 2000). "Oral Histories: Thomas Wheeler". The Cable Center. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Wheeler, Tom (March 29, 2017). "How the Republicans Sold Your Privacy to Internet Providers". New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- The Editorial Board (March 29, 2017). "Republicans Attack Internet Privacy". New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Allen Cone (December 15, 2016). "FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler to resign". United Press International. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Tom Wheeler: The open internet's unlikely defender". CNET. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Nagesh, Gautham (April 24, 2014). "FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler Makes the Call, Takes the Flak". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Patrick Parsons (April 5, 2008). Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. Temple University Press. p. 377.
- Neel, K.C. (October 26, 2009). "Always Ahead of the Curve.(Core Capital Partners managing director Tom Wheeler)". Multichannel News. via HighBeam (subscription required). Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Gustin, Sam (May 2, 2013). "Tom Wheeler, Former Lobbyist and Obama Fundraiser, Tapped to Lead FCC". TIME. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Jr, Berkeley Lovelace (December 15, 2016). "Net neutrality advocate Tom Wheeler stepping down as FCC chairman". Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Gustin, Sam (April 16, 2013). "Tom Wheeler, Former Lobbyist and Obama Loyalist, Seen as FCC Frontrunner". TIME. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Blanchard, Roy (November 2, 2013). "Tom Wheeler confirmed as new FCC chief". Tech Times. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Nomination of Thomas E. Wheeler to be Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, June 18, 2013
- "Tom Wheeler". Cable Center. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
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- Wyatt, Edward (April 23, 2014). "F.C.C., in a shift, backs fast lanes for web traffic". New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Hattem, Julian (April 25, 2014). "NYT blasts net neutrality proposal". The Hill. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
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- Nagesh, Gautham (May 7, 2014). "Internet Companies, Two FCC Commissioners Disagree With Proposed Broadband Regulations". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Edwards, Haley Sweetland (May 15, 2014). "FCC Votes to Move Forward on Internet 'Fast Lane'". Time. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Wheeler: Obama didn't influence net neutrality vote Yahoo! Finance, March 3, 2015
- FCC Head Plans to Heed Obama Blueprint to Ban Web Fast Lanes Dallas Morning News, January 7, 2015
- Title II for Internet providers is all but confirmed by FCC chairman Ars Technica, January 7, 2015
- Lohr, Steve (February 2, 2015). "In Net Neutrality Push, F.C.C. Is Expected to Propose Regulating Internet Service as a Utility". New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
- Lohr, Steve (February 2, 2015). "F.C.C. Chief Wants to Override State Laws Curbing Community Net Services". New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
- Flaherty, Anne (January 31, 2015). "Just whose Internet is it? New federal rules may answer that". Associated Press. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- Fung, Brian (January 2, 2015). "Get ready: The FCC says it will vote on net neutrality in February". Washington Post. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- "FCC to vote next month on net neutrality rules". Associated Press. January 2, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- Lohr, Steve (February 4, 2015). "F.C.C. Plans Strong Hand to Regulate the Internet". New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Wheeler, Tom (February 4, 2015). "FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler: This Is How We Will Ensure Net Neutrality". Wired. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- The Editorial Board (February 6, 2015). "Courage and Good Sense at the F.C.C. - Net Neutrality's Wise New Rules". New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Weisman, Jonathan (February 24, 2015). "As Republicans Concede, F.C.C. Is Expected to Enforce Net Neutrality". New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- Lohr, Steve (February 25, 2015). "The Push for Net Neutrality Arose From Lack of Choice". New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "FCC Adopts Strong, Sustainable Rules To Protect The Open Internet" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. February 26, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Lohr, Steve (February 26, 2015). "In Net Neutrality Victory, F.C.C. Classifies Broadband Internet Service as a Public Utility". New York Times. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Flaherty, Anne (February 25, 2015). "FACT CHECK: Talking heads skew 'net neutrality' debate". Associated Press. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Liebelson, Dana (February 26, 2015). "Net Neutrality Prevails In Historic FCC Vote". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Bennett, Richard. "The Internet has lots of problems but net neutrality isn't the most pressing". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (March 12, 2015). "F.C.C. Sets Net Neutrality Rules". New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Sommer, Jeff (March 12, 2015). "What the Net Neutrality Rules Say". New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- "Federal Communications Commission – FCC 15-24 – In the Matter of Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet – GN Docket No. 14-28 – Report and Order on Remand, Declaratory Ruling, and Order" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. March 12, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Reisinger, Don (April 13, 2015). "Net neutrality rules get published -- let the lawsuits begin". CNET. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Federal Communications Commission (April 13, 2015). "Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet – A Rule by the Federal Communications Commission on 04/13/2015". Federal Register. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- "Why you should support net neutrality". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Hattem, Julian (March 17, 2015). "FCC head has no answer for FOIA redactions". The Hill. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Hattem, Julian (March 17, 2015). "Republicans confront FCC chief about secret White House meetings". The Hill. Retrieved March 11, 2016.