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Tokugawa Yoshimune (徳川 吉宗, November 27, 1684 – July 12, 1751) was the eighth Shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Tokugawa Yoshimune
Tokugawa Yoshimune.jpg
In office
Monarch Nakamikado
Preceded by Tokugawa Ietsugu
Succeeded by Tokugawa Ieshige
Personal details
Born (1684-11-27)November 27, 1684
Died July 12, 1751(1751-07-12) (aged 66)
Father Tokugawa Mitsusada



Yoshimune was not the son of any former shogun. Rather, he was a member of a cadet branch of the Tokugawa clan. Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, well aware of the extinction of the Minamoto line in 1219, had realized that his direct descendants might die out, leaving the Tokugawa family at risk of extinction. Thus, while his son Tokugawa Hidetada was the second shogun, he selected three other sons to establish the gosanke, hereditary houses which would provide a shogun if there were no male heir. The three gosanke were the Owari, Kii, and Mito branches.

Yoshimune was from the branch of Kii. The founder of the Kii house was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons, Tokugawa Yorinobu. Ieyasu appointed him daimyō of Kii. Yorinobu's son, Tokugawa Mitsusada, succeeded him. Two of Mitsusada's sons succeeded him, and when they died, Tokugawa Yoshimune, Mitsusada's fourth son, became daimyō of Kii in 1705. Later, he became shogun.

Yoshimune was closely related to the Tokugawa shoguns. His grandfather, Tokugawa Yorinobu, was a brother of second shogun Tokugawa Hidetada, while Yoshimune's father, Tokugawa Mitsusada, was a first cousin of third shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu. Yoshimune thus was a second cousin to the fourth and fifth shoguns (both brothers) Tokugawa Ietsuna and Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, as well as a second cousin to Tokugawa Tsunashige, whose son became Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu.

Early life (1684–1716)Edit

Tokugawa Yoshimune was born in 1684 in the rich region of Kii, a region which was then ruled by his father, Tokugawa Mitsusada. Yoshimune's childhood name was Tokugawa Genroku (徳川 源六). At that time, his second cousin Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was ruling in Edo as shogun. Kii was a rich region of over 500,000 koku, but it was still in debt. Even during Mitsusada's time, Kii was in deep debt and had a lot to pay back to the shogunate.

In 1697, Genroku underwent the rites of passage and took the name Tokugawa Shinnosuke (徳川 新之助). In 1715, when Shinnosuke was just 21 years old, his father Mitsusada and two older brothers died. Thus, the ruling shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi appointed him daimyō of Kii. He took the name Tokugawa Yorimasa (頼方) and began to administer the province. Nonetheless, great financial debt which the domain had owed to the shogunate since his father's and even grandfather's time continued to burden the finances. What made things worse was that in 1707, a tsunami destroyed and killed many in the coastal areas of Kii Province. Yorimasa did his best to try to stabilize things in Kii, but relied on leadership from Edo.

In 1712, Shogun Ienobu died, and was succeeded by his son, the boy-shogun Tokugawa Ietsugu. Yorimasa decided that he could not rely on conservative Confucianists like Arai Hakuseki in Edo and did what he could to stabilize Kii Domain. Before he could implement changes, Shogun Ietsugu died in early 1716. He was only seven years old, and died without an heir, rule thus shogunate selected the next shogun from one of the cadet lines.


Shogun (1716–1745)Edit

Yoshimune succeeded to the post of the shogun in Shōtoku-1 (1716).[1] His term as shogun would last for 30 years. Yoshimune is considered among the best of the Tokugawa shoguns.[2]

Yoshimune established the gosankyō to augment (or perhaps to replace) the gosanke. Two of his sons, together with the second son of his successor Ieshige, became the founders of the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi and Shimizu lines. Unlike the gosanke, they did not rule domains. Still, they remained prominent until the end of Tokugawa rule, and some later shoguns were chosen from the Hitotsubashi line.

Yoshimune is known for his financial reforms. He dismissed the conservative adviser Arai Hakuseki and he began what would come to be known as the Kyōhō Reforms.

Yoshimune also tried to resurrect the Japanese swordsmithing tradition. Since the beginning of the Edo period, it was quite difficult for smiths to make a living and to be supported by Daimyō, because of the lack of funds. But Yoshimune was quite unhappy with this situation, causing a decline of skills. And so, he gathered smiths from Daimyō fiefs for a great contest, in 1721. The four winners who emerged were all great masters, Mondo no Shô Masakiyo (主水正正清), Ippei Yasuyo (一平安代), the 4th generation Nanki Shigekuni (南紀重国) and Nobukuni Shigekane (信国重包). But it did not work well to arouse interest, quite like tournaments in modern Japan.

Yoshimune also ordered the compilation of Kyōhō Meibutsu Chō (享保名物帳), listing the best and most famous swords all over Japan. This book allowed the beginning of the Shinshintō period of Nihontō history, and indirectly contributed to the Gassan school, who protected the Nihontō tradition before and after the surrender of Japan.

Although foreign books had been strictly forbidden since 1640, Yoshimune relaxed the rules in 1720, starting an influx of foreign books and their translations into Japan, and initiating the development of Western studies, or rangaku.

Ogosho (1745–1751)Edit

In 1745, Yoshimune retired, took the title Ōgosho and left his public post to his oldest son. The title is the one that Tokugawa Ieyasu took on retirement in favor of his son Hidetada, who in turn took the same title on his retirement.

Yoshimune died on the 20th day of the 5th month of the year Kan'en-4 (July 12, 1751).[3] His Buddhist name was Yutokuin and buried in Kan'ei-ji.

Notable DescendantsEdit

Tokugawa Ieshige

Tokugawa Munetada

Tokugawa Munetake

Eras of Yoshimune's ruleEdit

The years in which Yoshimune was shogun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[1]

In popular mediaEdit

Tokugawa Yoshimune was the central character of the long-running television series Abarenbō Shogun. This jidaigeki included a few factual aspects of Yoshimune's career while being mostly fiction. Yoshimune was portrayed in series by actor Ken Matsudaira, who reprised his role in the Kamen Rider OOO Wonderful: The Shogun and the 21 Core Medals movie and the Kamen Rider: Battride War II video game.

The 1995 Taiga drama Hachidai Shogun Yoshimune portrayed the life of Yoshimune in the NHK Sunday prime time slot. Toshiyuki Nishida portrayed the adult Yoshimune in the James Miki series.

On January 2, 2008, the annual TV Tokyo jidaigeki spectacular Tokugawa Fūun-roku chronicles events in the life of Yoshimune.

Yoshimune was also a minor character in the manga, Red Hot Chili Samurai by Yoshitsugu Katagiri.

A female Yoshimune is a central character in Fumi Yoshinaga's alternate history manga Ōoku that chronicles the reign of the Tokugawa shogunate.

Yoshimune is also a minor character in the anime series Mushibugyo.

Yoshimune is featured in The Iris Fan by Laura Joh Rowland (2014).


  1. ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, p. 417.
  2. ^ Screech, T. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. pp. 99, 238.
  3. ^ Screech, p. 128.


Royal titles
Preceded by
Tokugawa Yorimoto
Daimyō of Kii:
Tokugawa Yoshimune

Succeeded by
Tokugawa Munenao
Military offices
Preceded by
Tokugawa Ietsugu
Tokugawa Yoshimune

Succeeded by
Tokugawa Ieshige