Toba Qom language

Toba Qom is a Guaicuruan language spoken in South America by the Toba people. The language is known by a variety of names including Toba, Qom or Kom, Chaco Sur, and Toba Sur. In Argentina, it is most widely dispersed in the eastern regions of the provinces of Formosa and Chaco, where the majority of the approximately 19,810 (2000 WCD) speakers reside. The language is distinct from Toba-Pilagá and Paraguayan Toba-Maskoy. There are also 146 Toba speakers in Bolivia where it is known as Qom and in Paraguay where it is also known as Qob or Toba-Qom.

Native toArgentina, Paraguay, Bolivia
Native speakers
31,580 (2011)[1]
  • Southern
    • Toba
Language codes
ISO 639-3tob

In 2010, the province of Chaco in Argentina declared Qom as one of four provincial official languages alongside Spanish and the indigenous Moqoit and Wichí.[2]



Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p t k ɡ q ɢ ʔ
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Flap ɾ
Lateral l ʎ
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant w j
  • /p t k q/ can have aspirated allophones [pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ] in word-initial position, and unreleased [p̚ t̚ k̚ q̚] in word-final position.
  • Voiced stops /ɡ ɢ/ may also be heard as fricative [ɣ ʁ] sounds.[3]
  • Affricates /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ can also be heard as palatal stops [c ɟ].
  • /n/ can be heard as [n̥] word-finally when preceded by a glottal stop /ʔ/.
  • /ɾ/ is heard as a trill [r] when following a /t/.
  • /w/ can be heard as a labiodental fricative [v], when preceding or following /i/.
  • /s l n/ can also have tense allophones as [sː lː nː].[4]


Front Central Back
Close i iː
Mid e eː o oː
Open a aː
Phonetic allophones
Phoneme Allophones
/i/ [i], [ɪ]
/e/ [e], [ɛ], [ɨ]
/eː/ [eː], [ɛː]
/o/ [o], [ɔ]
/a/ [a], [ã], [ə]
  • A nasalized [ã] occurs when preceded and followed by /h/.[4]

Sample textEdit

The following is a sample text in Toba Qom of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:[5]

Toba Qom:

'Enauac na naaxat shiỹaxauapi na mayipi huesochiguii qataq 'eeta'a't da l'amaqchic qataq da 'enec qataq ỹataqta ỹaỹate'n naua lataxaco qataq nua no'o'n nvilỹaxaco, qaq ỹoqo'oyi iuen da i 'oonolec ỹataqta itauan ichoxoden ca lỹa.


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


  1. ^ "Toba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  2. ^ Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 de julio de 2010, B.O., (9092), Link Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Censabella. 2002.
  4. ^ a b Manelis-Klein, 2001.
  5. ^ "NA NQATAXACPI NA ỸOTTA'A'T SHIỸAXAUAPI MAYI NETALEC ANA 'ALHUA, Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 22 April 2000.

External linksEdit