Timeline of the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms (304–439)

Western Jin dynasty in 280 AD

This is a timeline of the Jin dynasty (265–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms (304–439).

260sEdit

Year Date Event
266 Sima Yan (Emperor Wu of Jin) declares himself emperor of the Jin dynasty[1]

280sEdit

Year Date Event
280 Conquest of Wu by Jin: Sun Hao surrenders to Jin; so ends the Three Kingdoms period[1]
284 30,000 Xiongnu submit and settle in Xihe (in Shanxi[1]
285 Du Yu, commentator of the Zuozhuan, dies[1]
286 100,000 Xiongnu submit at Yongzhou[1]
289 Murong Gui of Xianbei submits[1]

290sEdit

Year Date Event
290 Emperor Wu of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Zhong (Emperor Hui of Jin) and Yang Jun assumes regency[1]
Liu Yuan is appointed area commander-in-chief of the Five Regions of Xiongnu[1]
291 War of the Eight Princes: Empress Jia Nanfeng kills Yang Jun, Sima Liang, and Sima Wei[1]
295 Tuoba Luguan divides the Xianbei into three areas[1]
296 The Di and Qiang in Qinzhou (秦州 and Yongzhou (雍州), in Shaanxi and Gansu, rebel; Qi Wannian of Di declares himself an emperor[2]
Chouchi: Yang Maosou sets up Chouchi south of Tianshui[3]
297 Tuoba Yiyi of Xianbei begins to conquer the Western Regions[2]
298 Floods strike Jingzhou (荊州), Yuzhou (豫州), Xuzhou (徐州), Yangzhou (揚州), and Jizhou (冀州) (the middle and lower Changjiang and Huai valleys). Refugees from Lueyang (略陽) and Tianshui (天水) drift into Hanzhong (漢中) (south Shaanxi).[2]
299 Qi Wannian is killed[4]

300sEdit

Year Date Event
300 War of the Eight Princes: Sima Lun kills Jia Nanfeng, Sima Yun, Shi Chong, and Pan Yue[2]
301 War of the Eight Princes: Sima Lun declares himself emperor and gets killed by Sima Jiong, Sima Ying, and Sima Yong[2]
Li Te rebels in Guanghan (northeast Sichuan)[2]
302 War of the Eight Princes: Sima Ai kills Sima Jiong[2]
303 Zhang Chang rebels in Jiangxia (江夏) (Yunmeng, Hubei) and sets up Qiu Chen as emperor[2]
Lu Ji is killed[2]
304 War of the Eight Princes: Sima Yue imprisons Sima Ai, who is later killed[2]
Emperor Hui of Jin relocated to Chang'an[2]
Former Zhao: Liu Yuan of Xiongnu declares himself Prince of Han (漢)[2]
Cheng Han: Li Xiong creates the Ba-Di state of Cheng Han[2]
305 Gongshi Fan, Ji Sang, and Shi Le rebel[5]
Zuo Si dies[5]
306 Chen Min declares himself Duke of Chu in the lower Changjiang valley[5]
Liu Baigen and Wang Mi rebel[5]
Sima Ying is killed[5]
Gongshi Fan is defeated[5]
Emperor Hui of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Chi (Emperor Huai of Jin), who moves back to Luoyang[5]
Cheng Han: Li Xiong declares himself emperor[5]
307 Ji Sang and Shi Le sack Ye, killing more than 10,000 people[5]
Sima Rui is in charge of military affairs in the south[5]
Former Zhao: Shi Le joins Liu Yuan[5]
Murong Gui declares himself Great Chanyu[5]
308 Former Zhao: Liu Yuan takes Pingyang and declares himself emperor[5]

310sEdit

Year Date Event
310 Former Zhao: Liu Yao, Shi Le and Wang Mi invade Luoyang, Xuzhou, Yuzhou, and Yanzhou[5]
Former Zhao: Liu Yuan dies and his successor Liu He is killed by Liu Cong, who takes over[5]
Fu Hong declares himself Duke of Lueyang[5]
311 Former Zhao: Sima Yue dies and his funeral procession is ambushed by Shi Le, who annihilates the Jin army[5]
Disaster of Yongjia: Liu Yao and Wang Mi sack Luoyang and capture Emperor Huai of Jin[5]
Former Zhao: Liu Yao takes Chang'an[5]
Former Zhao: Wang Mi is killed by Shi Le[5]
312 Former Zhao: Jin retakes Chang'an after routing Liu Yao[5]
Former Zhao: Shi Le captures Xiangguo (襄國) (Xingtai, Hebei)[5]
Former Zhao: Liu Cong briefly takes Jinyang (southwest of Taiyuan, Shanxi) but is routed by Liu Kun[6]
313 Emperor Huai of Jin is killed by Liu Cong and is succeeded by Sima Ye (Emperor Min of Jin)[6]
Goguryeo takes Lelang Commandery[7]
Tuoba Yilu names Shengle the northern capital and Pingcheng the southern capital[6]
314 Former Liang: Zhang Gui dies and is succeeded by Zhang Shi[6]
315 Dai: Tuoba Yilu becomes Prince of Dai[6]
316 Former Zhao: Emperor Min of Jin surrenders Chang'an to Liu Yao[6]
317 Sima Rui declares himself Prince of Jin at Jiankang[6]
318 Emperor Min of Jin is killed by Liu Cong and is succeeded by Sima Rui (Emperor Yuan of Jin)[6]
Former Zhao: Liu Cong dies and his successor Liu Can is killed by Xiongnu general Jin Zhun, and is succeeded by Liu Yao[6]
319 Former Zhao: Jin Zhun is killed[6]
Former Zhao: Liu Yao moves to Chang'an and renames his state Zhao[6]
Former Zhao: Fu Hong joins Former Zhao[6]
Later Zhao: Shi Le defeats Jin general Zu Ti at Xunyi and declares himself Prince of [Later] Zhao[6]

320sEdit

Year Date Event
320 Former Zhao: Juqu Zhi rebels and is defeated[6]
321 Later Zhao: Shi Le takes control of Youzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou[8]
322 Wang Dun rebels in Wuchang[8]
Later Zhao: Shi Hu invades Xuzhou and Yanzhou[8]
Emperor Yuan of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Shao (Emperor Ming of Jin)[8]
Earliest archaeological evidence of a double stirrup[9][10]
324 Wang Dun dies[8]
325 Later Zhao: Shi Le takes Sizhou (司州), Xuzhou, and Yanzhou[8]
Emperor Ming of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Yan (Emperor Cheng of Jin)[8]
328 Later Zhao: Shi Le crosses the Huai River[8]
329 Later Zhao: Shi Le takes Luoyang and kills Liu Yao while Shi Hu takes Chang'an[8]

330sEdit

Year Date Event
330 Later Zhao: Shi Le declares himself emperor[8]
Wei: Di Bin creates Di-Wei[11]
333 Later Zhao: Shi Le dies and is succeeded by Shi Hong[8]
334 Later Zhao: Shi Hu kills Shi Hong and usurps power[8]
335 Later Zhao: Shi Hu moves the capital to Ye[8]
337 Former Yan: Murong Huang declares himself Prince of [Former] Yan[8]
338 Later Zhao: Shi Hu and Murong Huang defeat Tuhe of the Duan tribe[8]

340sEdit

Year Date Event
342 Emperor Cheng of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Yue (Emperor Kang of Jin)[8]
Former Yan: Murong Huang moves his capital to Longcheng and invaded Goguryeo, capturing 50,000 of its people[8]
344 Former Yan: Murong Huang destroys the Yuwen tribe[12]
Emperor Kang of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Dan (Emperor Mu of Jin)[12]
345 Later Zhao: Shi Hu starts mass mobilization for the construction of the Luoyang Palace[12]
346 Former Liang: Zhang Jun takes Yanqi[12]
347 Huan Wen of Jin conquers Cheng Han and takes Chengdu[12]
Later Zhao: Shi Hu builds the Hanlin Park using 160,000 laborers, thousands of whom die[12]
349 Later Zhao: Shi Hu dies and Ran Min carries out genocide against the Jie people[12]
Chu Pou of Jin carries out a failed northern expedition[12]

350sEdit

Year Date Event
350 Ran Min declares himself emperor[12]
Fu Hong dies and is succeeded by Fu Jian who takes Chang'an[12]
Duan Qi: Duan Kan declares himself Prince of Qi in Guanggu[13]
351 Former Qin: Fu Jian declares himself Heavenly King of [Former] Qin[12]
352 Former Qin: Fu Jian declares himself emperor[12]
Wei-Xianbei war: Murong Jun kills Ran Min, takes Yecheng, and declares himself emperor at Jizhou[12]
353 Yin Hao of Jin leads a failed northern expedition[12]
354 Huan Wen's expeditions: Huan Wen defeats Former Qin at Guanzhong but withdraws[12]
355 Former Qin: Fu Jian dies and is succeeded by Fu Sheng[12]
356 Zhou Cheng and Yao Xiang of the Qiang people lay siege to Luoyang but are defeated by Huan Wen[12]
Former Yan: Kills Duan Kan[13]
357 Former Qin: Fu Sheng is killed and usurped by Fu Jian[12]
Former Yan: Murong Jun moves his capital to Yecheng[14]
359 Xie Wan of Jin leads a failed northern expedition[14]

360sEdit

Year Date Event
361 Huan Wen's expeditions: Huan Wen defeats Former Yan and takes Xuchang[14]
Emperor Mu of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Pi (Emperor Ai of Jin)[14]
363 Ge Hong dies[14]
364 Former Yan: Murong Wei invades Henan and takes Xuchang[14]
365 Emperor Ai of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Yi (Emperor Fei of Jin)[14]
Former Yan: Murong Wei takes Luoyang[14]
369 Huan Wen's expeditions: Huan Wen is defeated by Murong Chui at Xiangyi (襄邑) (Suixian, Henan)[14]

370sEdit

Year Date Event
370 Former Qin: Qin troops conquer Former Yan[14]
371 Former Qin: Conquers Chouchi[3]
Huan Wen deposes Emperor Fei of Jin and enthrones Sima Yu (Emperor Jianwen of Jin)[14]
372 Emperor Jianwen of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Yao (Emperor Xiaowu of Jin)[14]
373 Huan Wen dies and Xie An dominates the court[14]
375 Former Qin: Fu Jian bans Daoism[14]
376 Former Qin: Qin conquers Former Liang and Dai[14]
379 Former Qin: Qin takes Xiangyang from Jin[14]

380sEdit

Year Date Event
383 Battle of Fei River: Qin army is defeated by Xie Shi and Xie Xuan[14]
Former Qin: Lü Guang subjugates Qiuci[15]
384 Later Qin: Yao Chang of Qiang declares himself Prince of Qin[16]
Later Yan: Murong Chui rebels and declares himself Prince of [Later] Yan[14]
Western Yan: Murong Hong declares himself Prince of Jibei and after his death Murong Chong takes over[16]
Jin retakes territory in Henan from Former Qin[16]
385 Western Yan: Murong Chong takes Chang'an from Qin[16]
Western Qin: Founded by Qifu Guoren[17]
Former Qin: Fu Jian is killed by Yao Chang[16]
Chouchi: Revived[3]
386 Northern Wei: The Tuoba state is revived[16]
Later Qin: Yao Chang declares himself emperor[16]
387 Later Liang: Lü Guang declares himself Duke of Jiuquan[16]

390sEdit

Year Date Event
393 Wei: Conquered by Later Yan[18]
394 Later Qin: Later Qin conquers Former Qin[16]
Later Yan: Conquers Western Yan[16]
395 Northern Wei: Tuoba Gui defeats Later Yan at Canhepi (east-northeast of Liangcheng, Inner Mongolia)[16]
396 Northern Wei: Tuoba Gui takes Bingzhou from Later Yan[16]
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Dezong (Emperor An of Jin)[16]
397 Southern Liang: Tufa Wugu declares himself Prince of Xiping[16]
Northern Liang: Duan Ye declares himself Duke of Jiankang in Zhangye[16]
398 Northern Wei: Tuoba Gui moves his capital to Pingcheng[16]
399 Northern Wei: Tuoba Gui declares himself emperor[16]
Sun En revolts[16]
Faxian leaves for India[16]

400sEdit

Year Date Event
400 Western Liang: Li Gao declares himself Duke of Liang in Dunhuang[16]
Western Qin: Submits to Southern Liang and then Later Qin[17]
Southern Yan: Murong De declares himself emperor in Guanggu[19]
401 Northern Liang: Juqu Mengxun kills Duan Ye and declares himself Duke of Zhangye[19]
402 Huan Xuan sacks Jiankang and Sun En dies, but his lieutenant Lu Xun takes over[20]
403 Later Liang: Surrenders to Later Qin[19]
404 Huan Xuan declares himself emperor and dies the same year[19]
405 Qiao Zong declares himself Prince of Chengdu[19]
407 Xia: Helian Bobo declares himself Heavenly King[19]
Northern Yan: Gao Yun is set up as heavenly king and replaces Later Yan[19]
409 Western Qin: Revived[17]

410sEdit

Year Date Event
410 Liu Yu's expeditions: Liu Yu conquers Southern Yan[19]
411 Rebel Lu Xun dies[19]
412 Faxian returns from India[19]
413 Jin recovers Sichuan and Qiao Zong commits suicide[19]
414 Western Qin: Conquers Southern Liang[19]
416 Jin takes Luoyang from Later Qin[19]
Huiyuan dies[19]
417 Liu Yu's expeditions: Jin conquers Later Qin and Liu Yu takes Chang'an[19]
418 Jin troops retreat from Chang'an[19]
Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms): Helian Bobo takes Chang'an[19]
419 Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms): Helian Bobo leaves Chang'an[19]

420sEdit

Year Date Event
420 Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song) replaces the Jin dynasty with the Song dynasty[21]
421 Northern Liang: Juqu Mengxun conquers Western Liang[22]
422 Emperor Wu of Liu Song dies and is succeeded by Liu Yifu, Emperor Shao of Liu Song[21]
423 Kou Qianzhi sets up the Celestial Master at Pingcheng[21]
424 Emperor Shao of Liu Song is deposed and succeeded by Liu Yilong (Emperor Wen of Liu Song)[21]
426 Northern Wei: Attacks Xia[21]
427 Northern Wei: Takes Chang'an and sacks the Xia capital, Tongwan[21]
428 Xia: Retakes Chang'an[21]

430sEdit

Year Date Event
430 Northern Wei: Takes Luoyang from Liu Song
Western Qin: Abandons Yuanchuan and Fuhan to the Tuyuhun and relocates to Pingliang and Anding[21]
431 Xia: Conquers Western Qin and are in turn conquered by the Tuyuhun[21]
433 Xie Lingyun is killed[21]
434 Northern Wei: Enters a marriage alliance with the Rouran[21]
Song retakes Hanzhong from Chouchi[21]
435 Northern Wei: Attacks Northern Yan[21]
436 Northern Wei: Conquers Northern Yan, who's sovereign Feng Hong flees to Goguryeo[21]
439 Northern Wei: Conquers Northern Liang; so ends the Sixteen Kingdoms[21]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Xiong 2009, p. xc.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Xiong 2009, p. xci.
  3. ^ a b c Xiong 2009, p. 414.
  4. ^ Xiong 2009, p. 400.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Xiong 2009, p. xcii.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Xiong 2009, p. xciii.
  7. ^ Shin 2014, p. 30.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Xiong 2009, p. xciv.
  9. ^ Dien, Albert. "THE STIRRUP AND ITS EFFECT ON CHINESE MILITARY HISTORY"
  10. ^ "The invention and influences of stirrup" Archived December 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Xiong 2009, p. 119.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Xiong 2009, p. xcv.
  13. ^ a b Xiong 2009, p. 135.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Xiong 2009, p. xcvi.
  15. ^ Twitchett 2008, p. 418.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Xiong 2009, p. xcvii.
  17. ^ a b c Xiong 2009, p. 547.
  18. ^ Xiong 2009, p. 123.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Xiong 2009, p. xcviii.
  20. ^ Xiong 2009, p. xcvii}i.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Xiong 2009, p. xcix.
  22. ^ Xiong 2009, p. 273.

BibliographyEdit

  • Crespigny, Rafe (2007), A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD), Brill
  • Shin, Michael D. (2014), Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press
  • Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2009), Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, United States of America: Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN 0810860538