Timeline of solar cells

In the 19th century, it was observed that the sunlight striking certain materials generates detectable electric current – the photoelectric effect. This discovery laid the foundation for solar cells. Solar cells have gone on to be used in many applications. They have historically been used in situations where electrical power from the grid was unavailable.

As the invention was brought out it made solar cells as a prominent utilization for power generation for satellites. Satellites orbit the Earth, thus making solar cells a prominent source for power generation through the sunlight falling on them. Solar cells are commonly used in satellites in today's times.


Edmond Becquerel created the world's first photovoltaic cell at 19 years old in 1839.


Einstein's "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light" was published in Annalen der Physik in 1905.


Vanguard 1 with its six solar cells attached
  • 1958 - T. Mandelkorn, U.S. Signal Corps Laboratories, creates n-on-p silicon solar cells, which are more resistant to radiation damage and are better suited for space. Hoffman Electronics creates 9% efficient solar cells. Vanguard I, the first solar powered satellite, was launched with a 0.1 W, 100 cm2 solar panel.
  • 1959 - Hoffman Electronics creates a 10% efficient commercial solar cell, and introduces the use of a grid contact, reducing the cell's resistance.


A New Mexico State University professor showing a solar panel in New Mexico in April 1974
  • 1974 - J. Baldwin, at Integrated Living Systems, co-develops the world's first building (in New Mexico) heated and otherwise powered by solar and wind power exclusively.
  • 1976 - David E. Carlson and Christopher Wronski of RCA Laboratories create first amorphous silicon PV cells, which have an efficiency of 2.4%.
  • 1977 - The Solar Energy Research Institute is established at Golden, Colorado.
  • 1977 - The world production of photovoltaic cells exceeded 500 kW
  • 1978 - First solar-powered calculators.[18]
  • Late 1970s: the "Energy Crisis"; groundswell of public interest in solar energy use: photovoltaic and active and passive solar, including in architecture and off-grid buildings and home sites.


  • 1980 - The Institute of Energy Conversion at University of Delaware develops the first thin film solar cell exceeding 10% efficiency using Cu2S/CdS technology.
  • 1981 - Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE is founded by Adolf Goetzberger in Freiburg, Germany. [19]
  • 1981 - Isofoton is the first company to mass-produce bifacial solar cells based on developments by Antonio Luque et al. at the Institute of Solar Energy in Madrid. [20]
  • 1982 - The first >10% amorphous silicon thin film solar cell is reported.[21]
  • 1983 - Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 21.3 megawatts, and sales exceed $250 million.
  • 1984 - 30,000 SF Building-Integrated Photovoltaic [BI-PV] Roof completed for the Intercultural Center of Georgetown University. Eileen M. Smith, M.Arch. took 20th Anniversary Journey by Horseback for Peace and Photovoltaics in 2004 from solar roof to Ground Zero NY World Trade Center to educate public about BI-PV Solar Architecture. Array was still generating an average of one MWh daily as it has since 1984 in the dense urban environment of Washington, DC.
  • 1985 - 20% efficient silicon cells are created by the Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering at the University of New South Wales.
  • 1986 - 'Solar-Voltaic DomeTM' patented by Lt. Colonel Richard T. Headrick of Irvine, California, as an efficient architectural configuration for building-integrated photovoltaics [BI-PV]; Hesperia, California field array.
  • 1988 - The Dye-sensitized solar cell is created by Michael Grätzel and Brian O'Regan. These photoelectrochemical cells work from an organic dye compound inside the cell and cost half as much as silicon solar cells.
  • 1988–1991 AMOCO/Enron used Solarex patents to sue ARCO Solar out of the business of a-Si (see Solarex Corp.(Enron/Amoco) v.Arco Solar, Inc.Ddel, 805 Fsupp 252 Fed Digest.)
  • 1989 - Reflective solar concentrators are first used with solar cells.
  • 1990 - The Magdeburg Cathedral installs solar cells on the roof, marking the first installation on a church in East Germany.
  • 1991 - Efficient photoelectrochemical cells are developed


Exponential growth-curve on a semi-log scale of worldwide installed photovoltaics in gigawatts since 1992
Solar cell production by region 2000–2010[23]
Market share of the different PV technologies 1999–2010
  • 2003 - George Bush has a 9 kW PV system and a solar thermal systems installed on grounds keeping building at the White House[24]
  • 2004 - California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger proposed Solar Roofs Initiative for one million solar roofs in California by 2017.[25]
  • 2004 - Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius issued a mandate for 1,000 MWp renewable electricity in Kansas by 2015 per Executive Order 04-05.
  • 2006 - Polysilicon use in photovoltaics exceeds all other polysilicon use for the first time.
  • 2006 - California Public Utilities Commission approved the California Solar Initiative (CSI), a comprehensive $2.8 billion program that provides incentives toward solar development over 11 years.[26]
  • 2006 - New World Record Achieved in Solar Cell Technology - New Solar Cell Breaks the "40 Percent Efficient" Sunlight-to-Electricity Barrier.[27]
  • 2007 - Construction of Nellis Solar Power Plant, a 15 MW PPA installation.
  • 2007 - The Vatican announced that in order to conserve Earth's resources they would be installing solar panels on some buildings, in "a comprehensive energy project that will pay for itself in a few years."[28]
  • 2007 - University of Delaware claims to achieve new world record in Solar Cell Technology without independent confirmation: 42.8% efficiency.[29]
  • 2007 - Nanosolar ships the first commercial printed CIGS, claiming that they will eventually ship for less than $1/watt.[30] However, the company does not publicly disclose the technical specifications or current selling price of the modules.[31]
  • 2008 - New record achieved in solar cell efficiency. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have set a world record in solar cell efficiency with a photovoltaic device that converts 40.8% of the light that hits it into electricity. However, it was only under the concentrated energy of 326 suns that this was achieved. The inverted metamorphic triple-junction solar cell was designed, fabricated and independently measured at NREL.[32]
  • 2010 − IKAROS becomes the first spacecraft to successfully demonstrate solar sail technology in interplanetary space.[33][34]
  • 2010 - US President Barack Obama orders installation of additional solar panels and a solar water heater at the White House[35]
  • 2011 - Fast-growing factories in China push manufacturing costs down to about $1.25 per watt for silicon photovoltaic modules. Installations double worldwide.[36]
  • 2013 - After three years, the solar panels ordered by President Barack Obama were installed on the White House.[37]
Worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity in "watts per capita" by country. Estimated figures for year 2016.
  • 2016 - University of New South Wales engineers established a new world record for unfocused sunlight conversion to electricity with an efficiency increase to 34.5% [3]. The record was set by UNSW’s Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) using a 28 cm2 four-junction mini-module – embedded in a prism – that extracts the maximum energy from sunlight. It does this by splitting the incoming rays into four bands, using a four-junction receiver to squeeze even more electricity from each beam of sunlight.[38]
  • 2016 - First Solar says it has converted 22.1 percent of the energy in sunlight into electricity using experimental cells made from cadmium telluride—a technology that today represents around 5 percent of the worldwide solar power market.[39]
  • 2018 - Alta Devices, a US-based specialty gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV manufacturer, claimed to have achieved a solar cell conversion efficiency record of 29.1%, as certified by Germany's Fraunhofer ISE CalLab.[40][41]
  • 2018 - The first dedicated solar panel recycling plant in Europe and "possibly in the world" is opened in France.[42]
Reported timeline of research solar cell energy conversion efficiencies since 1976 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)



  • 6 March – Scientists show that adding a layer of perovskite crystals on top of textured or planar silicon to create a tandem solar cell enhances its performance up to a power conversion efficiency of 26%. This could be a low cost way to increase efficiency of solar cells.[49][50]
  • 13 July – The first global assessment into promising approaches of solar photovoltaic modules recycling is published. Scientists recommend "research and development to reduce recycling costs and environmental impacts compared to disposal while maximizing material recovery" as well as facilitation and use of techno–economic analyses.[51][52]
  • 3 July – Scientists show that adding an organic-based ionic solid into perovskites can result in substantial improvement in solar cell performance and stability. The study also reveals a complex degradation route that is responsible for failures in aged perovskite solar cells. The understanding could help the future development of photovoltaic technologies with industrially relevant longevity.[53][54][importance?]


  • 12 April – Scientists develop a prototype and design rules for both-sides-contacted silicon solar cells with conversion efficiencies of 26% and above, Earth's highest for this type of solar cell.[55][56][importance?]
  • 21 May – The first industrial commercial production line of perovskite solar panels, using an inkjet printing procedure, is launched in Poland.[59]
  • 13 December – Researchers report the development of a database and analysis tool about perovskite solar cells which systematically integrates over 15,000 publications, in particular device-data about over 42,400 of such photovoltaic devices.[60][61]
  • 16 December – ML System from Jasionka, Poland, opens first quantum glass production line. The factory started the production of windows integrating a transparent quantum-dots layer that can produce electricity while also capable of cooling buildings.[62][importance?]


  • 30 May - A team at Fraunhofer ISE led by Frank Dimroth developed a 4-junction solar cell with an efficiency of 47.6% - a new world record for solar energy conversion. [63][importance?]
  • 13 July – Researchers report the development of semitransparent solar cells that are as large as windows,[64] after team members achieved record efficiency with high transparency in 2020.[65][66] On 4 July, researchers report the fabrication of solar cells with a record average visible transparency of 79%, being nearly invisible.[67][68]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Recreating Edmond Becquerel's electrochemical actinometer" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  2. ^ Becquerel, Alexandre Edmond (1839). "Recherche sur les effets de la radiation chimique de la lumière solaire, au moyen des courants électriques". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. 9: 145–149. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  3. ^ Smith, Willoughby (20 February 1873). "Effect of Light on Selenium During the Passage of An Electric Current". Nature. 7 (173): 303. Bibcode:1873Natur...7R.303.. doi:10.1038/007303e0.
  4. ^ Maxwell, James Clerk (April 1874). The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell: Volume 3, 1874-1879. Cambridge, UK: P. M. Harman. p. 67. ISBN 9780521256278. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  5. ^ "Photovoltaic Dreaming 1875–1905: First Attempts At Commercializing PV". 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  6. ^ Issue date: May 7, 1935. [1] [2] Archived 2021-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ David C. Brock (Spring 2006). "Useless No More: Gordon K. Teal, Germanium, and Single-Crystal Transistors". Chemical Heritage Magazine. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 24 (1). Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  8. ^ "April 25, 1954: Bell Labs Demonstrates the First Practical Silicon Solar Cell". APS News. American Physical Society. 18 (4). April 2009. Archived from the original on January 28, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  9. ^ D. M. Chapin; C. S. Fuller & G. L. Pearson (May 1954). "A New Silicon p-n Junction Photocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electrical Power". Journal of Applied Physics. 25 (5): 676–677. Bibcode:1954JAP....25..676C. doi:10.1063/1.1721711.
  10. ^ Black, Lachlan E. (2016). New Perspectives on Surface Passivation: Understanding the Si-Al2O3 Interface (PDF). Springer. p. 13. ISBN 9783319325217. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-03-04. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
  11. ^ Lojek, Bo (2007). History of Semiconductor Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 120& 321-323. ISBN 9783540342588.
  12. ^ Black, Lachlan E. (2016). New Perspectives on Surface Passivation: Understanding the Si-Al2O3 Interface (PDF). Springer. ISBN 9783319325217. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-03-04. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
  13. ^ "Solar watches". Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  14. ^ Alferov, Zh. I., V. M. Andreev, M. B. Kagan, I. I. Protasov, and V. G. Trofim, 1970, ‘‘Solar-energy converters based on p-n AlxGa12xAs-GaAs heterojunctions,’’ Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 4, 2378 (Sov. Phys. Semicond. 4, 2047 (1971))]
  15. ^ Nanotechnology in energy applications Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback Machine, pdf, p.24
  16. ^ Nobel Lecture Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine by Zhores Alferov, pdf, p.6
  17. ^ "Florida Solar Energy Center". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  18. ^ "Calculator Time-line". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  19. ^ "Geschichte - Fraunhofer ISE".
  20. ^ Eguren, Javier; Martínez-Moreno, Francisco; Merodio, Pablo; Lorenzo, Eduardo (2022). "First bifacial PV modules early 1983". Solar Energy. 243: 327–335. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2022.08.002. ISSN 0038-092X. S2CID 251552073.
  21. ^ Catalano, A.; D'Aiello, R. V.; Dresner, J.; Faughnan, B.; Firester, A.; Kane, J.; Schade, H.; Smith, Z. E.; Schwartz, G.; Triano, A. (1982). "Attainment of 10% Conversion Efficiency in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells". Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, San Diego, California: 1421.
  22. ^ Switching To Solar, Bob Johnstone, 2011, Prometheus Books
  23. ^ Pv News November 2012 Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. Greentech Media. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  24. ^ "White House installs solar-electric system - 1/22/2003 - ENN.com". 29 February 2004. Archived from the original on 29 February 2004. Retrieved 8 April 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  25. ^ Simone Pulver, Barry G. Rabe, Peter J. Stoett, Changing Climates in North American Politics: Institutions, Policymaking, and Multilevel Governance, MIT Press, 2009, ISBN 0262012995 p. 67
  26. ^ "California Solar Initiative". Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
  27. ^ "New World Record Achieved in Solar Cell Technology" (Press release). United States Department of Energy. December 5, 2006. Archived from the original on 2020-10-30. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  28. ^ Krauss, Leah (May 31, 2007). "Solar World: Vatican installs solar panels". United Press International. Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
  29. ^ "From 40.7 to 42.8 % Solar Cell Efficiency". July 30, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
  30. ^ "Nanosolar Ships First Panels". Nanosolar Blog. Archived from the original on 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  31. ^ "Nanosolar - Products". Nanosolar.com. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  32. ^ NREL Public Relations (2008-08-13). "NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  33. ^ Stephen Clark (20 May 2010). "H-2A Launch Report – Mission Status Center". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  34. ^ "Launch Day of the H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 17(H-IIA F17)". JAXA. 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  35. ^ Juliet Eilperin (October 6, 2010). "White House goes solar". Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
  36. ^ Mike Koshmrl & Seth Masia (Nov–Dec 2010). "Solyndra and the shakeout: the recent solar bankruptcies in context". Solar Today. Archived from the original on 2011-11-20. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  37. ^ "White House solar panels being installed this week". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2015-07-01. Retrieved 2017-09-16.
  38. ^ "ARENA supports another solar world record". Australian Government - Australian Renewable Energy Agency. 18 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 June 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  39. ^ Martin, Richard. "Why the future of solar may not be silicon-based". Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  40. ^ "Kenning T. Alta Devices sets GaAs solar cell efficiency record at 29.1%, joins NASA space station testing. PV-Tech. December 13, 2018 5:13 AM GMT". 13 December 2018. Archived from the original on December 13, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  41. ^ "Alta sets flexible solar record with 29.1% GaAs cell". optics.org. Archived from the original on 2021-03-06. Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  42. ^ Clercq, Geert De (2018-06-25). "Europe's first solar panel recycling plant opens in France". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2021-06-26. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  43. ^ Geisz, J. F.; Steiner, M. A.; Jain, N.; Schulte, K. L.; France, R. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Perl, E. E.; Friedman, D. J. (March 2018). "Building a Six-Junction Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cell". IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 8 (2): 626–632. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2778567. ISSN 2156-3403. OSTI 1417798.
  44. ^ "A new solar technology could be the next big boost for renewable energy". 26 December 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-12-27. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  45. ^ "New solar cells extract more energy from sunshine". The Economist. Archived from the original on 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  46. ^ Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Schulte, Kevin L.; Steiner, Myles A.; Norman, Andrew G.; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Young, Matthew R.; Song, Tao; Moriarty, Thomas (April 2020). "Six-junction III–V solar cells with 47.1% conversion efficiency under 143 Suns concentration". Nature Energy. 5 (4): 326–335. Bibcode:2020NatEn...5..326G. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-0598-5. ISSN 2058-7546. OSTI 1659948. S2CID 216289881. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  47. ^ Kojima, Akihiro; Teshima, Kenjiro; Shirai, Yasuo; Miyasaka, Tsutomu (May 6, 2009). "Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 131 (17): 6050–6051. doi:10.1021/ja809598r. PMID 19366264.
  48. ^ a b "NREL efficiency chart" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-11-28. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
  49. ^ "Light to electricity: New multi-material solar cells set new efficiency standard". phys.org. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  50. ^ Xu, Jixian; Boyd, Caleb C.; Yu, Zhengshan J.; Palmstrom, Axel F.; Witter, Daniel J.; Larson, Bryon W.; France, Ryan M.; Werner, Jérémie; Harvey, Steven P.; Wolf, Eli J.; Weigand, William; Manzoor, Salman; Hest, Maikel F. A. M. van; Berry, Joseph J.; Luther, Joseph M.; Holman, Zachary C.; McGehee, Michael D. (6 March 2020). "Triple-halide wide–band gap perovskites with suppressed phase segregation for efficient tandems". Science. 367 (6482): 1097–1104. Bibcode:2020Sci...367.1097X. doi:10.1126/science.aaz5074. PMID 32139537. S2CID 212561010.
  51. ^ "Research points to strategies for recycling of solar panels". techxplore.com. Archived from the original on 2021-06-26. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  52. ^ Heath, Garvin A.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Remo, Timothy; Cui, Hao; Sinha, Parikhit; Libby, Cara; Shaw, Stephanie; Komoto, Keiichi; Wambach, Karsten; Butler, Evelyn; Barnes, Teresa; Wade, Andreas (July 2020). "Research and development priorities for silicon photovoltaic module recycling to support a circular economy". Nature Energy. 5 (7): 502–510. Bibcode:2020NatEn...5..502H. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-0645-2. ISSN 2058-7546. S2CID 220505135. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  53. ^ "Crystal structure discovered almost 200 years ago could hold key to solar cell revolution". phys.org. Archived from the original on 2020-07-04. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  54. ^ Lin, Yen-Hung; Sakai, Nobuya; Da, Peimei; Wu, Jiaying; Sansom, Harry C.; Ramadan, Alexandra J.; Mahesh, Suhas; Liu, Junliang; Oliver, Robert D. J.; Lim, Jongchul; Aspitarte, Lee; Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, P. K.; Morales‐Vilches, Anna B.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Bai, Sai; Gao, Feng; Grovenor, Chris R. M.; Johnston, Michael B.; Labram, John G.; Durrant, James R.; Ball, James M.; Wenger, Bernard; Stannowski, Bernd; Snaith, Henry J. (2 July 2020). "A piperidinium salt stabilizes efficient metal-halide perovskite solar cells" (PDF). Science. 369 (6499): 96–102. Bibcode:2020Sci...369...96L. doi:10.1126/science.aba1628. hdl:10044/1/82840. PMID 32631893. S2CID 220304363. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  55. ^ "Both-sides-contacted solar cell sets new world record of 26 percent efficiency". techxplore.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  56. ^ Richter, Armin; Müller, Ralph; Benick, Jan; Feldmann, Frank; Steinhauser, Bernd; Reichel, Christian; Fell, Andreas; Bivour, Martin; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W. (April 2021). "Design rules for high-efficiency both-sides-contacted silicon solar cells with balanced charge carrier transport and recombination losses". Nature Energy. 6 (4): 429–438. Bibcode:2021NatEn...6..429R. doi:10.1038/s41560-021-00805-w. ISSN 2058-7546. S2CID 234847037. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  57. ^ ""Molecular glue" strengthens the weak point in perovskite solar cells". New Atlas. 2021-05-10. Archived from the original on 2021-06-13. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  58. ^ Dai, Zhenghong; Yadavalli, Srinivas K.; Chen, Min; Abbaspourtamijani, Ali; Qi, Yue; Padture, Nitin P. (2021-05-07). "Interfacial toughening with self-assembled monolayers enhances perovskite solar cell reliability". Science. 372 (6542): 618–622. Bibcode:2021Sci...372..618D. doi:10.1126/science.abf5602. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 33958474. S2CID 233872843. Archived from the original on 2021-06-13. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  59. ^ "Polish firm opens cutting-edge solar energy plant". techxplore.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  60. ^ "The Wikipedia of perovskite solar cell research". Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  61. ^ T. Jesper Jacobsson, Adam Hultqvist, Alberto García-Fernández et al. (13 December 2021). "An open-access database and analysis tool for perovskite solar cells based on the FAIR data principles". Nature Energy. 7: 107–115. doi:10.1038/s41560-021-00941-3. ISSN 2058-7546. S2CID 245175279.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  62. ^ "Solar glass: - ML System opens Quantum Glass production line - pv Europe". 13 December 2021.
  63. ^ "Fraunhofer ISE entwickelt effizienteste Solarzelle der Welt mit 47,6 Prozent Wirkungsgrad - Fraunhofer ISE".
  64. ^ Huang, Xinjing; Fan, Dejiu; Li, Yongxi; Forrest, Stephen R. (20 July 2022). "Multilevel peel-off patterning of a prototype semitransparent organic photovoltaic module". Joule. 6 (7): 1581–1589. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2022.06.015. ISSN 2542-4785. S2CID 250541919.
  65. ^ "Transparent solar panels for windows hit record 8% efficiency". University of Michigan News. 17 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  66. ^ Li, Yongxi; Guo, Xia; Peng, Zhengxing; Qu, Boning; Yan, Hongping; Ade, Harald; Zhang, Maojie; Forrest, Stephen R. (September 2020). "Color-neutral, semitransparent organic photovoltaics for power window applications". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (35): 21147–21154. Bibcode:2020PNAS..11721147L. doi:10.1073/pnas.2007799117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7474591. PMID 32817532.
  67. ^ "Researchers fabricate highly transparent solar cell with 2D atomic sheet". Tohoku University. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  68. ^ He, Xing; Iwamoto, Yuta; Kaneko, Toshiro; Kato, Toshiaki (4 July 2022). "Fabrication of near-invisible solar cell with monolayer WS2". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 11315. Bibcode:2022NatSR..1211315H. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-15352-x. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9253307. PMID 35787666.
  69. ^ Wells, Sarah. "Hair-thin solar cells could turn any surface into a power source". Inverse. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  70. ^ Saravanapavanantham, Mayuran; Mwaura, Jeremiah; Bulović, Vladimir (January 2023). "Printed Organic Photovoltaic Modules on Transferable Ultra‐thin Substrates as Additive Power Sources". Small Methods. 7 (1): 2200940. doi:10.1002/smtd.202200940. ISSN 2366-9608. PMID 36482828. S2CID 254524625.
  71. ^ "Tandem solar cell achieves 32.5 percent efficiency". Science Daily. 19 December 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2022.

External linksEdit