Timeline of plague

This is a timeline of plague, describing major epidemics and key medical developments.

Key developmentsEdit

Time period Key developments
3500–3000 BC (circa) In 2018 a Swedish tomb was excavated and discovered to harbor evidence of Yersinia pestis within the interred human remains. The estimated date of this individual's death is correlated to a period of European history known as the Neolithic decline; the presence of plague in the remains is evidence for the plague as a potential cause of this event.[1][2][3]
541–750 (circa) The first plague pandemic spreads from Egypt to the Mediterranean (starting with the Plague of Justinian) and Northwestern Europe.[4]
1346–1840 The second plague pandemic spreads from China (questionable) to the Mediterranean and Europe.[4] The Black Death of 1346–1353 is considered to be unparalleled in human history.[5][6] From 1347 to 1665, the Black Death is responsible for about a billion deaths in Europe.[7]
1866–1960s The third plague pandemic, which originated in China, results in about 2.2 million deaths.[7] The plague spread to India and killed a total of 22.5 million people under the British rule. Haffkine develops the first vaccine against bubonic plague.[8] Antibiotic drugs are developed in the 1940s which dramatically reduce the death rate from plague.[9]
1950–2000 Plague cases are massively reduced during the second half of the 20th century. However, outbreaks would still occur, especially in developing countries. Between 1954 and 1997, human plague is reported in 38 countries, making the disease a remerging threat to human health.[7] Also, between 1987 and 2001, 36,876 confirmed cases of plague with 2,847 deaths are reported to the World Health Organization.[10]
Recent years Int the 21st century, fewer than 200 people die of the plague worldwide each year, mainly due to lack of treatment.[11] Plague is considered to be endemic in 26 countries around the world, with most cases found in remote areas of Africa.[12] The three most endemic countries are Madagascar, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Peru.[13]

Graphs of modern outbreaksEdit

Full timelineEdit

Year/Period Event type Event Present-day geographic location
430 BC Epidemic Plague of Athens devastates the city's population. The outbreak originated in Ethiopia and spread to the Mediterranean region through Egypt and Libya.[16] Greece, Mediterranean basin
224 BC Plague infection is first recorded in China.[17] China
165–180 AD Epidemic Antonine Plague, also known as the plague of Galen, the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it. It is suspected to have been smallpox or measles. The total deaths have been estimated at five million and the disease killed as much as one-third of the population in some areas and devastated the Roman army. Iraq, Italy, France, Germany
250–270 AD Epidemic Plague of Cyprian breaks out in Rome. It is estimated to kill about 5000 people a day.[16] Italy
540 AD Epidemic Plague epidemic originates in Ethiopia spreads to Pelusium in Egypt.[18] Ethiopia, Egypt
541–542 AD Epidemic The Plague of Justinian, considered the first recorded pandemic, breaks out and develops as an extended epidemic in the Mediterranean basin. According to some, frequent outbreaks over the next two hundred years would eventually kill an estimated 25 million people.[7][19] This number has recently been disputed.[20] Mediterranean Basin
542 AD Epidemic The plague arrives in Constantinople (now Istanbul). By spring of 542, about 5,000 deaths per day in the city are calculated, although some estimates vary to 10,000 per day. The epidemic would go on to kill over a third of the city's population.[18] Turkey
543 AD Epidemic After passing from Italy to Syria, Palestine, and Iraq, plague reaches Iran.[10] Iran
627 AD Epidemic A large epidemic of plague breaks out in Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sasanian Empire, killing more than 100,000 people.[10] Iran
1334 Epidemic The second plague pandemic breaks out in China (questionable). Widely known as the "Black Death" or the Great Plague, it is regarded as one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia.[19][6] Eurasia
1338–1339 Bubonic plague is reported in central Asia.[21]
1345 Plague occurs in southern Russia, around the lower Volga River basin.[22][23] Russia
1346 Epidemic Bubonic plague breaks out in India (questionable).[21] China, India
1347 Epidemic The plague spreads to Constantinople, a major port city. It also infects the Black Sea port of Kaffa down from southern Russia.[23][21] Turkey, Ukraine
1347 Epidemic Italian traders bring the plague in rat-infested ships from Constantinople to Sicily, which becomes the first place in Europe to suffer the Black death epidemic. The same year, Venice is also hit.[11] Italy
1347–1350 Medical development During the 1347–1350 outbreak, doctors are completely unable to prevent or cure the plague. Some of the cures they try include cooked onions, ten-year-old treacle, arsenic, crushed emeralds, sitting in the sewers, sitting in a room between two enormous fires, fumigating the house with herbs, trying to stop God punishing the sick for their sin. Flagellants would go on processions whipping themselves.[24]
1348 Medical development Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio in his book Decameron writes a description of symptoms of the plague.[18] Italy
1348–1350 Epidemic The Black Death arrives at Melcombe Regis in the south of England. Over the next year, the plague spreads into Northern England, Wales and Ireland. By 1350, the plague reaches Scotland. The estimated death toll for the British Isles is calculated at 3.2 million.[25] United Kingdom, Ireland
1349 Genocide Black Death Jewish persecutions. A rumor rises claiming that Jews are responsible for the plague as an attempt to kill Christians and dominate the world. Supported by a widely distributed report of the trial of Jews who supposedly had poisoned wells in Switzerland, the rumor spreads quickly. As a result, a wave of pogroms against Jews breaks out. Christians start to attack Jews in their communities, burning their homes, and murder them with clubs and axes. In the Strasbourg massacre, it is estimated that people locked up and burned 900 Jews alive. Finally, Pope Clement VI issues a religious order to stop the violence against the Jews, claiming that the plague is "the result of an angry God striking at the Christian people for their sins."[11] France, Switzerland
1351 Epidemic Black Death epidemic reaches Russia, attacking Novgorod and reaching Pskov, before being temporarily suppressed by the Russian winter.[5] Russia
1352 Epidemic The plague reaches Moscow.[5] Russia
1361–1364 Medical development During an outbreak, doctors learn how to help the patient recover by bursting the buboes.[24]
1374 Epidemic Black Death epidemic re-emerges in Europe. In Venice, various public health controls such as isolating victims from healthy people and preventing ships with disease from landing at port are instituted.[18] Europe
1377 Program launch The Republic of Ragusa establishes a landing station for vessels far from the city and harbour in which travellers suspected to have the plague must spend thirty days, to see whether they became ill and died or whether they remained healthy and could leave.[18] Croatia
1403 After finding thirty days isolation to be too short, Venice dictates that travellers from the Levant in the eastern Mediterranean be isolated in a hospital for forty days, the quarantena or quaranta giorni, from which the term quarantine is derived.[18] Italy
1582–1583 Epidemic A new outbreak of bubonic plague occurs, in the Canary Islands, mainly affecting the city of San Cristóbal de La Laguna on the island of Tenerife. Between 5,000 and 9,000 people die, a considerable number considering that the population of the island at the time was less than 20,000 inhabitants.[26][27][28] Spain
1629–1631 Epidemic The Italian plague of 1629–1631 develops as a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague. About 280,000 people are estimated to be killed in Lombardy and other territories of Northern Italy.[29] The Italian plague is estimated to have claimed between 35 and 69 percent of the local population.[17] Italy
1637 Epidemic Plague breaks out in Andalusia, killing about 20,000 people in less than four months.[30] Spain
1647–1652 Epidemic Plague ravages Spain. About 30,000 die in Valencia. The great Plague of Seville breaks out.[30] Spain
1665–1666 Epidemic Great Plague of London. 100,000 people are killed within 18 months.[31] United Kingdom
1679 Epidemic The Great Plague of Vienna kills at least 76,000 people.[32] Austria
1720 Epidemic The Great Plague of Marseille kills more than 100,000 people in the French city of Marseille. Marseille, France
1722 Publication Daniel Defoe publishes A Journal of the Plague Year, a fictional account of the Great Plague of London in 1665. This novel is often read as non-fiction.[33] United Kingdom
1738 Epidemic Great Plague of 1738 kills at least 36,000 people.[34] Romania, Hungary, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria
1772–1850 Epidemic The human plague is reported intermittently in the Chinese province of Yunnan, where the third plague pandemic would begin in the 1860s.[7][35] China
1867 Epidemic The plague spreads from Yunnan Province to Beihai on the Chinese coastline.[7] China
1869 Epidemic The plague is observed in Taiwan.[7] Taiwan
1894 Epidemic The plague spreads to Guangdong and results in the death of about 70,000 people.[36][7] China
1894 Scientific development Working independently, both French bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin and Japanese bacteriologist Shibasaburo Kitasato isolate the bacterium that causes bubonic plague. Yersin discovers that rodents are the mode of infection. The bacterium is named yersinia pestis after Yersin.[7][18]
1896–1897 Medical development Russian bacteriologist Waldemar Haffkine successfully protects rabbits against an inoculation of virulent plague microbes, by treating them previously with a subcutaneous injection of a culture of the microbes in broth. The first vaccine for bubonic plague is developed. The rabbits treated in this way become immune to plague. In the next year, Haffkine causes himself to be inoculated with a similar preparation, thus proving in his own person the harmlessness of the fluid. This is considered the first vaccine against bubonic plague.[8] India (Bombay)
1899 Epidemic Plague is first introduced in Latin America in Paraguay, followed by Brazil and Argentina in the same year.[12] Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina
1901 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Uruguay.[12] Uruguay
1902 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Mexico.[12] Mexico
1903 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Chile and Peru.[12] Chile, Peru
1905 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Panama.[12] Panama
1908 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Ecuador and Venezuela.[12] Ecuador, Venezuela
1910 Epidemic Manchurian plague breaks out, killing about 60,000 people over the course of a year.[37] China
1912 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Cuba and Puerto Rico.[12] Cuba, Puerto Rico
1921 Epidemic Plague infection is first reported in Bolivia.[12] Bolivia
1924–1925 Epidemic Plague breaks out in Los Angeles. 32 people get infected and only 2 survive. It is the last rat-borne epidemic occurring in the United States.[38] United States
1928 Medical development Antibiotics developed United Kingdom
1947 Publication French novelist Albert Camus publishes The Plague, a novel about a fictional outbreak of plague in Oran, Algeria. The book helps to show the effects the plague has on a populace.[39] France
1994 Epidemic Plague in India. The country experiences a large outbreak of pneumonic plague after 30 years with no reports of the disease. 693 suspected bubonic or pneumonic plague cases are reported.[10][40] India
2003 Epidemic An outbreak of plague is reported in Algeria, in an area considered plague-free for 50 years.[10] Algeria
2014 Epidemic Outbreak in Madagascar
2006 Epidemic 100 cases of suspected pneumonic plague, including 19 deaths, are reported in Orientale Province, Congo.[41] Democratic Republic of the Congo
2006 Epidemic 13 cases, with two deaths, are reported in the states of New Mexico, Colorado, California, and Texas.[14] United States
2009 Infection Plague is reported in Libya, after 25 years without a case of the disease.[10] Libya
2013 Infection A case of bubonic plague is reported in a region of Kyrgyzstan bordering Kazakhstan.[10] Kyrgyzstan
2013 Infection 783 cases of plague are reported worldwide in 2013, including 126 deaths.[10][13]
2014 Scientific development Researchers at Duke University School of Medicine and Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore find the Yersinia pestis bacteria to hitchhike on immune cells in the lymph nodes and eventually ride into the lungs and the blood stream, thus spreading bubonic plague effectively to others. Singapore
2017 Epidemic Outbreak in Madagascar
2019 Infection A couple in Mongolia die from Bubonic Plague after eating the raw kidney of a rodent—a folk remedy for good health. Others were quarantined to avoid it spreading.[42] Mongolia
1984 Infection On August 31, 1984, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a case of pneumonic plague in Claremont, California. The CDC believed that the patient, a veterinarian, had contracted plague from a stray cat. As the cat wasn't available for necropsy, this could not be ultimately confirmed.[43]
1995-1998 Epidemic From 1995 to 1998, annual outbreaks of plague were witnessed in Mahajanga, Madagascar.[44]
2002 Epidemic In February 2002, a small outbreak of pneumonic plague took place in the Shimla District of Himachal Pradesh state in northern India.[45]
2002 Infection In November 2002, a New Mexico couple contracted bubonic plague while visiting New York after being bitten by infected fleas in their home state.[46] Both were treated by antibiotics, but the man developed septicemic plague which required amputation of both legs below the knee, due to gangrene caused by the lack of blood flow. After a medically-induced three-month coma, the patient survived.[47][48][49]
2006 Infection On April 19, 2006, CNN News and others reported a case of plague in Los Angeles, California, the first reported case in that city since 1984.[50]
2006 Animal In May 2006, KSL Newsradio reported a case of plague found in dead field mice and chipmunks at Natural Bridges National Monument about 40 miles (64 km) west of Blanding in San Juan County, Utah.[51]
2006 Animal In May 2006, Arizona media reported a case of plague found in a cat.[52]
2006 Epidemic In June 2006, one hundred deaths resulting from pneumonic plague were reported in Ituri district of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Control of the plague was proving difficult due to the ongoing conflict.[53]
2006 Accident It was reported in September 2006 that three mice infected with Yersinia pestis apparently disappeared from a laboratory belonging to the Public Health Research Institute, located on the campus of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, which conducts anti-bioterrorism research for the United States government.[54]
2007 Animal On May 16, 2007, an 8-year-old hooded capuchin monkey in the Denver Zoo died of the bubonic plague. Five squirrels and a rabbit were also found dead on zoo grounds and tested positive for the disease.[55]
2007 Infection On June 5, 2007, in Torrance County, New Mexico, a 58-year-old woman developed bubonic plague, which progressed to pneumonic plague.[56]
2007 Infection On November 2, 2007, Eric York, a 37-year-old wildlife biologist for the National Park Service's Mountain Lion Conservation Program and The Felidae Conservation Fund, was found dead in his home at Grand Canyon National Park. On October 27, York performed a necropsy on a mountain lion that had likely perished from the disease, and three days afterward York complained of flu-like symptoms and called in sick from work. He was treated at a local clinic but was not diagnosed with any serious ailment. The discovery of his death sparked a minor health scare, with officials stating he likely died of either plague or hantavirus, and 49 people who had come into contact with York were given aggressive antibiotic treatments. None of them fell ill. Autopsy results released on November 9, confirmed the presence of Y. pestis in his body, confirming plague as a likely cause of death.[57][58]
2008 Epidemic In January 2008, at least 18 people died of bubonic plague in Madagascar.[59]
2009 Epidemic On June 16, 2009, Libyan authorities reported an outbreak of bubonic plague in Tobruk, Libya. 16-18 cases were reported, including one death.[60]
2009 Epidemic On August 2, 2009, Chinese authorities quarantined the town of Ziketan, Xinghai County in Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province (Northwestern China) after an outbreak of pneumonic plague. As of this writing, three have died and ten more are ill, being treated in hospital.[61][needs update]
2009 Accident On September 13, 2009, Dr. Malcolm Casadaban died following an accidental laboratory exposure to an attenuated strain of the plague bacterium. This was due to his undiagnosed hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload). He was an associate professor of molecular genetics and cell biology and of microbiology at the University of Chicago.[62]
2010 Epidemic On 1 July 2010, eight cases of Bubonic plague were reported in humans in the District of Chicama, Peru. One 32-year-old man was affected, as well as three boys and four girls ranging in age from 8 to 14 years old. 425 houses were fumigated and 1210 guinea pigs, 232 dogs, 128 cats and 73 rabbits were given anti flea treatment in an effort to stop the epidemic.[63]
2012 Animal On May 3, 2012, a ground squirrel trapped during routine testing at a popular campground on Palomar Mountain in San Diego County, California tested positive for the plague bacteria.[64]
2012 Infection On June 2, 2012, a man in Crook County, Oregon, attempting to rescue a cat choking on a mouse, was bitten and became infected with septicemic plague.[65]
2013 Animal On July 16, 2013, a squirrel trapped in the Table Mountain Campgrounds of Angeles National Forest tested positive for the plague, prompting a health advisory and the closing of the campground while investigators tested other squirrels and dusted the area for plague-infected fleas.[66]
2013 Infection On August 26, 2013, Temir Isakunov, a teenage boy, died of bubonic plague in northern Kyrgyzstan.[67]
2013 Epidemic December 2013 reports of pneumonic plague epidemic in 5 of 112 districts of Madagascar, believed to be caused by large brush fires forcing rats into towns.[68][69]
2014 Infection On July 13, 2014, a Colorado man was diagnosed with pneumonic plague.[70]
2014 Epidemic On July 22, 2014, the city of Yumen, China, was sealed off and 151 people were put in quarantine after a man died of bubonic plague.[71]
2014 Epidemic On November 21, 2014, the World Health Organization reported[72] that there have been 40 deaths and 80 others infected on the island of Madagascar, with the first known case in the outbreak thought to have occurred in late August 2014.
2015 Animal On May 22, 2015, the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare reported finding plague in dead ground squirrels in 24 places south of Boise in a roughly circular area about 45 miles (72 km) across.[73] On May 27, 2016, the department reported more ground squirrels dead of plague in about the same area.[74] By December six cats— five from the Boise area, which is in southwestern Idaho, and one in the southeastern part of the state— were found to have plague. Four of the cats died; the other two recovered with antibiotic treatment. No human cases were reported.[75] Health authorities warned people to stay out of the affected area and issued advice about preventing contagion in people and pets.[needs update]
2017 Epidemic In Madagascar plague resulted in deaths of over 90 persons by October 2017. While earlier cases of plague in Madagascar were mostly bubonic plague, the current cases were the more infectious pneumonic plague.[76]
2019 Epidemic In China during November 2019, four cases of plague were reported. Two of them were reported to be the more infectious pneumonic plague.[77]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Britain's prehistoric catastrophe revealed: How 90% of the neolithic population vanished in just 300 years". independent.co.uk. 2018-02-21. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Ancient, Unknown Strain of Plague Found in 5,000-Year-Old Tomb in Sweden". livescience.com. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  3. ^ Leitch, Carmen. "The Plague May Have led to the Decline of Neolithic Settlements". labroots.com. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2012). Encyclopedia of the Black Death. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1598842531.
  5. ^ a b c "The Black Death: The Greatest Catastrophe Ever". historytoday.com. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b Wade, Nicholas (31 October 2010), Europe's Plagues Came From China, Study Finds, The New York Times, retrieved 12 May 2020
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr.; Ben Ar, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin (2011). "Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (25): 10214–10219. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10810214X. doi:10.1073/pnas.1019486108. PMC 3121851. PMID 21646523.
  8. ^ a b Hawgood, Barbara J (2007). "Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, CIE (1860–1930): prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India" (PDF). jameslindlibrary.org. 15: 9–19. doi:10.1258/j.jmb.2007.05-59. PMID 17356724. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  9. ^ "Achievements in Public Health, 1900–1999: Control of Infectious Diseases". cdc.gov. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan (2016). "Plague in Iran: its history and current status". Epidemiology and Health. 38: e2016033. doi:10.4178/epih.e2016033. PMC 5037359. PMID 27457063.
  11. ^ a b c "The 'Black Death': A Catastrophe in Medieval Europe". Constitutional Rights Foundation. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A. (2014). "Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8 (2): e2680. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002680. PMC 3916238. PMID 24516682.
  13. ^ a b "Plague". WHO. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  14. ^ a b Butler, Thomas (2009). "Plague into the 21st Century". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 49 (5): 736–742. doi:10.1086/604718. PMID 19606935. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d "WHO Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-prone Infectious Disease" (PDF). WHO. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  16. ^ a b Kercheval, Howard. "One of the big-league diseases of all time". United Press International. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Epidemics of the Past". infoplease.com. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Frith, John. "The History of Plague – Part 1. The Three Great Pandemics". Journal of Military and Veterans' Health. ISSN 1839-2733. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  19. ^ a b "History". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  20. ^ Mordechai, Lee; Eisenberg, Merle; Newfield, Timothy P.; Izdebski, Adam; Kay, Janet E.; Poinar, Hendrik (2019-12-02). "The Justinianic Plague: An inconsequential pandemic?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (51): 25546–25554. doi:10.1073/pnas.1903797116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6926030. PMID 31792176.
  21. ^ a b c "The Black Plague: The Least You Need to Know". web.cn.edu. Carson-Newman University. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  22. ^ Mansbach, Richard W.; Taylor, Kirsten L. (2013-06-17). Introduction to Global Politics. ISBN 9781136517389. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  23. ^ a b Schmid, Boris V.; Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W. Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr. (2015). "Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (10): 3020–3025. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.3020S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1412887112. PMC 4364181. PMID 25713390.
  24. ^ a b "The Black Death". BBC. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  25. ^ "Course of the Black Death". BBC. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  26. ^ La Peste. El cuarto jinete
  27. ^ Las epidemias de la Historia: la peste en La Laguna (1582-1583)
  28. ^ La terrible epidemia de peste en La Laguna en 1582
  29. ^ Kohn, George C. (2007). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. ISBN 9781438129235. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  30. ^ a b Kohn, George C. (2007). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. ISBN 9781438129235. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  31. ^ "The Great Plague of London, 1665". Contagion, Historical Views of Diseases and Epidemics. Harvard University. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  32. ^ Porter, Stephen (2009). The Great Plague. ISBN 9781848680876. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  33. ^ "A Journal of the Plague Year". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  34. ^ "Demographic Changes". oszk.hu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  35. ^ Davis, Lee Allyn (2010-06-23). Natural Disasters. ISBN 9781438118789. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  36. ^ Wu, Lien-teh; Chun, J. W. H.; Pollitzer, R.; Wu, C. Y. (1936). Plague: a Manual for Medical and Public Health Workers. Shanghai. OCLC 11584901.
  37. ^ TEH, WU LIEN; CHUN, J. W. H.; POLLITZER., R. (1923). "Clinical Observations upon the Manchurian Plague Epidemic, 1920-21". Manchurian Plague Prevention Service, China. 21 (3): 289–306. PMC 2167336. PMID 20474781.
  38. ^ Kellogg, W. H. (1935). "The Plague Situation". American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health. 25 (3): 319–322. doi:10.2105/ajph.25.3.319. PMC 1559064. PMID 18014177.
  39. ^ "Albert Camus' The Plague: a story for our, and all, times". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  40. ^ cdc.gov. "International Notes Update: Human Plague -- India, 1994". Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  41. ^ "Plague in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". WHO. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  42. ^ "Quarantine lifted after plague scare". 2019-05-07. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
  43. ^ "Plague Pneumonia – California". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 31, 1984. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  44. ^ Boisier, Pascal; Rahalison, Lila; Rasolomaharo, Monique; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Mahafaly, Mahafaly; Razafimahefa, Maminirana; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Ratsifasoamanana, Lala; Chanteau, Suzanne (2002). "Epidemiologic Features of Four Successive Annual Outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (3): 311–16. doi:10.3201/eid0803.010250. PMC 2732468. PMID 11927030.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  45. ^ 2002 – Plague in India. WHO
  46. ^ "The Couple that Caught Bubonic Plague from Infected Fleas — NOVA Next - PBS". Pbs.org. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  47. ^ Stack, Liam (27 June 2017). "Plague Is Found in New Mexico. Again". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  48. ^ "Living And Loving Through The Bubonic Plague". Npr.org. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  49. ^ "Public health pandemics - Homeland Security News Wire". Homelandsecuritynewswire.com. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  50. ^ "Human Plague – Four States, 2006". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. August 25, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
  51. ^ "Campground Closes Because of Plague". KSL Newsradio. May 16, 2005. Retrieved December 15, 2006.
  52. ^ "Cat tests positive for bubonic plague". The Arizona Republic. May 16, 2005. Retrieved December 15, 2006.
  53. ^ "Congo 'plague' leaves 100 dead". BBC News. June 14, 2006. Retrieved December 15, 2006.
  54. ^ "Plague-Infected Mice Missing From N.J. Lab". ABC News. September 15, 2005. Retrieved December 15, 2006.
  55. ^ "Denver zoo animal died of plague". News First Online. May 22, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2007.
  56. ^ "RSOE EDIS". Retrieved June 8, 2007.
  57. ^ Galvan, Astrid (November 9, 2007). "Grand Canyon National Biologist probably died of plague". The Arizona Republic.
  58. ^ Maureen Oltrogge; Pamela Walls (November 9, 2007). "Plague is probable cause of death of National Park Service employee at Grand Canyon National Park". The National Park Service.
  59. ^ "Madagascar: eighteen dead from Bubonic Plague, five in hospital since 1 January 2008". Archived from the original on 2009-05-09.
  60. ^ "WHO probes report of bubonic plague in Libyan town". Reuters. June 16, 2009.
  61. ^ "Town quarantined as deadly pneumonic plague strikes in China". news.com.au. August 2, 2009.
  62. ^ Randall, Tom (February 25, 2011). "Plague Death Came Within Hours, Spurred by Scientist's Medical Condition". Bloomberg.
  63. ^ "Confirman otro caso de peste bubónica en Ascope". Peru Correo. Archived from the original on 2010-07-02.
  64. ^ "Plague-infected ground squirrel found". May 3, 2012.
  65. ^ Terry, Lynne (June 12, 2012). "Man likely sickened by plague in critical condition in Bend". Oregonian.
  66. ^ "Plague-Infected Squirrel Closes California Campground - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  67. ^ "Teenage boy died of bubonic plague in Kyrgyzstan". Xinhua News Agency. August 26, 2013. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
  68. ^ Australian AFP news sources
  69. ^ Press, Associated (20 December 2013). "Bubonic plague outbreak kills 32 in Madagascar". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  70. ^ Maya Rodriguez (2014-07-13). "Colorado man diagnosed with the plague". Firstcoastnews.com. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  71. ^ "Chinese city sealed off after bubonic plague death". The Guardian. July 22, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  72. ^ "Madagascar plague outbreak kills 40, says WHO". BBC. 2014-11-21. Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  73. ^ Associated Press; Samantha Wright (22 May 2015). "Plague In Idaho Ground Squirrels Prompts Health Warning". Boise State Public Radio. Retrieved 14 December 2016. An epidemiologist with the Central District Health Department ... says they’ve seen plague in ground squirrels southeast of Boise before, but this year it’s spreading fast. ... The outbreak should slow down once the ground squirrels go into summer hibernation in late June and early July. ... There's little officials can do to stop the outbreak in the meantime. Until then, officials are asking people and their pets to avoid the infected area.
  74. ^ "Officials: Ground Squirrels In Southwestern Idaho Likely Have Plague". Boise State Public Radio. Associated Press. 27 May 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  75. ^ Wright, Samantha (13 December 2016). "CDC Says Six Cats Diagnosed With Plague In Idaho This Summer". Boise State Public Radio. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  76. ^ Roberts, Leslie (9 October 2017). "Deadly plague epidemic rages in Madagascar". Science. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  77. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-plague-idUSKBN1Y20BI