|Timeline of Islamic history: 6th | 7th | 8th | 9th | 10th | 11th | 12th | 13th | 14th | 15th | 16th | 17th | 18th | 19th | 20th | 21st century|
16th century (1501–1600) (906 AH – 1009 AH)Edit
1500 - 1509Edit
- 1501: Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.
- 1507: The Kingdom of Portugal under Alfonso d'Albuquerque establishes trading outposts in the Persian Gulf..
1510 - 1519Edit
- 1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca.
- 1514: Sultan Selim I defeats Safavids at the Battle of Chaldiran.
- 1516: Selim I defeats the Mamluks at the Battle of Merc-i Dabik and kills Sultan Kansu Gavri; Syria is conquered.
- 1517: The Ottoman army crosses the Sinai desert, defeats the new Mamluk Sultan Tomanbai at the Battle of Ridaniye and Battle of Cairo and conquers Egypt. The Sharif of Mecca presented keys to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina to Selim I and is declared their hereditary ruler. Al-Mutawakkil, the last Abbasid caliph, formally surrenders the title of caliph to Selim I.
1520 - 1529Edit
South East Asia (Indonesia)Edit
- 1527: Fall of Majapahit empire, the last Hindu stronghold in South East Asia. Demak established as first Islamic sultanate of Java.
- 1520: Selim I dies and the reign of Suleiman I, the Magnificent begins.
- 1521: Suleiman I conquers Belgrade.
- 1522: Suleiman I defeats the Knights Hospitaller and drives them from the island of Rhodes.
- 1526: Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács, where Louis II of Hungary dies. Buda and Pest are taken by the Ottomans and Hungary is declared a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.
- 1526: Babur destroys the Delhi Sultanate at the Battle of Panipat, laying the foundation of the Mughal Empire.
- 1527: Babur annihilates the Rajput Confederacy of Rana Sanga at the Battle of Khanwa, ending the most dangerous threat to Muslim rule in India at the time.
- 1528: Babur defeats an Afghan army at the Battle of Kannauj.
- 1529: Babur crushes an Afghan army at the Battle of Ghaghra, ending hopes of a Lodhi restoration.
1530 - 1539Edit
- 1534: Suleiman I conducts a military campaign against Safavid Shah Tahmasp and conquers Van, Baghdad, and Tabriz.
- 1538: The Ottoman navy under the command of Barbarossa Khayreddin wins a naval victory against a combined Christian fleet at the Battle of Preveza.
1540 - 1549Edit
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1550 - 1559Edit
- 1550: The architect Mimar Sinan builds the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul. The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra.
Khanate of KazanEdit
- 1552: The Khanate is conquered by the Tsardom of Russia.
- 1556: Akbar begins his reign of the Mughal empire in India at age 13 with his regent Bairam Khan after winning the Second Battle of Panipat against Hemu.
1560 - 1569Edit
- 1565: The Ottomans are defeated by the Knights Hospitaller during the Siege of Malta.
- 1566: The Ottomans gain control of the Aegean islands.
- 1566: Suleiman I dies and is succeeded by Selim II.
1570 - 1579Edit
- 1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto.
- 1578: The Battle of Alcazarquivir at Alcazarquivir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.
1580 - 1589Edit
- 1588: The reign of Abbas I of Safavid begins.