Tangsa language

  (Redirected from Tikhak)

Tangsa, also Tase and Tase Naga, is a Sino-Tibetan language or language cluster spoken by the Tangsa people of Burma and north-eastern India. Some varieties, such as Shangge, are likely distinct languages. There are about 60,000 speakers in Burma and 40,000 speakers in India.

Tangsa
Tase
Native toBurma, India
EthnicityTangsa people
Native speakers
108,624 (2010-2012)[1][2][3][4]
Sino-Tibetan
Dialects
  • Muklom
  • Pangwa Naga
  • Ponthai
  • Tikhak
Latin alphabet, Tangsa alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
nst – Tangsa (multiple varieties)
nqq – Kyan-Karyaw
nlq – Lao Naga
Glottologtang1379  Tangsa

Geographical distributionEdit

Tangsa is spoken in the following locations of Myanmar (Ethnologue).

In India, Tangsa is spoken in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. Below are locations for some varieties of Tangsa.

  • Jugli: Kantang, Longlung, and Rangran villages, central Tirap District, Arunachal (Rekhung 1988)[5]
  • Lungchang: Changlang, Rangkatu, and Kengkhu villages, eastern Tirap District, Arunachal (Rekhung 1988)[6]
  • Tutsa: Sabban area, Changlang Subdivision, western Changlang District (also in southeastern Tirap District), Arunachal (Rekhung 1992)[7]
  • Chamchang (Kimsing):Nongtham, Jotinkaikhe, Kharsang, Songking, Injan of Miao Sub-division and Nampong-Jairampur-Nampong sub-division of Changlang district. Chamchang dialect is adopted as lingua-franca by many sub-tribes in Sagaing Division of Myanmar. In India, Nagamese or Nefamese are typically used as a lingua-franca. The first complete Bible of the Tangsas has been translated in Chamchang(Kimsing) by the Bible Society of India.[citation needed]
  • Mungshang: Nayang village, Miao area & Theremkan village, Nampong circle, Changlang District, Arunachal (Rekhung 1999)[8]

Ethnologue also lists the following languages.

  • Lao Naga (Law, Loh) (ISO 639 nlq): 1,000 speakers (as of 2012) in Lahe Township. Most similar to Chen-Kayu Naga and the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga.
  • Chen-Kayu Naga (Kyan-Karyaw Naga) (ISO 639 nqq): 9,000 speakers (as of 2012) in 13 villages of Lahe Township. Dialects are Chen (Kyan) and Kayu (Kahyu, Kaiyaw, Karyaw, Kayaw). Most similar to the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga.

DialectsEdit

There are four principal varieties,

  • Muklom
  • Pangwa Naga
  • Ponthai
  • Tikhak

Morey (2017)Edit

Within Tangsa, the Pangwa group has about 20 subgroups in India. The Pangwa had migrated from Myanmar to India in the 20th century (Morey 2017). Pangwa subgroups are listed below, with autonyms listed in parentheses, where superscript digits are language-specific tone-marks.[9]

  • Tonglum (autonym: cho¹lim¹, ʨolim, Cholim)
  • Langching (autonym: lo²cʰaŋ³, loʨʰaŋ, Lochhang)
  • Kimsing (autonym: ʨamʨaŋ, Chamchang)
  • Ngaimong (autonym: ŋaimɔŋ)
  • Maitai (maitai; Motai)
  • Ronrang (autonym: rɯra, Rera, Rüra)
  • Sangkhe
  • Lakkai (Lakki)
  • Mossang (Mueshaung)
  • Morang (Mungray)
  • Hachheng (Hacheng)
  • Khalak (Khilak)
  • Longri
  • Sangwal
  • Jogly (Joglei)
  • Lungkhe
  • Haso
  • Dunghi

The Tikhak group consists of:[9]

  • Longchang
  • Tikhak
  • Nokjah
  • Yongkuk
  • Kato (currently extinct)

Other subgroups that do not belong to either the Pangwa or Tikhak groups are:[9]

  • Moklum
  • Ponthai (Nukta)
  • Havi (Hawoi)
  • Hakhun (haˀkʰun)
  • Thamphang (ʨampaŋ, Champang)
  • Thamkok (Chamkok)
  • Halang (Hehle)

Besides Pangwa and Tikhak, other Tangsa groups are:[10]

  • Muklom (Muklom, Hawoi)
  • Phong (also known as Ponthai)

Lann (2018)Edit

Lann (2018:8) classifies the Tangsa language varieties as follows, and recognizes 11 subgroups.[11] IPA transcriptions for dialect names are also provided (Lann 2018:4-6), where superscript digits are language-specific tone-marks.[12]

  • Upland Pangva: Shecyü (ɕe².ȶɯ²), Chamchang (ȶəm².ȶəŋ²), Mungre (muŋ².ɹe²), Mueshaungx (mɯ³.ɕaoŋ³), Lochang (lo³.ȶʰaŋ³), Haqcyeng (haʔ.ȶeŋ²), Ngaimong (ŋaj².moŋ²), Shangvan (ɕəŋ².van²), Joglei (juk.li²), Cholim (ȶo².lim²), Longri (loŋ³.ɹi²), Jöngi (dʒɵ².ŋi³), Maitai (maj³.taj³)
  • Eastern Pangva
    • Eastern Pangva A: Lungkhi (luŋ².kʰi³), Khalak (kʰ.lək), Gachai (ɡ.ȶʰaj²)
    • Eastern Pangva B: Rinkhu (ɹin².kʰu²), Näkkhi (nək.kʰi²), Rasi (ɹa².si²), Rasa (ɹa².sa²), Rera (ɹe².ɹa²), Kochung (ko².ȶʰuŋ²), Shokra (ɕok.ɹa²), Shangthi (ɕəŋ².tʰi²), Shanchin (ɕan².ȶʰin²), Khangchin, Khangdu, Lawnyung (lon².juŋ²), Yangbaivang (jəŋ².ban².vəŋ²), Gaqha (ɡaʔ.ha²), Raraq (ɹa².ɹaʔ), Raqnu (ɹaʔ.nu²), Kotlum (kot.lum²), Assen (a.sen²), Hasa (ha².sa³)
  • Yungkuk-Tikhak: Yungkuk (joŋ².kuk), Tikhak (ti².kʰak), Longchang (loŋ³.ȶaŋ²), Muklum (mok.lum²), Havi (ha².vi), Kato (ka².to³), Nukyaq
  • Ole: Nahen (na³.hen³), Lumnu (lum².nu³), Yangno (jɐŋ².no³), Kumgaq, Haqpo (haʔ.po²), Chamkok (ȶəm².kok), Champang (ȶəm².pəŋ²), Haqcyum (haʔ.ȶum), Tawke (to².ke³), Hokuq (ho³.kuʔ)
  • Kon-Pingnan: Yongkon (kon³), Chawang, Nukvuk, Miku (mi².ku²), Pingku (piŋ².ku²), Nansa (nan³.sa³, Nyinshao)
  • Haqte: Haqkhii (haʔ.kʰɤ²), Haqman (haʔ.man²), Bote (bo.te²), Lama (ku³.ku²), Haqkhun (haʔ.kʰun²), Nocte (nok.te²), Phong (pʰoŋ, Ponthai), Tutsa (tup.sa³)
  • Olo: Haqsik (haʔ.tsik), Lajo (la².jo²)
  • Ola: Kaishan (kaj².ɕan³)
  • Sandzik (san².ðik)
  • Cyokat: Chuyo (ȶu³.jo²), Gaqkat (ɡ.kaʔ), Wancho (vən³.ȶo²)
  • Kunyon: Kuku (ku³.ku²), Makyam (poŋ².ɲon³, Pongnyuan)

Lann (2018:4) lists the Aktung, Angsü-Angsa, Giiyii, Gawngkaq, Khangcyu, Khangdo, Kumgaq, Punlam, Nukyaq, and Vangtak-Vangkaq dialects as being extinct or nearly extinct.[13]

OrthographyEdit

Tangsa
Script type
CreatorLakhum Mossang
Published
1990
LanguagesTangsa
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Tnsa, , ​Tangsa
Unicode
Unicode alias
Tangsa
U+16A70–U+16ACF

In 1990, Mr. Lakhum Mossang from Namphai Nong, Arunchal Pradesh in India created an alphabet for the Tangsa language. He taught the alphabet in public events and festivals, and promoted the script with community organisations and schools. In 2021, there were about 100 people who are using the script.[14] The Tangsa Script Development Committee was founded in 2019 and continues development of the script after the passing of Lakhum Mossang in order ensure accommodation to the wide range of Tangsa varieties spoken in the region. The script has not yet gained widespread adoption.

Beyond the use of Lakhum Mossang's script, Tangsa varieties are generally written in the Latin alphabet with multiple different spelling conventions in use. One such Roman orthography is that for Mossang, designed by Reverend Gam Win and used in the Mossang translation of the Bible. Different Roman orthographies are in use among different subtribes, often with considerable variation. These differences tend to follow Christian denominational divisions.

The Gam Win Romanization for Mossang is as follows:

Tonal vowelsEdit

Each vowel of the Tangsa alphabet notes a combination representing one of 11 phonemic base vowels:[15]

o [o]
v [ə]
i [i]
a [a]
e [e]
u [u]
aw [ɔ]
 
ue / ü [ɤ]
ui [ɯ]
uiu [ɯu]
m [m̩]

modified by one of four distinctive vocalic tones (noted in Latin transcriptions by trailing consonnants appended after the base vowel):

-c [˦] thuic tsanz (voice-hard) - mid-high level or rising
-x [˧] thuic hvlz (voice-middle) - mid-high falling
-z [˩] thuic nyenz (voice-soft) - low falling with creaky phonation
-q [ˀ] thuic htaq (voice-break/cut) - short, final glottal stop[16]

As well, the Tangsa alphabet includes a few additional separate letters for distinctive tonal vowels  :

-ng [ŋ] (final) - modifier written after the base vowel+tone
awx [ɔ̆˧] (short variant) - usually not distinguished in Latin transcriptions
uex [ɤː˧] (long variant) - usually not distinguished in Latin transcriptions
uez [ɤ̆˩] (short variant) - usually not distinguished in Latin transcriptions

ConsonantsEdit

Unlike Brahmic-derived abugidas most often used for languages in India and Burma, the 31 consonnants of the Tangsa alphabet (used to write Sino-Tibetan languages and not Brahmic-based languages) don't carry any inherent vowel:[17]

k [k]
kh [kʰ]
g [g]
ng [ŋ]
s [s]
y [j]
w [w]
p [p]
ny [ɲ]
ph [pʰ]
b [b]
m [m]
n [n]
h [h]
l [l]
ht [tʰ]
t [t]
d [d]
r [r]
nh [n̪]
sh [ʃ]
c [t͡ɕ]
ts [t͡s]
gh [ɣ]
htt [t̪ʰ]
th [t̪]
x [x]
f [f]
dh [d̪]
ch [t͡ɕʰ]
z [z]

UnicodeEdit

The Tangsa alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 2021 with the release of version 14.0.

The Unicode block for Tangsa is U+16A70–U+16ACF. The 48 base vowels (with tones) are encoded in U+16A70–U+16A9F, the 31 base consonants are encoded in U+16AA0–U+16ABE, and ten decimal digits are encoded in U+16AC0–U+16AC9:

Tangsa[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+16A7x 𖩰 𖩱 𖩲 𖩳 𖩴 𖩵 𖩶 𖩷 𖩸 𖩹 𖩺 𖩻 𖩼 𖩽 𖩾 𖩿
U+16A8x 𖪀 𖪁 𖪂 𖪃 𖪄 𖪅 𖪆 𖪇 𖪈 𖪉 𖪊 𖪋 𖪌 𖪍 𖪎 𖪏
U+16A9x 𖪐 𖪑 𖪒 𖪓 𖪔 𖪕 𖪖 𖪗 𖪘 𖪙 𖪚 𖪛 𖪜 𖪝 𖪞 𖪟
U+16AAx 𖪠 𖪡 𖪢 𖪣 𖪤 𖪥 𖪦 𖪧 𖪨 𖪩 𖪪 𖪫 𖪬 𖪭 𖪮 𖪯
U+16ABx 𖪰 𖪱 𖪲 𖪳 𖪴 𖪵 𖪶 𖪷 𖪸 𖪹 𖪺 𖪻 𖪼 𖪽 𖪾
U+16ACx 𖫀 𖫁 𖫂 𖫃 𖫄 𖫅 𖫆 𖫇 𖫈 𖫉
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ "Naga, Tangshang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  3. ^ "Naga, Chen-Kayu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  4. ^ "Naga, Lao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  5. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1988. Jugli Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  6. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1988. Lungchang Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  7. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1992. Tutsa Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  8. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1999. Mungshang Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  9. ^ a b c Morey, Stephen (2011), "Tangsa song language - art or history? a common language or a remnant?", Als2011 Australian Linguistics Society Annual Conference Conference Proceedings
  10. ^ Morey, Stephen (2015). "The internal diversity of Tangsa: vocabulary and morphosyntax". In Post, Mark; Konnerth, Linda; Morey, Stephen; et al. (eds.). Language and Culture in Northeast India and Beyond: In honor of Robbins Burling. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics. pp. 23–40. hdl:1885/38458.
  11. ^ Lann 2018, p. 8
  12. ^ Lann 2018, pp. 4–6
  13. ^ Lann 2018, p. 4
  14. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  15. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  16. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  17. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 5 March 2021.

External linksEdit