Stephanie Young Hwang (born August 1, 1989), known professionally as Tiffany or Tiffany Young, is an American singer. Born and raised in California, she was discovered by South Korean entertainment agency SM Entertainment at the age of fifteen and subsequently moved to South Korea. After two years of training, Tiffany debuted as a member of girl group Girls' Generation (and later its subgroup Girls' Generation-TTS) in August 2007, which went on to become one of the best-selling artists in South Korea and one of South Korea's most popular girl groups worldwide. In 2016, following her contribution to several side projects during the early part of her career, Tiffany became the second Girls' Generation member to debut as a soloist with the release of her first extended play I Just Wanna Dance.
Young at the 2019 iHeartRadio Music Awards
Stephanie Young Hwang
August 1, 1989
|Other names||Hwang Mi-young|
|Education||Korea Kent Foreign School|
|Revised Romanization||Hwang Mi-yeong|
Although Tiffany remains a member of Girls' Generation, she left SM Entertainment in October 2017. She is currently based in Los Angeles for her solo career. She joined Paradigm Talent Agency and signed with record label Transparent Arts prior to the release of her 2019 extended play Lips on Lips.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Controversy
- 3 Discography
- 4 Concerts
- 5 Filmography
- 6 Awards and nominations
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Life and careerEdit
1989–2012: Early life and career beginningsEdit
Tiffany was born Stephanie Young Hwang on August 1, 1989, in San Francisco, California. Her family consists of her father, an older sister, and an older brother. Her mother died when she was 12 years old, and she is estranged from her father. She grew up in Diamond Bar, California, and was inspired by K-pop artist BoA. Encouraged by her brother, at the age of 15, Tiffany participated in a singing contest. She was spotted by a local SM Entertainment representative, auditioned, and was accepted as a trainee. She moved to South Korea three weeks later.
Tiffany attended Korea Kent Foreign School and was trained at SM Entertainment for almost four years. She officially debuted as a member of South Korean girl group Girls' Generation in August 2007. The singer adopted the stage name Tiffany, the name her mother initially wanted to name her at birth. Besides Girls' Generation, Tiffany's early solo work mostly involved songs recorded for side projects and original soundtracks. Throughout her career, she also participated as the host for several television programs. In early 2008, Tiffany was diagnosed with vocal nodules and had to receive medical treatment. The symptoms relapsed in 2009 and 2010 in which the singer had to take a short break from her activities. Tiffany acknowledged her voice became "huskier" and "more mature" as a result.
2012–2017: Girls’ Generation TTS and solo debutEdit
In December 2011–January 2012, Tiffany debuted as a musical actress through a lead role in the Korean adaptation of musical Fame. She played a character named Carmen Diaz, a performing arts student who has an ambition to achieve success. In April 2012, a Girls' Generation subgroup named TTS was formed with Tiffany and fellow members Taeyeon and Seohyun. Their debut EP, Twinkle, met with much success and became the eighth highest selling album of the year in South Korea. The subgroup went on to release two more EPs: Holler (2014) and Dear Santa (2015). In November 2013, Tiffany participated as a contestant in the SBS' reality program Fashion King Korea – a program where South Korean celebrities team up with the nation's top designers to compete in fashion challenges and missions. The singer was paired with a designer named Ji Il-geun and finished the program in third place.
During the summer of 2015, Tiffany began work on a solo record, having the mentality of it being the "transition into the next chapter of [her] music career." She started participating in writing music since 2014, calling it "nerve-wrecking to put out music [she's] written on [her] own." Tiffany named Girls' Generation's Taeyeon as "a big part" that helped her throughout the preparation process for the album. The two singers have been known to be best friends since Tiffany's arrival in South Korea in 2004. The album, titled I Just Wanna Dance, was released in May 2016, making Tiffany become the second Girls' Generation member to have a solo debut. Her album met with mixed, but generally favorable reviews. Tamar Herman from Billboard magazine called the album an "audible canvas to paint a new image for [Tiffany]", elaborating it "showcases [her] range as an artist." The album, having a more American influence than typical K-pop, debuted at number three on both the Billboard World Album Chart and South Korea's Gaon Album Chart. It has sold 61,409 physical copies and was chosen by Billboard as the seventh best K-pop album of the year. The titular lead single debuted at number 10 on both the Billboard World Digital Song Chart and the Gaon Digital Chart. In June 2016, the follow-up single "Heartbreak Hotel", featuring Simon Dominic, was released through SM Station digital music platform. To accompany her solo releases, Tiffany held a series of small concerts titled Weekend during the same month.
In October 2016, Tiffany was featured in the single "Don't Speak", taken from Far East Movement's album Identity. In an interview, the hip-hop group has said that working with Tiffany has "really opened [their] eyes", commenting on "how versatile [Tiffany's] range is as a singer."
2017–present: Departure from SM Entertainment and solo careerEdit
Tiffany left SM Entertainment in October 2017 and her future activities with Girls' Generation remain in discussion. She moved back to Los Angeles to study acting and pursue a solo singing career.
On March 14, 2018, Tiffany released a cover of "Remember Me," the theme song of the Pixar film Coco, as a single under the stage name Tiffany Young. In June 2018, it was announced that she would be debuting in the United States under Paradigm Talent Agency. She signed with Transparent Arts as her new record label, with "Over My Skin" as her first U.S. solo single.
Tiffany collaborated with and was made the face for H&M's Autumn 2018 campaign. To coincide with their Divided Music fall campaign, Tiffany released her second U.S. single, "Teach You", which was released on September 28, 2018. On October 2018, Tiffany was the first female K-pop artist to walk the red carpet of the American Music Awards. She released a holiday single, "Peppermint", on November 30, 2018.
On January 9, 2019, Tiffany announced her next single, "Born Again," which would be released on January 24 as the lead single of her next EP, entitled Lips on Lips; the single was moved one day later, on January 25, with Fernando Garibay confirmed as the song's producer. The music video of "Born Again" was released alongside the single on January 25. The EP's title track was released as the second single on February 14. Lips on Lips was released on February 22.
Lips on Lips debuted at number nine on Billboard's Heatseekers Albums chart and number thirty on the Independent Albums chart, with 1,000 copies downloaded and 380,000 on-demand audio streams. The EP also peaked at number eight at the Gaon Album Chart, and was certified Platinum in South Korea a week after its release. She promoted the EP through her Lips on Lips Mini Showcase Tour, which spanned eight dates around North America in March 2019. She won Best Solo Breakout at the 2019 iHeartRadio Music Awards, which aired on March 14, 2019.
Tiffany released a new single, "Magnetic Moon", on August 2, coinciding with her Open Hearts Eve concert in Seoul on the next day, as well as another concert in Bangkok on August 17. She will also embark on the Magnetic Moon tour, which covers eighteen tour stops in North America from October to November 2019.
Using her social media accounts to interact with fans, in August 2016, while Tiffany was at a SMTown Live concert in Tokyo, she posted a couple of photos that involved the use of the Japanese flag and Rising Sun Flag, indicating her whereabouts. Though there was no evidence of ill-intentions, this caused heavy criticism from the Korean public as the timing coincided with Korean Liberation Day, stirring a historical war wound sentiment. This event caused her to step down from Sister's Slam Dunk, a KBS2 variety show that she participated in at the time. Tiffany expressed regret for her action in two handwritten apologies, acknowledging her lack of history knowledge. After the controversial blunder, some spoke out in defense of Tiffany, while others questioned the misogyny within the Korean society, arguing that they can be "unforgiving" towards a female artist while a male counterpart wouldn't have received the same treatment if the same event has occurred.
- The Agit: Tiffany's Weekend (2016)
- Lips On Lips North American Mini Showcase Tour (2019)
- Open Hearts Eve (2019)
- Magnetic Moon North American Tour (2019)
Lips On Lips North American Mini Showcase TourEdit
|March 3, 2019||Toronto||Canada||Mod Club|
|March 6, 2019||New York City||United States||Bowery Ballroom|
|March 8, 2019||Chicago||Lincoln Hall|
|March 9, 2019||Minneapolis||Amsterdam Hall|
|March 12, 2019||Seattle||The Crocodile|
|March 13, 2019||Vancouver||Canada|
|March 15, 2019||San Francisco||United States||Great American Music Hall|
|March 16, 2019||Los Angeles||Troubadour (West Hollywood, California)|
Open Hearts EveEdit
|August 3, 2019||Seoul||South Korea||Yes24 Live Hall|
|August 17, 2019||Bangkok||Thailand||Thunder Dome|
Magnetic Moon North American Mini TourEdit
|October 25, 2019||San Francisco||United States||The Regency Ballroom|
|October 27, 2019||Vancouver||Canada||Vogue Theatre|
|October 28, 2019||Portland||United States||Wonder Ballroom|
|October 29, 2019||Seattle||Showbox at the Market|
|November 1, 2019||Minneapolis||First Avenue|
|November 2, 2019||Chicago||Vic Theatre|
|November 4, 2019||Toronto||Canada||The Danforth Music Hall|
|November 6, 2019||Philadelphia||United States||Union Transfer|
|November 8, 2019||Boston||Paradise Rock Club|
|November 9, 2019||Washington||U Street Music Hall|
|November 10, 2019||Brooklyn||Brooklyn Steel|
|November 12, 2019||Raleigh||Lincoln Theatre|
|November 13, 2019||Atlanta||Buckhead Theatre|
|November 15, 2019||Houston||White Oak Music Hall|
|November 16, 2019||Dallas||Trees Dallas|
|November 18, 2019||Denver||Bluebird Theatre|
|November 20, 2019||Phoenix||Crescent Ballroom|
|November 21, 2019||Los Angeles||Fonda Theatre|
|2012||I Am||Herself||Biographical film of SM Town|||
|2014||My Brilliant Life||Cameo appearance|||
|2015||SMTown The Stage||Documentary film of SM Town|||
|2008||Unstoppable Marriage||Bulgwang-dong's Seven Princesses Gang||Cameo appearance||KBS2|
Reality and variety showsEdit
|2007–2008||Sonyeon Sonyeo Gayo Baekseo||Co-host||with Kim Hye-seong||Mnet|
|2008||Kko Kko Tours Single♥Single||Regular Cast||Season 1||KBS2|
|2009–2012||Show! Music Core||Co-host||with Yuri||MBC|
|2012–2013||with Taeyeon and Seohyun|
|2013||Fashion King Korea||Regular Cast/Contestant||Third place||SBS|
|2015||Heart A Tag||Host||with Lee Cheol Woo||||Mnet|
|2016||Sister's Slam Dunk||Regular cast||KBS2|
|2019||King of Mask Singer||Contestant||as "The Rose of Versailles"||MBC|
Awards and nominationsEdit
|2008||Mnet 20's Choice Awards||Hot School Girl||Herself||Nominated|
|2009||Mnet Asian Music Awards||Best OST||"By Myself"||Nominated|||
|2011||MBC Entertainment Awards||Special Award: MC Division (with Yuri)||Show! Music Core||Won|||
|2016||Mnet Asian Music Awards||Best Dance Performance Solo||"I Just Wanna Dance"||Nominated|
|Song of the Year||Nominated|
|2018||BreakTudo Awards||K-pop Female Artist||Herself||Won|||
|2019||iHeartRadio Music Awards||Best Solo Breakout||Won|||
|2019||BreakTudo Awards||K-pop Solo Artist||Nominated|||
- Tiffany's Korean name: Hwang Mi-young (in Korean) Newsen.com (March 1, 2009). Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- "Tiffany Young on Apple Music". Apple Music. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Kowitdamrong, Urisara (September 28, 2018). "All Grown Up and Ready to Sing". The Nation. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Ahn, Woorim (November 18, 2014). "[Past And Present] Bright Like A Diamond, Tiffany". BNT News. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Pawar, Rushali (August 1, 2016). "Here's how Girls' Generation member Tiffany is celebrating her 27th birthday". International Business Times. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- Kim, Jae Ha (June 28, 2018). "Tiffany Young Steps into the Solo Spotlight". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "티파니 "먼저 세상떠난 어머니, 8자매를 선물로 줬다" 눈물고백" [Tiffany confesses with tears, "My mother who passed away gave me a gift of 8 sisters"]. Newsen. August 13, 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Lee, Min-young (December 6, 2018). "Girls' Generation Tiffany Breaks Silence on Dad's Fraud Allegations". The Korea Times. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Stewart Ho (June 18, 2012). "BoA's Influence on the SM Artists Evident in ′I AM′". eNewsWorld. CJ E&M. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Pops in Seoul _ Tiffany(티파니) _ Interview _ Part 1 (news program). South Korea: Arirang on YouTube / Google Inc. May 23, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Yi, David (October 23, 2011). "NYers screaming for new wave of K-pop stars". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Lee Seul-bi (June 7, 2011). "티파니가 26세? '나이논란' 종결…2007년 졸업 영상 '시선'" ["Tiffany is 26 years old? 'Age controversy' ends…2007 graduation video draws attention]. The Dong-A Ilbo. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Kim, Do-yeun (November 2, 2011). "Girls' Generation featured on Yale School of Art website". Korea Times. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- 소녀시대 티파니 제시카 서현 게임 주제가 신곡 발표 [Girls' Generation Jessica, Tiffany and Seohyun released a game theme song] (in Korean). Newsen.com. August 1, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
- Kim Hyeong-wu (February 16, 2009). 소녀시대 티파니 "‘오빠나빠’ 활동 당시 성대결절 고생" [Girls' Generation's Tiffany: "Bad Older Brother' Activities Were Difficult on Vocal Nodules"] (in Korean). JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- 티파니 케이윌과 ‘소녀, 사랑을 만나다’ 듀엣 열창 [Tiffany & K.Will sing a duet "A Girl, Meets Love"]. Newsen (in Korean). March 27, 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- "Drama Music Is New Source for Hits". The Korea Times. June 29, 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
- Jeon Hyung Hwa (April 20, 2012). "SNSD's Taeyeon, Tiffany, and Seohyun to release a new album in May". StarNews. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Hyesung, Gil (April 4, 2009). "티파니-유리, 오늘(4일) '음악중심' MC 첫 도전" [Tiffany-Yuri’s First Time as Music Core MC’s Today (4th)]. StarNews (in Korean). Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "태티서, '음중' MC 마지막 무대..."잊지 말아 달라"". The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). April 13, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Girls' Generation's Tiffany becomes MC for fashion and beauty program". Jakarta Post via MSN. March 31, 2015. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Lee Ji-hae (July 14, 2016). "Pre-debut photos and fun facts about Girls' Generation". KpopHerald. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
- 소녀시대 티파니 목 상태 호전 "26일 '음중' 참여 가능할듯" [SNSD Tiffany throat condition improving, participation in 'Music Core' on 26th seems possible]. Newsen (in Korean). September 21, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "Tiffany of Girls' Generation Reinventing Herself for Musical 'Fame'". The Chosun Ilbo. November 8, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- "TaeTiSeo to drop EP 'Holler' next week". The Korea Herald. September 11, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Taetiseo to Conclude Promotions on June 3; Will Be First 4 Time Triple Crown Winner as Unit". enewsWorld. CJ E&M. May 31, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- "Gaon's Yearly Chart 2012". Gaon Album Chart. 2012. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
- Benjamin, Jeff (September 16, 2014). "Girls' Generation-TTS on Why New 'Holler' EP Represents Their 'Mind, Body and Soul'". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- "Girls' Generation-TTS to release Christmas album". Yonhap News. November 25, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- 티파니, 촬영 중단 "죄송해요, 저희 지금…" [Tiffany, stops filming "I'm sorry, we are..."]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). January 27, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Kim Jae-heun (May 11, 2016). "Tiffany releases first solo album". The Korea Times. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Herman, Tamar (May 12, 2016). "Girls' Generation's Tiffany Releases 'I Just Wanna Dance' EP". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- MTV News Staff (May 27, 2016). "Hits & Misses: Tiffany's 'I Just Wanna Dance', Jay Z's Lemonade Verse on 'All The Way Up', Wale's 'My PYT', and 'Snapback'". MTV. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
- Benjamin, Jeff (May 18, 2016). "Girls' Generation's Tiffany Makes Her Solo Mark on Multiple Charts With 'I Just Wanna Dance'". Billboard. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "Album Chart – Week 20, 2016" (in Korean). Gaon Music Chart. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "Album Chart – July 2016" (in Korean). Gaon Music Chart. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Benjamin, Jeff; Oak, Jessica (December 22, 2016). "10 Best K-Pop Albums of 2016: Critic's Picks". Retrieved December 23, 2016.
- "Digital Chart – Week 20, 2016" (in Korean). Gaon Music Chart. Archived from the original on June 4, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Kim Ji-young (June 7, 2016). "Next on 'SM Station': Tiffany and Simon Dominic". KpopHerald. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
- Ahn Sung-mi (June 1, 2016). "Tiffany adds 3 more solo concerts". KpopHerald. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Benjamin, Jeff (December 8, 2016). "Girls' Generation's Tiffany Stars & Slays in Far East Movement's 'Don't Speak' Video: Exclusive". Billboard. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
- "티파니·수영·서현, SM 떠난다…"소녀시대 해체는 안해"" [Tiffany, Sooyoung and Seohyun leave SM... "Girls' Generation will not disband"] (in Korean). Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
- "From SNSD Girls' Generation to acting solo: What dramas did Tiffany, Soo-young, and Seo-hyun acted in and where will they go next? | Viu". Viu. October 25, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- "K-pop diva Tiffany to release US debut album on June 28". The Korea Times. June 14, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
- "With U.S. debut, Tiffany Young Looks to Hollywood". Korea JoongAng Daily. JoongAng Media Network. August 11, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- "Tiffany Young stars in H&M Autumn 2018 Divided Music Campaign". H&M. September 12, 2018. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Parker, Lyndsey (October 16, 2018). "How Tiffany Young is Bringing K-pop to a New Girls' Generation". Yahoo!. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Bell, Crystal (November 30, 2018). "Tiffany Young on Her "Naughty and Nice" New Single and What's on Her Holiday Playlist". MTV. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Tiffany Opens Up About Recent Family Troubles". Soompi. January 9, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Wass, Mike (January 21, 2019). "Tiffany Young Teases New Single "Born Again," Announces 'Lips On Lips' EP". Idolator. Gawker Media. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Bell, Crystal (January 25, 2019). "Tiffany Young is 'Born Again' in Intimate New Pop Single". MTV News. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- Bell, Crystal (February 14, 2019). "Tiffany Young's "Lips on Lips" is a Playful Valentine's Surprise". MTV News. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- Benjamin, Jeff (March 8, 2019). "Tiffany Young Hits New Peaks on Independent & Heatseekers Albums Charts With 'Lips on Lips' EP". Billboard. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Lips on Lips – Week 12, 2019". Gaon Music Chart (in Korean). Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- 티파니 "포기하고 싶은 순간마다 팬들 생각". Naver (in Korean). March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- Moen, Matt (November 14, 2018). "Tiffany Young Announces North American Solo Tour". Paper. Paper Communications. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Aniftos, Rania (January 9, 2019). "Cardi B and Drake Lead iHeartRadio Music Awards 2019 Nominees". Billboard. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "iHeartRadio Music Awards: Full List of Winners". The Hollywood Reporter. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Dong, Sun-hwa (July 30, 2019). "Tiffany Young unveils teaser for 'Magnetic Moon'". The Korea Times. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
- "Tiffany Hearts Thailand". Bangkok Post. July 4, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
- Seemayer, Zach (June 21, 2019). "Tiffany Young Announces Dates for Her First North American Tour (Exclusive)". Entertainment Tonight Online. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
- "Female stars in SNS controversies". The Korea Times. August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
- Choi Hyung-won (August 15, 2016). "Tiffany stirs trouble with Japanese flag". Kpop Herald. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
- Jones, Lee (August 19, 2016). "Have We Been Too Hard On Tiffany?". TheMusicMind. Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Jin Min-ji (August 20, 2016). "Tiffany leaves 'Unnies' after flag controversy". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
- Lee Ji-hae (August 28, 2016). "Tiffany issues another apology". KpopHerald. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- "When they go low, we go high". jTBC (in Korean). August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- Pawar, Rushali (August 19, 2016). "Girls' Generation member Tiffany's exit from 'Sister's Slam Dunk' exposes Korea's misogyny?". International Business Times. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Lee Ji-hae (August 24, 2016). "Culture critic Ha analyzes the controversy surrounding Tiffany from Girls' Generation". Kpop Herald. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Herman, Tamar (November 13, 2018). "Tiffany Young Announces 2019 'Lips on Lips' North American Showcase Tour". Billboard. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Documentary Shows Top K-Pop Singers Behind the Scenes". The Chosun Ilbo. May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- Park Gyu-oh (August 26, 2014). "TaeTiSeo acted with Kang Dong-won in 'My Brilliant Life'". KpopHerald. Herald Corporation. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Lee, Edmund (November 24, 2015). "Film review: SMTown: The Stage". South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- Yoon, Sarah (May 14, 2015). "SNSD to appear in Kim Soo-hyun's drama 'The Producers'". The Korea Herald. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- "Girls' Generation's Tiffany becomes MC for fashion and beauty program". Jakarta Post via MSN. March 31, 2015. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- (in Korean) Mnet Asian Music Awards – official website Archived April 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- MBC 올해의 예능 프로그램에 '나는 가수다' (in Korean). MBC News. December 30, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "BreakTudo Awards 2018: Anitta lidera a lista de indicados, com 5 indicações, veja!". BreakTudo (in Portuguese). August 25, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018.[failed verification]
- "BreakTudo Awards 2019: Veja a lista completa de indicados". BreakTudo (in Portuguese). August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2019.