List of massacres in the Philippines

(Redirected from Tictapul massacre)

This is a list of massacres that have taken place in the Philippines.

Before 1900 edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Chinese Massacre of 1603 October 1603 Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines 15,000–25,000[1] Fearing an uprising by the large Chinese community in the Philippines, the Spanish colonists carried out the massacre, largely in the Manila area.[2]
Chinese Massacre of 1639 1639 Luzon, Captaincy General of the Philippines 17,000–22,000[1] The Spanish and their Filipino allies carried out a large-scale massacre, in which 17,000 to 22,000 Chinese rebels died.
Chinese Massacre of 1662 1662 Manila Several thousand[1]
Cholera massacre 9 October 1820 Manila 39 A cholera epidemic sparked rumors that foreigners were poisoning the water supply, lead to a massacre that saw a mob of about 3000 men kill Europeans, mostly Spaniards, and Chinese nationals.[3][4][5]

1900-1930 edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Balangiga massacre 28 September 1901 Balangiga, Eastern Samar 48[6][7](American soldiers) A mess area was attacked by hundreds of residents led by Valeriano Abanador during the Philippine-American War, marking the US Army's "worst defeat" since the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876.[8][9]
Samar Campaign December 1901 to February 1902 Samar 2,000–50,000 (Filipino soldiers and civilians)[10][11][12] Many Filipino historians argue that the true "Balangiga massacre" was the subsequent American retaliation, which was marked by orders to turn the island of Samar into a "howling wilderness" and the killing of civilians as young as 10 years old who could carry a weapon.[13] Although the original American report claimed that only 39 people were killed,[14] estimates by actual historians range from around 2,000[10] to roughly 50,000.[11][12]
Malabang incident 12 May 1904 Malabang, Lanao district, Moro Province 53 (all of Filipino families of employees of the American military government stationed in the town) A band of Moros from the Rio Grande valley, led by a certain Datu Alis, perpetrated the attack.[15]
Moro Crater massacre (Battle of Bud Dajo) 10 March 1906 Jolo Island 600

(figures varied)

Battle between American soldiers and Moro rebels lasted for 4 days. Only seven were captured including three women and four children. Eighteen men escaped from the mountain.[16][17][18]

1930s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Malita incident 22 February 1932 Malita, Davao 10 (including a municipal vice mayor) Moros were suspected as perpetrators of the attack.[19]

1940s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Pantingan River massacre

(War crime)

12 April 1942 Bataan 350–400

(all soldiers)

Victims were killed in a mass execution by the Imperial Japanese Army while on their way from Bagac to Limay during the Bataan Death March.[20]
San Beda Massacres

(War crime)

July 1942 Manila 77

(Civilians)

In 1946, Nena Ablan testified during the trial of Gen. Masaharu Homma that she witnessed inside the campus of San Beda College various tortures on Filipinos, such as physical assault using martial arts, sticks, and burning. She also testified some of these civilians were summarily executed by beheading.[21]
Dansalan Massacres

(War crime)

August 1942 Dansalan, Lanao Unknown

(Civilians)

A company of Japanese soldiers went to the city and started burning houses. As the population panicked and resisted, the Japanese soldiers started bayoneting and shooting at them. 4 Japanese soldiers died as well during the incident.[21]
Pagaeaw-aeaw Tragedy

(War crime)

21 October 1942 Banga, Aklan hundreds

(civilians)

Victims were killed when the Japanese entered the town[22]
Taban Massacre

(War crime)

17 August 1943 Alimodian, Iloilo 50

(civilians)

A surprise attack on the town's market located in Barrio Taban.

The victims were bayoneted and beheaded with sabers.[23]
Mambaling Massacre

(War crime)

28 July 1944 Mambaling, Cebu City Summary execution of 12 civilians

(civilians)

On 25 July 1944, Japanese soldiers on patrol were ambushed in Barrio Mambaling. Three days later with the help of Filipino collaborator, Antonio Racaza, the Kempeitai returned to Mambaling, and arrested Vicente Abadiano, Nazario Abadiano, Tereso Sanchez, Fidencio Delgado, and twenty other local male residents whom they suspected were guerrillas. All the men were tortured, and 12 were summarily executed by the Japanese soldiers and Filipino collaborators.[24]
Cordova Assault

(War crime)

19 August 1944 Cordova, Cebu 3 beheadings, townsfolk tortured

(civilians)

Japanese Kempeitai came on shore at Cordova on Mactan Island to round up suspected guerrillas. With the help of Filipino collaborators, they arrested the town mayor, Martin Francisco, and placed the men and women of the town into the Central School building. The women were made to strip, while the men were beaten with baseball bats. 3 suspected guerrillas were beheaded by Cpl. Iwao Ishizaka, and Cpl. Muraki.[25]
Shinyō Maru massacre 7 September 1944 off Mindanao, Sulu Sea 668 In an attack on a Japanese convoy by the American submarine USS Paddle, 668 Allied prisoners of war were massacred by the Japanese or killed when their ship, the SS Shinyō Maru was sunk. Only 82 Americans survived and were later rescued.[26]
November North Cemetery Massacre

(War crime)

November 1944 Manila North Cemetery 27

(all soldiers)

According to a Filipino-Japanese Fermin Yamasaki, 17 Filipino detainees from the Cortibarte Garrison were brought by Japanese soldiers, 3rd Lt.Tachibana, Sgt. Kataoka, and Pvt. 1st Class Akiyama, and lined up in a hole that was forced dug by 3 Filipinos. The 27 were one by one decapitated by the Japanese.[27]
Palawan massacre

(War crime)

14 December 1944 Palawan 138

(all Americans)

Japanese soldiers, fearing an American landing, herded some 150 Allied prisoners of war into air raid shelters and foxholes wherein most of them were burned alive; those who escaped were shot or bayoneted. Only eleven survived. Majority of the 34 implicated Japanese officers and men were later convicted yet eventually given prison sentences.[28]
Mangkaeng massacre 23 January 1945 Guising Norte, Naguilian, La Union 400

(all civilians)

Japanese forces fired at the victims.[29]
East Tagaytay Massacre 29 January 1945 Tagaytay, Cavite 90 Filipino civilians

(all civilians)

As testified by farmer Miguel Ocampo, some 90 civilians were gathered by the Japanese Kempeitai at the Padilla residence. They were brought to a ravine not far from the house, and were one by one executed with bolo knives and thrown down the ravine. Ocampo and Elicero Nuestro survived the ordeal.[27]
Manila massacre

(War crime)

February to March 1945 Various places in Manila. At least 100,000 Series of massacres committed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Battle of Manila.[30]
Massacre of Squadron 77 February 1945 Malolos, Bulacan 109

(Hukbalahap guerrillas)

Squadron 77 was returning home from Pampanga and was surrounded by American and Filipino soldiers, disarmed and brought before USAFFE Col Adonias Maclang, who ordered them shot and buried in a mass grave. Maclang was later appointed mayor of Malolos by US Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) officers who approved the executions.[31]
Legarda Street Massacre 5 February 1945 Legarda St., Manila 47 Japanese Prison Guards When Gen. Douglas MacArthur directed the 1st Cavalry Division to send a flying column to University of Santo Tomas to rescue the civilian internees, Japanese prison guards took a last stand at the main building and held 220 hostages. After 4 days negotiations brokered through Ernest Stanley, the Japanese were allowed to leave the campus, and join their comrades south towards Malacañang Palace. The Japanese convoy headed by Lt. Col. Toshio Hayashi lost their way, and ended up along Legarda Street, where Filipino guerrillas and civilians ambushed them in retaliation of the massacres that occurred during the Battle of Manila.[32]
Pamintahan Massacre

(War Crime)

27 February 1945 Lipa, Batangas 451, including 1 parish priest, and 2 minors

(Civilians)

Male residents of barrios Anilao and Antipolo were gathered by Filipino collaborators, Japanese Army officers and enlisted men at a seminary south of Lipa with a promise of being given special travel passes through Japanese-occupied territory. Upon arrival at the Pamintahan Creek, the lured men and were indiscriminately shot at and executed.[33]
Calamba Massacre

(War Crime)

27 February 1945 Calamba, Laguna 6,000

(Civilians)

In retaliation for the Allied Raid on Los Baños which rescued internees held by the Japanese military.[34]
Cebu Normal School Execution

(War Crime)

26 March 1945 Cebu Normal School, Cebu City 5 Filipino civilians, 2 American POWs

(Civilians)

As testified by Teodoro Sanchez during the trial of Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, 5 Filipino suspected guerrillas, namely Roberto Tan, Lucente, Castillo, 2 unnamed, and 2 captured American airmen, were brought to foxholes at the southeast corner of the campus and beheaded by the Kempetai under Capt. Tsuruyama, Lt. Sakati, Sgt. Higashi, Sgt. Saito and Cpl. Wada.[27]
Consuelo Massacre April 1946 Consuelo, Macabebe, Pampanga Unknown Community was shelled by the military believing it to be a hideout of the Huks[35]
Masico Massacre November 27, 1947 Masico, Pila, Laguna 50-51

(farmers)

Massacred during a dance by soldiers after being suspected as Huks[36]
Ambush of Aurora Quezon, former First Lady of the Philippines April 28, 1949 Salubsob, Bongabon, Nueva Ecija 12 Waylaid and ambushed by Huk guerrillas. Among the dead were Mrs. Quezon's daughter, son-in-law, driver and military escorts as well as Ponciano Bernardo, Mayor of Quezon City[37]

1950s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Panampunan Massacre January 3, 1950 Panampunan,Tarlac, Tarlac 11 Victims killed by soldiers trying to cover up the accidental death of one companion during an anti-Huk operation[38]
Maliwalu massacre April 7, 1950 Maliwalu, Bacolor, Pampanga 21

(all farmers)

Occurred on Good Friday, victims were executed allegedly as "revenge" for the death of a military captain Nonong Serrano said to be a leader of the private army working for Pampanga Gov. Jose B. Lingad, and was reportedly killed by Hukbalahap members in the same place. This caused Lingad to lose his reelection bid in 1951.[39][40]
Camp Macabulos massacre 26 August 1950 Camp Macabulos, Tarlac, Tarlac 40

(23 soldiers, 17 civilians)

Huk attack on army barracks[41]
Maragondon massacre September 1952 Maragondon, Cavite 4

(Municipal mayor, police chief, 2 policemen)

Allegedly on the orders of Senator Justiniano Montano, from the victim's rival political party, Leonardo Manecio (Nardong Putik), his alleged hired killer, and his henchmen kidnapped mayor Severino Rillo and stabbed him to death along with the town's police chief and his officers.[42][43][44][45]

The involved, the senator and his men including Manecio, the vice mayor and two councilors, were accused and charged of the killings. Manecio was later convicted, but the senator was acquitted.[42][46]

1960s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
RCA Building incident 26 August 1963 RCA Bldg., Canonigo St., Paco, Manila 5

(security guards of the RCA Bldg.)

Victims were killed by a gang using a fireman's axe during a robbery; another guard and a carpenter survived. It was found to be an inside job involving 4 employees, with another guard Apolonio Adriano as the killer; they were convicted and sentenced to death in 1966.[47]
Culatingan massacre 13 June 1966 Culatingan, Concepcion, Tarlac 5

(all farmers)

Three Philippine Constabulary (PC) agents shot 7 farmers; 2 of them survived. Authorities said that they were Huk members engaged in battle with them, but the town vice mayor, as well as the survivors, contradicted this claim.[39][48]

Then Tarlac Gov. Benigno Aquino Jr., actively involved in the investigation, blamed the PC for the murders, marking his first confrontations with President Ferdinand Marcos.[49]

Lapiang Malaya massacre

(Bloody Sunday)

21 May 1967 Taft Avenue, Pasay 33

(32 were farmers from Southern Luzon)

Bolo-wielding members of the Lapiang Malaya (Freedom Movement)]] marched to Malacañang Palace to hold a rally, but were attacked on the way by police armed with rifles; 358 more were arrested and taken to Camp Crame in Quezon City.[48][50][51]
Jabidah massacre 18 March 1968 Corregidor Island 11

(figures varied: claims from a sole survivor, student activists, CMFR & MNLF)

Muslim youth trained for "Operation Merdeka" were allegedly shot by their training officers.[52][53][54] The massacre served as a catalyst for the Moro conflict.
Libacao incident 13 May 1969 Libacao, Aklan 18

(all tribesmen)

A tribal village was attacked and looted by rival tribesmen armed with jungle knives.[55]
Tarlac incident 8 October 1969 Between Capas, and Camp O'Donnell, Tarlac. 10

(civilian security guards of the US Naval radio station, driver)

Victims were shot while on their transport vehicle.[56]

1970s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Paraiso Massacre 24 June 1970 Paraiso, Tarlac, Tarlac 8

(barangay officials, driver)

Attack by Huks on a convoy[57]
San Marcelino Massacre 18 September 1970 San Marcelino, Zambales 12 Attack by Huks on the Mayor's residence[58]
Manili massacre 19 June 19, 1971 Manili, Carmen, North Cotabato 70

(all civilians)

Muslim villagers were killed by soldiers inside a mosque.[59][60][61]
Tacub massacre 24 October 1971 Magsaysay, Lanao del Norte 40-66 [62]
Zamboanga City Massacre 5 September 1974 Zamboanga City 28 Five raiders described as Christians, armed with bolo knives and automatic rifles, raided an upland settlement and killed Muslims.[63]
Malisbong (Palimbang) massacre 24 September 1974 Malisbong, Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat 1,000–1,500

(figures varied; all civilians)

Government forces burned the entire village with 300 houses, Moro men were shot inside Tacbil mosque, women and children were arrested and detained, some of them were tortured. Victims were recognized by the government in 2014.[16][52][59][60][64][65][66]
Maimbung ambush 16 January 1975 Maimbung, Sulu 41 Muslim rebels wiped out a military patrol[67]
Wao Massacre 8 August 1975 Wao, Lanao del Sur 32 Muslim rebels ambushed a truck carrying 34 civilians, killed one, tied the rest together and took them to a village in Bukidnon, where they were gunned down. Two survived.[68]
New Calamba Massacre 19 February 1976 New Calamba, Kalawit, Zamboanga del Norte 21 Muslim rebels ambushed a bus carrying more than 50 people[69]
Bingcul massacre 1977 Bingcul village, somewhere in Mindanao 42

(all civilians)

Four survived. As the National Bureau of Investigation disclosed the incident in 1980, murder charges were recommended against seven government militiamen who allegedly killed Muslim villagers and burned down their homes.[70]
Tictapul incident 1977 Tictapul, Zamboanga City 60-Several Hundred[71][72]

(all civilians)

A local Catholic priest stated the army burned the town after giving residents a few hours to move out. He said 60 to 600 people had probably been killed and only a mosque and a school were left standing. Laisa Masuhud Alamia, a survivor, claimed 400 were killed, including several Christian families.[52][73]
Patikul massacre 10 October 1977 Patikul, Sulu 35 (all soldiers) The victims, including Brig. Gen. Teodulfo Bautista, commanding general of the 1st Infantry "Tabak" Division of the Philippine Army, were tricked into attending a "peace dialogue" with a group of MNLF rebels led by Usman Sali and were then ambushed and killed.
Buluan incident 16 July 1978 Buluan, Maguindanao 9

(all civilians)

Soldiers shot some 15 farmers working in a field.[60]

1980s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Kabankalan Killings March 1980 Marcopa, Kabankalan, Negros Occidental 8 Peasants arrested by the military and later found buried in a farm owned by the town mayor in September[74]
Bongao Massacre April 1980 Bongao, Tawi-Tawi 29 Philippine marines massacred them during the Moro rebellion. Motive unknown.[75]
Pata Island massacre 12 February 1981 Pata, Sulu 124

(government forces)

Government soldiers were ambushed by Muslim rebels before supposed peace talks in retaliation for the theft of jewelry by soldiers while villagers were at prayer in the mosque;[76] at that time, the worst attack since 1974 and the worst defeat on their side.[77][78] Sources, however, tagged the retaliation as a real massacre, wherein 3,000 Tausug civilians were killed in an operation launched by the military.[59]
Daet massacre 14 June 1981 Daet, Camarines Norte 4

(all civilians)

Marching protesters were fired upon by soldiers; more than 40 were wounded.[79][80][81][82]
Beberon Killings 23 August 1981 Beberon, San Fernando, Camarines Sur 3 Farmers abducted and killed by soldiers[83]
Tudela incident

(Family murders)

24 August 1981 Sitio Gitason, Brgy. Lampasan, Tudela, Misamis Occidental 10

(family members)

Paramilitary members of a quasi-religious sect called Rock Christ attacked the Gumapon residence with 12 persons inside.[79][80]
Sag-od massacre 15 September 1981 Barrio Sag-od, Las Navas, Northern Samar 45

(all civilians)

Eighteen armed men identified with the Special Forces–Integrated Civilian Home Defense Forces, consisting of security guards of a logging company and paramilitary forces, gathered residents out of their homes and shot them in groups; also burned some of them, and looted the village which later declared inhabitable for sometime since survivors were unable to return due to fear of being killed by perpetrators.[79][80][84]
Culasi incident 19 December 1981 Culasi, Antique 5

(all farmers)

Philippine Constabulary forces fired at a group of at least 400 marching residents while on the bridge; several were injured.[39][79][80]
Bato incident 25 December 1981 Bato, Camarines Sur 14 NPA ambush on a government vehicle[85]
Talugtug incident 3 January 1982 Talugtug, Nueva Ecija 5

(all civilians)

Victims were gathered by the military. They were found dead a day later.[79][80]
Dumingag incident February 1982 Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur 12

(all civilians)

Members of Ilaga cult killed the victims in retaliation for the death of their leader.[79][80]
Gapan incident

(Family murders)

12 February 1982 Gapan, Nueva Ecija 5

(family members: couple, 3 children)

Men in camouflage attacked Bautista family's house.[80]
Hinunangan incident 23 March 1982 Masaymon, Hinunangan, Southern Leyte 8

(all civilians, 6 were aged 3–18)

Members of the Orillo family killed by soldiers.[79]
Bayog incident 25 May – June 1982 Dimalinao, Bayog, Zamboanga del Sur 5

(all civilians)

In retaliation for the death of 23 soldiers on 23 May, the military launched airstrikes on the village, killing 3. Victims were picked up days later, on 30 May and 18 June, then killed. It was followed by an attack on the parish priest's residence.[79][80]
Bulacan massacre 21 June 1982 Pulilan, Bulacan 5

(all civilians)

Six peasant organizers conducting a meeting at a farmer's house were raided by soldiers and five of them were taken away. They were found dead in San Rafael a day after. Only one, who evaded the raid, survived.[79][80][86]
Labo incident 23 June 1982 Labo, Camarines Norte 5

(all civilians)

In retaliation for the death of a soldier's friend, victims finishing the construction of the army detachment were shot by its soldiers.[79]
Tong Umapoy massacre 1983 Tawi-Tawi 57

(all civilians)

A Navy ship allegedly fired on a passenger boat, killing people on board.[64]
Don Mariano Marcos Massacre 16 April 1983 Don Mariano Marcos, Misamis Occidental 6

(Integrated Civilian Home Defense Force)

Killed by soldiers as punishment for losing their weapons to the NPA[87]
Godod Ambush

(Rebel attack)

29 September 1983 Godod, Zamboanga del Norte 46

(39 soldiers, 7 civilians)

About 70 suspected NPA rebels ambushed an army patrol unit in what was then the worst single attack on Government forces since the start of the NPA rebellion; only eleven survived.[88]
Digos Killings 13–14 November 1983 Digos, Davao del Sur 3 Abducted and later killed by soldiers who accused them of involvement in the killing of a lieutenant.[87]
Adlay Massacre 19 November 1983 Sitio Adlay, Anahao Daan, Tago, Surigao del Sur 4 Attack on the village by paramilitaries[87]
Sibalom Bridge Massacre 13 May 1984 Pangpang Bridge, Sibalom, Antique 7 Supporters of Batasang Pambansa candidate Evelio Javier killed by suspected gunmen of a pro-Marcos political rival.[89]
Libacao Ambush 26 August 1984 Libacao, Aklan 11 Attack on a convoy carrying the town mayor and his escorts from the CHDF by the New People's Army.[90]
Sinasa village massacre 9 September 1985 Sinasa, Davao City 68

(perpetrator and his followers)

Religious leader Mangayanon Butaog fed poisoned food to his followers in a remote mountain village, murdered his wife and two children with a machete, and later committed suicide; five survived.[91]
Escalante massacre 20 September 1985 Escalante, Negros Occidental 20

(all civilians)

A crowd of estimated 5,000, holding a strike, were shot by government forces during dispersal; scores injured. The involved policemen were jailed and later released on parole in 2003.[39][79][92][93][94]
Balamban murders 5 October 1985 Balamban, Cebu 9

(family members)

Skeletal remains of Anugot family members were exhumed on 29 August 2008.[95]
Inopacan massacre 1985[96] Mt. Sapang Dako, Baranggay Culisihan, Inopacan, Leyte[97][98][99] 67 New People's Army purge were discovered by authorities in a mass grave site on 28 August 2006.[96][97][98][99][100]
Guinobatan ambush 3 March 1986 Guinobatan, Albay 19 NPA attack on an army transport.[101]
Gumaca ambush 2 July 1986 Gumaca, Quezon 11 NPA attack on an army convoy.[102]
Pamplona ambush 2 July 1986 Pamplona, Cagayan 9 NPA attack[102]
Mendiola massacre
(Black Thursday)
January 22, 1987 Mendiola, San Miguel, Manila 13

(all civilians)

Government forces opened fire on thousands of farmers marching to Malacañang Palace; 39 were injured. None were convicted.[103]
Lupao massacre 10 February 1987 Sitio Padlao, Namulandayan, Lupao, Nueva Ecija 17

(all civilians)

Victims were killed by soldiers, reportedly in retaliation for the death of a platoon leader killed by NPA. Soldiers involved were later acquitted by a court martial.[104]
Candulawan massacre 28 February 1987 Candulawan, Talisay, Cebu 3 Villagers killed by paramilitaries[105]
Malinao ambush 4 May 1987 Malinao, Aklan 16 NPA Attack on government soldiers[106]
Pantar Massacre 29 June 1987 Pantar, Lanao del Norte 5

(Islamic missionaries)

Members of the international Islamic missionary group, Tablighi Jamaat, including 2 Malaysian nationals, were stopped and killed in the vicinity of an army checkpoint[105]
Mahaling Massacre 9 August 1987 Mahaling, Himamaylan, Negros Occidental 6 Members of a Basic Christian Community abducted and killed by paramilitaries[105]
DXRA massacre 27 August 1987 Davao City 9

(4 local mediamen; 5 civilians)

Communist rebels attacked radio stations DXRA and DXMF, however, failed to cause casualties to the latter.[107]
Lason Batch 5 September 1987 Zamboanga City 19[108] More than 200 Philippine Constabulary soldiers fell ill and showed symptoms of pesticide poisoning after taking refreshments from supposed civilians while jogging, with the equivalent of an entire platoon dying over the next three days. The group behind the mass poisoning was never identified.
Camalig Ambush 27 February 1988 Camalig, Albay 13 NPA Attack on the Philippine Army Scout Rangers[109]
Tukuran Massacre 16 September 1988 San Antonio, Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur 3 Villagers were tortured and killed by soldiers who accused them of being NPA rebels[110]
Midsalip massacre

(Family murders)

22 November 1988 Midsalip, Zamboanga del Sur 9

(family members: couple and seven of their children)

Victims were hacked to death in their home, by assailants in an apparent robbery. Two other children managed to survive.[111]
Bagtik massacre

(Shooting incident)

22 November 1988 Bagtik, San Remigio, Cebu 17

(all civilians)

Gunmen arrived in an isolated mountain area and shot around the chapel, while villagers gathered there for evening prayers, as well as an adjacent residence. At least 12 were wounded, three of them critically. Authorities were able to learn about the incident two days later.[111][112]
Pagao Massacre 18 February 1989 Carayman, Calbayog, Western Samar 8 Civilians, including 4 members of the Pagao family were killed by soldiers under the guise of an encounter with the NPA[110]
Santa Catalina Massacre 29 March 1989 Buenavista, Santa Catalina, Negros Oriental 5

(farmers)

Abducted and killed by anti-communist paramilitaries[110]
Paombong Massacre 28 April 1989 San Jose, Paombong, Bulacan 9 Claimed by soldiers to have been caught in an encounter after initially claiming that the victims were NPA rebels[110]
Rano massacre 25 June 1989 Binaton, Digos, Davao del Sur 37-41

(figures varied; mostly unarmed civilians, some armed anti-communist vigilantes, some count include 2 claimed NPA rebel deaths)

Thirty-nine victims were members of the United Church of Christ congregation, killed in church. Two NPA rebels also killed in an encounter. At least eight others were wounded.[113]
1989 Davao hostage crisis 13–15 August 1989 Davao City 21 A hostage-taking incident, army jail detainees took as hostages 15 Joyous Assembly of God members; 5 Christian Pentecostals and 16 detainees, also hostages, were killed.[114]

1990s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Pinukpuk Massacre 21 January 1990 Pinukpuk, Kalinga-Apayao 3 Killed by unknown gunmen. One of the victims, Ayangwa Claver, was the son of a prominent supporter of autonomy for the Cordillera.[110]
Mamindiala Massacre

(Family murders)

3 August 1990 New Passi, Tacurong, Sultan Kudarat 19 Members of the Mamindiala family killed by soldiers who claimed that they were Muslim rebels[110][115][116]
Peralta Massacre

(Family murders)

16 August 1990 Manlocboc, Aguilar, Pangasinan 4 Members of the Peralta family killed by gunmen working for a police sergeant[110]
Vizconde massacre

(Family murders)

30 June 1991 BF Homes, Parañaque, Metro Manila 3 Vizconde family members were the victims, all had suffered multiple stab wounds. Hubert Webb, scion of a prominent family was convicted of masterminding the killings in 2000 but was later acquitted by the Supreme Court in 2010
Bensen Massacre

(Family murders)

30 June 1991 Hacienda Wawa, Santa Rosa, Murcia, Negros Occidental 3 Members of the same family, including a pregnant woman, killed by suspected soldiers possibly for their involvement in trade union activities[110]
Talacogon Massacre 16 October 1991 Del Monte, Talacogon, Agusan del Sur 4 Leaders of a religious sect killed by the NPA for their role in counter-insurgency operations[110]
Marihatag ambush 15 February 1992 Marihatag, Surigao del Sur 47[117] NPA ambush on an army convoy
Sablan massacre

(Family murders)

18–19 June 1992 Sitio Dakes, Banangan, Sablan, Benguet 3

(family members: survivor's sister and 2 cousins)

Victims were killed by five policemen; Myrna Diones was the only survivor.[118]
Tungawan massacres

(Rebel attack)

13 December 1992 Sinaguran, Tungawan, Zamboanga del Sur 40

(all civilians)

About 20 armed men, suspected Muslim renegades led by a former officer of the Moro National Liberation Front, entered Christian settlements in three villages, herded and attacked Subanon residents. As high as a dozen others were seriously injured. Suspects were reportedly angered by the refusal of some villagers to pay protection money.[119]
Antipolo massacre

(Rampage killing)

3 December 1993 Sitio Kulasisi, San Luis, Antipolo, Rizal 5

(perpetrator's neighbors)

Winefredo Masagca, believed to be "possessed by evil spirits," killed his neighbors in their house.[120]
Maguindanao incident

(Rebel attack)

13 December 1993 Maguindanao 8–9

(all civilians)

A group of about 20 armed men stopped a bus; Christian passengers were separated from Muslims, robbed and shot. Fifteen others were wounded, while a Christian minister was left unhurt.[121]
Lipa Arandia massacre

(Family murders)

10 April 1994 Sabang, Lipa, Batangas 3 Angelina Arandia, along with her daughters Chelsea Liz and Anne Geleen died from multiple stab wounds[122]
Ipil massacre

(Terror attack)

4 April 1995 Ipil, Zamboanga del Sur 53

(all civilians)

About 200 heavily armed Abu Sayyaf rebels, who had arrived the day before disguised as soldiers, launched a 2½-hour surprise attack in a commercial district in the predominantly Christian town, shot civilians, burned hundreds of buildings after plundering some, took many hostages as they withdrew, and clashed with government reinforcements. At least 44 were wounded; arrests were made. The raid was said the worst since the 1970s.[123][124]
Kuratong Baleleng Rubout 18 May 1995 Quezon City 11 Suspected members of an organized crime syndicate were killed under suspicious circumstances by the police.[125]
Payumo massacre

(Family murders)

99 September 1995 Santa Rosa, Laguna 4

(family members: mother, 3 children)

Victims were believed to be killed by drug addicts; a daughter of the family survived.[126][127]

Four suspects were convicted by the Biñan RTC on 1997.[128] However, on 2002, the Supreme Court lowered the death penalty sentence of three of them to four life terms each, while the fourth suspect, then sentenced to life imprisonment, was acquitted.[129]

Olongapo incident

(Rampage killing)

21 October 1995 Olongapo 8 Edgar Fernandez staged a shooting spree in a private hospital for its management's poor treatment; 3 were wounded.[130][131][132]
Buhi massacre

(Family murders)

28 December 1995 Sitio Bogtong, Gabas, Buhi, Camarines Sur 13

(family members: from the Cascante–Gayte clan: mother & 2 children; from the Gayte–Campo clan: couple & 5 children; also 2 another Gayte relatives and an adopted daughter. They including 5 young minors.)

The incident was triggered by a land dispute involving Nieva, Gayte, and Campo families. In retaliation for the killing of landlord Cristito Nieva, Jr. on 28 October 1995, a number of armed men attacked the compound in a remote village and later shot and hacked the victims in their houses, with three of them beheaded, and the rest sustaining gunshots.[133][134] One of them was the wife of one of the suspects implicated to the landlord's murder. Two of nine survivors, one from each clan, stood as star witness. Some of the involved and implicated were a police chief, with five others including Ramon Madrideo, once turned as state witness, who were arrested in January 1996[135]) and four from the Nieva clan, including the alleged mastermind Ester Nieva, the landlord's wife, who were arrested on 1999.[136]).[137] A case was considered solved upon the surrender of the remaining three of 13 suspects in the landlord's murder in August 1996.[138]
North Cotabato incident

(Mass murder)

11 May 1997 Pigcawayan, North Cotabato 5

(minor brothers)

A case of alleged cannibalism.[139]
Sara massacre

(Rampage killing)

12 August 1998 Bacabac, Sara, Iloilo 10

(travelers, including a United States Peace Corps volunteer)

Five men attacked four vehicles and shot the victims in a robbery incident. On 14 August, Ernesto (Edgardo) Brito surrendered; he admitted, but later denied, his involvement while pointing at Ricky Braga as the alleged mastermind, and his second cousin; the two were later captured. On 19 May 2000, a court sentenced Brito to death and convicted two confessed killers, the Braga cousins, as well as a couple for obstruction of justice.[140]
Nueva Ecija incident

(Summary killing)

March 1999 Jaen, Nueva Ecija
Tarlac City
5

(including a lone survivor in Jaen)

Victims were shot in Jaen, allegedly by the men of local police chief Supt. Alfredo Siwa. Their companion, a survivor and lone witness, was later killed by a group of eight armed men reportedly led by Siwa, at the Tarlac Provincial Hospital on 26 March. Siwa was later arrested and the entire Baliwag police force was relieved.[141]

2000s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Mindoro Oriental murders

(Rampage killing)

3 April 2000 Victoria, Oriental Mindoro 7

(all civilians)

Victims were fatally shot by two drunk soldiers in a videoke bar; two others were seriously wounded.[142]
Lantawan ambush 7 May 2000 Lantawan, Basilan 13 Attack by the Abu Sayyaf on Army Special Forces[143]
Jones ambush

(Rebel attack)

28 June 2000 Jones, Isabela 13 NPA attack on a government convoy[144]
Armed attack (Lanao del Sur)

(Rebel attack)

16 July 2000 Somogot, Bumbaran, Lanao del Sur 21

(all Christian residents)

Victims were shot dead inside a mosque by about a hundred armed men, suspected to be Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) rebels, who had attacked the village; ensued shooting rampage injured 11 people.[145]
Armed attack (Cotabato)

(Rebel attack)

4 August 2000 North Cotabato 16

(all civilians)

Heavily armed men, suspected from the MILF, stopped the vehicles on a road; victims inside were robbed and shot; 10 were injured.[146]
Himamaylan ambush

(Rebel attack)

21 August 2000 Carabalan, Himamaylan, Negros Occidental 17

(all soldiers)

Attack by the NPA on a military transport[147]
Dinagat massacre

(Mass murder)

13 December 2000 San Jose, Surigao del Norte 11

(members of a faction of Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association)

Members of the PBMA's White Guerreros were killed by the elite force, White Eagles, upon orders of the cult's leader Ruben Ecleo Jr., in his residence. Local police reported that the victims were hacked; but National Bureau of Investigation autopsies later found out that they were shot.[148]
Bacolod murders

(Family murders)

17 December 2000 Bacolod 8

(family members: father, 3 sons, his parents; also 2 family housemaids)

The Rivilla family's houseboy Bernon Gallo, later confessed and was convicted for the killings in the residence of a haciendero family wherein their driver had survived.[149]
Afalla Massacre

(Family murders)

18 April 2001 Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya 4 Patriarch suspected in the murders of his wife and three children, who were found in a shallow grave along the Magat River[150]
Novaliches Massacre 12 June 2001 Santa Lucia, Novaliches, Quezon City 5 Stabbings during a birthday party[151]
Cateel ambush 17 November 2001 Cateel, Davao Oriental 18 Attack by the NPA on a military transport[152]
Calonge Massacre

(Family murders)

1 December 2001 Cabuluan, Villaverde, Nueva Vizcaya 3 Patriarch killed his wife and two daughters. A third daughter was wounded[153]
Mandaue murders

(Family murders)

18 June 2002 Mandaue, Cebu 5

(family members: 2 siblings and their parents, all in-laws of Ruben Ecleo Jr.; a neighbor)

Victims were shot dead in the Bacolod residence by Rico Gumonong, a PBMA member, who was later killed in an encounter with the responding policemen.
Among the victims was Ben Bacolod, brother-in-law of Ruben Ecleo Jr. and believed to be the sole witness in the murder of his sister and Ecleo's wife, Alona Bacolod. He also testified on the 2000 Dinagat massacre.
Ecleo surrendered to the police on 19 June. He had faced charges for two separate massacres and for the death of his wife.[148]
Zamboanga City murders

(Family murders)

19 December 2002 San Roque, Zamboanga City 7

(family members: mother, 3 children; also 3 family helpers)

Victims were murdered at the Tan family's house.[154]
Kalawit Massacre 19 February 2003 Kalawit, Zamboanga del Norte 14 Villagers killed in an attack by Muslim rebels[155]
Maigo Massacre 24 April 2003 Maigo, Lanao del Norte 13 Passengers aboard a jeepney killed in an attack by the MILF[156][157]
Siocon Massacre 4 May 2003 Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte 34 Civilians killed in an attack by the MILF on the town[158]
Balios Massacre 13 November 2003 Kalawit, Zamboanga del Norte 7 Members of the Balios family killed by bolo-wielding bandits[159]
Hacienda Luisita massacre 16 November 2004 Hacienda Luisita, Tarlac 7 A clash between government troops and more than 6,000 protesting farm workers during an attempted dispersal resulted also in injuries of at least 120. Charges against the suspects were dismissed in 2010.[160]
San Rafael ambush 16 November 2004 Pasong Callos, San Rafael, Bulacan 10 Attack by the NPA on soldiers conducting a post-typhoon rescue mission[161]
Palo massacre 21 November 2005 San Agustin, Palo, Leyte 7 Claimed to be a legitimate operation by the military, the "gunfight" between the soldiers and alleged armed groups lasted for about 45 minutes at dawn. Resulted in the death of 7 peasants, including a pregnant woman, 11 were wounded, 8 were arrested but only 6 were detained, and 2 were still missing.[162][163]
Calbayog massacre 2 June 2007 Gadgaran, Calbayog, Samar 10 Danilo "Danny" Guades hacked to death 10 people with a bolo and injured 17 more on a drunk rampage through his neighborhood at early morning.
Basilan beheading incident 10 July 2007 Al-Barka, Basilan 23 Soldiers ambushed by the MILF during rescue operations for a kidnapped Italian priest. 11 of the victims were beheaded
Mangalino Massacre 25 November 2007 Tanza, Cavite 4 Cecilio Mangalino fatally stabbed his pregnant wife, mother-in-law and daughter inside their home and injured two other daughters while drunk following an argument with his wife.[164]
Olongapo massacre 13 March 2008 Gordon Heights, Olongapo 4

(including model Scarlet Garcia and her cousin)

Victims were killed in a condominium unit.[165][166][167]
Olongapo murders

(Family murders)

27 July 2008 Sitio Kakilingan, Iram Resettlement, Brgy. Cabalan, Olongapo 3

(Korean family members: mother, daughter, grandchild)

Victims were stabbed by unidentified men in their house.[168][169]
RCBC robbery-massacre 16 May 2008 Cabuyao, Laguna 10 All bank employees were shot dead.
Calamba massacre 18 May 2008 Hornalan, Calamba, Laguna 8 [170][171][172]
Lanao del Norte offensive 18 August 2008 Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte
Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte
Maasim, Sarangani
Kalamansig, Sultan Kudarat
46 Simultaneous attacks by MILF rebels on civilian and military targets across Mindanao[173]
Shariff Aguak murders

(Family murders)

28 August 2008 Tapikan, Shariff Aguak, Maguindanao 8

(members of the Lumenda and Aleb families)

Ampatuan militiamen shot and killed them as they were harvesting in their rice field.[174]
Cervantes ambush 25 October 2009 Cervantes, Ilocos Sur 10 NPA attack on government soldiers[175]
Maguindanao massacre

(Mass murder)

23 November 2009 Sitio Masalay, Brgy. Salman, Ampatuan, Maguindanao 58

(most of them were part of a convoy: family members, including E. Mangudadatu's wife and his two sisters, and supporters of a perpetrator's political rival, 32 journalists; lawyers; aides; 6 passersby that mistakenly identified as part of the convoy. The body of one victim, journalist Reynaldo Momay, was never found, which led to only 57 counts of murder being filed against the perpetrators)

A convoy carrying relatives and supporters of Buluan vice mayor Esmael Mangudadatu was stopped by around 200 armed men while on their way to the provincial capitol to file his candidacy, challenging Datu Unsay mayor Andal Ampatuan Jr., son of the incumbent Maguindanao governor Andal Ampatuan Sr. and member of one of Mindanao's leading Muslim political clans for upcoming elections. The victims were later abducted and killed and their bodies were buried in shallow graves on a hilltop. On December 19, 2019, a court convicted 28 people, including Andal Jr. and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Governor Zaldy Ampatuan, and sentenced them to life imprisonment; 56 others were acquitted. Andal Sr. died in custody before the conclusion of the trial.[176][177]

2010s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Manila hostage crisis 23 August 2010 Quirino Grandstand, Manila 8

(tourists)

Hong Kong tourists killed by Rolando Mendoza, a disgruntled policeman, after a 9-hour standoff on a tour bus. Mendoza was killed by a police sniper during a rescue mission.
Rendon massacre

(Family murders)

12 October 2011 Santa Felomina, San Pablo, Laguna 4

(family members: couple, 2 children)

Ernie Tambuong, victims' neighbor, killed them because of a suspicion; only a daughter of the family survived.[178][179][180][181]
Sibago Island massacre

(Terror attack)

24 January 2012 Sibago Island, Hadji Mohammad Ajul, Basilan 15

(all civilians: Pagadian City residents)

Gunmen who were the victim's rivals, aboard three pump boats fired at them while fishing; three wounded.[124][182][183][184]
Tinoc ambush 25 April 2012 Gumhang, Tinoc, Ifugao 12

(11 soldiers, 1 civilian)

NPA ambush[124][185]
Roque-Sta. Ana. massacre

(Family murders)

16 August 2012 Saint Francis Village, Balagtas, Bulacan 4

(family members: grandfather, mother, 2 children)

Victims were killed in a robbery.[186][187]
Kawit massacre 4 January 2013 Tabon 1, Kawit, Cavite 8 (including the perpetrator) 30-minute shooting rampage that saw a drunk man named Ronald Baquiran Bae kill at least 7 people and a dog and wounded 12 others with a semiautomatic pistol before he was shot and killed by police. Another man, John Paul Lopez, was later arrested for assisting the gunman during the shooting by reloading his pistol magazine. The motive of the suspect is still unclear. A subsequent search of Bae's house led to the discovery of human remains.
Atimonan massacre 6 January 2013 Atimonan, Quezon 13 Initially claimed to be a roadside shootout conducted by Philippine National Police against a gambling syndicate leader but was found by the National Bureau of Investigation to have been a rubout.[188]
Nunungan massacre

(Terror attack)

22 April 2013 Nunungan, Lanao del Norte 13

(all civilians: including relatives of the town mayor, supporters)

Convoy of Mayor Abdulmalik Manamparan was ambushed; 10 wounded.[124][189][190]
Pampanga massacre 21 September 2013 Angeles, Pampanga 7 Nicolas Edejer, a fish trader, sustained a gunshot wound in the head during the killings that claimed the life of his wife Corazon, son Kenneth, nephew Nelson Dominico, housemaids Teresita Lansangan and alias Kaykay, and Benigno Villanueva.[191]
Pili massacre 31 December 2013 Pili, Camarines Sur 5 (including the perpetrator) Anthony Zepeda held his father, brother, sister-in-law and a maid hostage for 10 hours before shooting them. He then shot himself.[192]
Baguio massacre 6 April 2014 Kayang Hilltop, Baguio 5 Victims (including 3 minors and a maid) were stabbed inside a rented apartment on the fourth floor of a building. On 28 January 2016, a court convicted Phillip Tolentino Avino for the killings and sentenced him to life imprisonment.[193]
Talipao massacre 28 July 2014 Talipao, Sulu 21 Armed men opened fire at a convoy of civilians who were travelling to a feast to mark the end of Ramadan.[194]
Mamasapano clash (Also known as the Mamasapano massacre) 25 January 2015 Tukanalipao, Mamasapano, Maguindanao 44 SAF personnel A police operation, codenamed Oplan Exodus, by Philippine National Police-Special Action Force (allegedly joined by US Army Special Forces) against the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front; SAF members were fired upon by members of the MILF.[195]
Negros Oriental massacre 5 February 2016 Sitio Alibabay, Barangay Mabigo, Canlaon, Negros Oriental 3 (including a 15-year-old girl) Roberto Montano Jr. killed Virgilio Tabanao, 61, his wife Erlinda, 69, and granddaughter, Kia, 15, at their home.[196]
SJDM massacre

(Family murders)

27 June 2017 San Jose del Monte, Bulacan 5

(family members: grandmother, mother, 3 children)

[197][198]
Hacienda Nene massacre 20 October 2018 Hacienda Nene, Sagay, Negros Occidental 9

(all farmers)

At least 40 men reportedly fired at sugarcane farmers and members of the National Federation of Sugar Workers (NFSW) and burned three of the bodies. Four farmers, two of which were minors managed to escape.[199][200]

2020s edit

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Lantapan Massacre 26 November 2022 Sitio Kiabacat, Barangay Songco, Lantapan, Bukidnon 5 6 persons shot and hacked the victims, which included children. Believed to have been caused by a land dispute[201][202]
Pamplona Massacre 4 March 2023 San Isidro, Pamplona, Negros Oriental 10 Assassination of the governor of Negros Oriental, Roel Degamo and nine visitors after at least six gunmen armed with rifles and wearing military-style uniforms opened fire in his home.[203][204][205]
Trece Martires Massacre

(Mass killing)

9 March 2023 Cabuco, Trece Martires,Cavite 4 4 children were stabbed to death by their stepfather Felimon Escalona, who then committed suicide.[206][207][208]
Sapad Massacre 7 January 2024 Sitio Lapao, Barangay Karkum, Sapad, Lanao del Norte 7 The bodies of seven members of the Gaviola and Legara families from Margosatubig, Zamboanga del Sur, including three minors, were found buried with bullet wounds to the head in a freshly-dug grave on this date.[209][210]

References edit

  1. ^ a b c Clodfelter, Micheal (9 May 2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. McFarland. p. 61. ISBN 9780786474707. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  2. ^ Borao, José Eugenio (Nov 1, 1998). "The massacre of 1603: Chinese perception of the Spaniards in the Philippines" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "Massacre in Manila" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Philippine Daily Inquirer. 8 July 2005. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  4. ^ "6 Horrifying Facts That Get Let Out Of Philippine History". FilipiKnow. 11 October 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  5. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth (29 January 2020). "Epidemic and massacre in 1820 Manila". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  6. ^ "Philippine bells toll memory of massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine The Victoria Advocate. April 8, 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  7. ^ "Bells in Wyoming toll memory of massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Boca Raton News. April 8, 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  8. ^ Dumindin, Arnaldo (2006). "Balangiga Massacre, 1901". Philippine-American War, 1899–1902. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  9. ^ Eperjesi, John (23 February 2015). "For Whom the Balangiga Bells Toll". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  10. ^ a b Fritz, David L, Before "The Howling Wilderness": The Military Career of Jacob Heard Smith, Military Affairs, November–December (1979), p. 186
  11. ^ a b Young, Kenneth Ray, "Guerrilla Warfare Revisited", Leyte Samar Studies, XI:1 (1977), pp. 21–31
  12. ^ a b Dumindin, Arnaldo. "Philippine-American War, 1899–1902". Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
  13. ^ * Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) [1960]. History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. p. 228. ISBN 971-8711-06-6., "In their desperation, the American soldiers turned arsonists burning whole towns in order to force guerrillas to the open. One such infamous case of extreme barbarity occurred in the town of Balangiga, Samar, in 1901–1902. ..."
  14. ^ Nebrida, Victor. "The Balangiga Massacre: Getting Even". Archived from the original on 2 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
  15. ^ "53 loyal Filipinos massacred by Moros". Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles Herald. May 23, 1904. p. 1. Retrieved November 25, 2023 – via California Digital Newspaper Collection.
  16. ^ a b "News: Duterte wants apology from US, but gives Marcos hero's burial when 1,500 Moros were massacred during Martial Law". Memebuster. Sep 8, 2016. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  17. ^ "US soldiers pose with the bodies of Moro insurgents, Philippines, 1906". rarehistoricalphotos.com. Rare Historical Photos. January 29, 2016. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  18. ^ Clemens, Samuel (Mar 12, 1906). "Comments on the Moro Massacre". History is a Weapon. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  19. ^ "10 slain in Moro attack". San Pedro, California: San Pedro News-Pilot. Associated Press. February 23, 1932. p. 1. Retrieved November 25, 2023 – via California Digital Newspaper Collection.
  20. ^ "War Crimes in the Philippines during WWII (PDF)" Archived 2021-05-15 at the Wayback Machine Arthur D. Simons Center. Retrieved 05-13-2021.
  21. ^ a b "POW Summation - B" (PDF). Creighton University Digital Repository. Department of Army. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  22. ^ "The Pagaeaw-aeaw tragedy". Inquirer.net. April 29, 2013. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  23. ^ Alimodian: It's Yesterday, Today and Tomorroww. Makinaugalingon Press. 1985.
  24. ^ "G.R. No. L-365 - PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. vs. ANTONIO RACAZA". www.chanrobles.com. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  25. ^ "Affidavit of Isidro Cabusas". ICC Legal Tools. International Criminal Court. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  26. ^ Mazza, Eugene A. (February 15, 2004). "The American Prisoners of War Rescued after the sinking of the Japanese transport, Shinyō Maru, by the USS Paddle, SS 263, on 7 September 1944". Submarine Sailor. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  27. ^ a b c "United States v. Yamashita vol. 11" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 June 2023.
  28. ^ Palawan, 1944:
  29. ^ Diaz-Sabado, Joanna (Feb 8, 2018). "Feature: A Tree-bute: Remembering the 400 victims of Mangkaeng massacre". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved Feb 19, 2018.
  30. ^ 70th anniversary of the Battle of Manila: Archived 2021-05-15 at the Wayback Machine "Briefer: Massacres in the Battle of Manila" Archived 2016-03-02 at the Wayback Machine Republic of the Philippines Presidential Museum and Library. 2015. Accessed 02-20-2016.
    70th anniversary of the Battle of Manila: "Manila Holocaust: Massacre and Rape, by Dr. Benito J. Legarda Jr." Archived 2021-05-15 at the Wayback Machine Republic of the Philippines Presidential Museum and Library. 2015. Retrieved 05-13-2021.
    "February 1945: The Rape of Manila" Archived 2021-05-15 at the Wayback Machine Inquirer.net. February 16, 2014. Retrieved 05-13-2021.
    "Battlefield as Crime Scene: The Japanese Massacre in Manila" Archived 2021-05-15 at the Wayback Machine HistoryNet. December 2018. Retrieved 05-13-2021.
    Aquino, Raymund Luther (January 30, 2015). "The Forgotten Massacre". www.bworldonline.com. BusinessWorld. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
    "The Sack of Manila". battlingbastardsbataan.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
  31. ^ Kirkvliet, Benedict J. (2002). The Huk Rebellion A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 113. ISBN 9781461644286.
  32. ^ "Shadow box". army.togetherweserved.com. Together We Served. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  33. ^ "The Pamintahan Massacre in Lipa, Batangas in February 1945 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore". www.batangashistory.date. Batangas History. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  34. ^ Labrador, Juan (18 March 1945). "Diary of Juan Labrador, OP". The Philippine Diary Project. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  35. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 1: War and Reconstruction (1941-1947). Pantas Publishing. p. 158.
  36. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 1: War and Reconstruction (1941-1947). Pantas Publishing. p. 158.
  37. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 1: War and Reconstruction (1941-1947). Pantas Publishing. p. 158.
  38. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 2: Presidencies from Quirino to Macapagal (1948-1964). Pantas Publishing. p. 156.
  39. ^ a b c d "Massacres, incidents of violence against farmers" Archived 2021-05-05 at the Wayback Machine Rappler. October 23, 2018. Retrieved 05-01-2021.
    –Note that this article mistakenly reported that Lupao massacre occurred on "June 23, 1987".
  40. ^ Soliven, Maximo (1962). "The Elections 1961 (in PDF)" (PDF). Philippine Studies. 10 (1). Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City: 3–31. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  41. ^ "The Hukbalahap Insurrection: The Insurrection- Phase I (1946-1950)". history.army.mil. Retrieved 13 January 2024.
  42. ^ a b Ilagan, Karol (May 13, 2013). "Old, new, old-new bets split voters of Maragondon, Cavite". The PCIJ Blog. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  43. ^ Trocki, Carl (1998). Gangsters, Democracy, and the State in Southeast Asia. New York: Southeast Asian Program Publications (Cornell University). p. 56. ISBN 0-87727-134-8. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  44. ^ "9 Extremely Notorious Pinoy Gangsters". FilipiKnow. 7 September 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  45. ^ Begas, Leifbilly (Feb 7, 2013). "Sino ang pumatay kay Nardong Putik?". Inquirer Bandera (Visayas), via PressReader (in Tagalog). Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  46. ^ "Nardong Putik". Law and Behold! (Blogspot). Aug 21, 2014. Archived from the original on May 24, 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  47. ^ "10 Notorious Crimes of the 1960s That Shocked The Philippines". FilipiKnow. Archived from the original on February 9, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  48. ^ a b "The Philippines: A Global Studies Handbook" Archived 2021-05-15 at the Wayback Machine ABC-CLIO, Inc. 2006.
  49. ^ "The Life of Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr". infogr.am. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  50. ^ "Lapiang Malaya". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. October 9, 2015. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  51. ^ "A History of the Philippine Political Protest". gov.ph. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  52. ^ a b c de Santos, Jonathan (2016). "The Forgotten War". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  53. ^ "The Jabidah Massacre of 1968". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Oct 15, 2015. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  54. ^ Whitman, Paul (2002). "The Corregidor Massacre – 1968". Corregidor Historic Society. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  55. ^ "18 Killed in Massacre". United Press International. Palm Springs, California: The Desert Sun. May 16, 1969. p. 9. Retrieved November 25, 2023 – via California Digital Newspaper Collection.
  56. ^ Arillo, Cecilio (Jul 5, 2017). "Why President Marcos declared martial law (Part 5)". Business Mirror. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  57. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 3: The Marcos Years (1965-1986). Pantas Publishing. p. 233.
  58. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 3: The Marcos Years (1965-1986). Pantas Publishing. pp. 233–234.
  59. ^ a b c Maulana, Nash (Aug 28, 2016). "Moros recall massacres under Marcos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  60. ^ a b c Ayroso, Dee (Feb 24, 2016). "#NoMoreMarcos: 'Moros were killed like chickens during Martial Law'". Bulatlat. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  61. ^ Mawallil, Amir (Jun 27, 2016). "Manili Massacre: Don't look back in anger". Rappler. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  62. ^ Mawallil, Amir (Oct 7, 2016). "Opinion: Before Martial Law, there was the Tacub Massacre". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  63. ^ "Christians blamed, Moslems victims in massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Ottawa Citizen. September 6, 1974. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  64. ^ a b "Vera Files Fact Sheet: Palimbang massacre and Marcos' other transgressions against the Bangsamoro". Vera Files. Sep 24, 2017. Archived from the original on December 25, 2017. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  65. ^ Mawallil, Amir (Jul 30, 2016). "Opinion: The Malisbong Massacre and the privilege to remember". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  66. ^ "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored" Archived 2018-02-01 at the Wayback Machine MindaNews. Sep 26, 2014. Article also appeared Archived 2018-02-22 at the Wayback Machine on UNPO website on Sep 29, 2014. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  67. ^ "PHILIPPINE REBELS REPORTED IN RAIDS". New York Times. 21 January 1975. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  68. ^ "Massacre in Philippines" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine The Sydney Morning Herald. August 14, 1975. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  69. ^ "PHILIPPINE REBELS KILL 21 IN AMBUSH". New York Times. 21 February 1976. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  70. ^ Bingcul, 1977:
  71. ^ Butterfield, Fox (Nov 11, 1977). "As Philippine Truce Fails, End of Moslem Revolt Appeais Far Off". New York Times.
  72. ^ de Santos, Jonathan. "Memories of Martial Law in Mindanao THE FORGOTTEN WAR". PhilStar Global. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018.
  73. ^ Subcommittee on International Organizations, United States Congress House Committee on International Relations (1978). Human Rights in the Philippines, Recent Developments: Hearing the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, Second Session, April 27, 1978. U.S. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  74. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 3: The Marcos Years (1965-1986). Pantas Publishing. p. 236.
  75. ^ "Philippine marines massacre 29 in remote island, report says " Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Lakeland Ledger. April 17, 1980. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  76. ^ Syjuco-Tan, Maria Felisa (ed.). "Huk/PC Related Violence". Highlights of Philippine History Volume 3: The Marcos Years (1965-1986). Pantas Publishing. pp. 236–237.
  77. ^ "Massacre reported" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine The Bryan Times. February 14, 1981. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  78. ^ "Moslem rebels massacre 124 soldiers" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine The Sydney Morning Herald. February 16, 1981. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Doyo, Ma. Ceres (Sep 22, 2016). "Martial law massacres". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i Post Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine from Marcos Martial Law Never Again Archived 2020-02-09 at the Wayback Machine (book) Facebook page. Apr 25 2016. Accessed Feb 22, 2018.
  81. ^ Jun 14, 2015 (14 June 2015). "The Daet Massacre". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  82. ^ "Martyrs of the 1981 Daet Massacre". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  83. ^ "asa350251982en.pdf" (PDF). Amnesty International Philippines. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  84. ^ Sag-od, 1981:
  85. ^ "Rebels kill 14 in Philippines ambush". UPI. Dec 25, 1981. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  86. ^ "Bulacan Martyrs of 1982". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Nov 30, 2012. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  87. ^ a b c "THE PHILIPPINES: HUMAN RIGHTS AFTER MARTIAL LAW" (PDF). Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  88. ^ Trumbull, Robert (Oct 3, 1983). "46 killed by Philippine rebels in ambush of an Army patrol". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  89. ^ "Pacificador, once most powerful in Antique, dead". Inquirer.net. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  90. ^ "Four separate clashes between rebels and government troops in..." UPI. 27 August 1984. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  91. ^ "Cult chief poisons Filipino villagers,, kills self in Jonestown-style massacre" Archived 2020-03-26 at the Wayback Machine Gainesville Sun. September 21, 1985. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  92. ^ "Escalante Massacre". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Oct 12, 2015. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  93. ^ "Escalante Massacre, 31 years ago today". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. Sep 20, 2016. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved Feb 1, 2018.
  94. ^ Cañet, Carla (Sep 15, 2016). "Martial law victims to stage protest vs Marcos rule". Sun.Star. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  95. ^ "Sun.Star: Remains of massacre victims unearthed in Cebu" Archived 2021-05-14 at the Wayback Machine GMA News Online. 08-30-2008. Retrieved 05-13-2021.
  96. ^ a b "The communists' power couple". www.philstar.com. PhilStar Global. March 24, 2014. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  97. ^ a b "NPA commander involved in 2006 'Inopacan massacre' falls in Bohol". www.tribune.net.ph. The Daily Tribune News. June 15, 2015. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  98. ^ a b "Leyte marks 2nd year commemoration of Inopacan mass grave exhumation". www.samarnews.com. Samar News.com. August 27, 2008. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  99. ^ a b "Suspect linked to Inopacan massacre arrested in Bohol". www.sunstar.com.ph. Sun.Star. June 14, 2015. Archived from the original on August 2, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  100. ^ "Ex-Mayor Linked to Inopacan Massacre". www.manilatimes.net. The Manila Times. June 14, 2015. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  101. ^ "19 Killed in Rebel Ambush". AP News. 3 March 1986. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  102. ^ a b "Communist Rebels Kill 12 Soldiers in Philippines". The Washington Post. 2 July 1986. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  103. ^ "4 things to know about the Mendiola Massacre". Rappler. 2 April 2016. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  104. ^ Paredes, Joel (February 25, 2015). "Lupao Massacre: Memory of Ecija farmers killed 28 years ago casts a pall on EDSA's joy". InterAksyon.com. InterAksyon, TV5. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  105. ^ a b c "PHILIPPINES" (PDF). Amnesty International. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  106. ^ "Philippine rebels ambush convoy" The Washington Post. May 5, 1987. Retrieved 08-27-2022.
  107. ^ Dedace, Sophia (Aug 28, 2009). "Army men in Davao City vow to protect journalists". GMA News. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved Feb 19, 2018.
  108. ^ Richburg, Keith B. (1987-09-07). "Poison Eyed in 19 Deaths in Philippines". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
  109. ^ Revolutionary Struggle in the Philippines Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i "AI INDEX: ASA 35/01/92 £PHILIPPINES @THE KILLING GOES ON INTRODUCTION Since 1988 at least 550 people, all of them unarmed, have" (PDF). Amnesty International. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  111. ^ a b "Sleeping family slain in Philippines Massacre; 18 rebels dead". Washington, Pennsylvania: Observer–Reporter. Associated Press. November 25, 1988. p. D1. Retrieved September 10, 2016 – via Google News Archive. Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine
  112. ^ "17 die in village church massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine The Sydney Morning Herald. November 25, 1988. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  113. ^ "Communist Army Admits Massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine The Victoria Advocate. June 28, 1989. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  114. ^ "Military on carpet for Davao massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Manila Standard. August 17, 1989. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  115. ^ "Human Rights Watch World Report 1990 - Philippines". RefWorld. 1 January 1991. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  116. ^ "ASIA.BOU". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  117. ^ "COMMUNIST-STAGED AMBUSH IN MINDANAO SETS BACK PEACE PROCESS". UCA News. 25 February 1992. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  118. ^ "G.R. Nos. 111009-12". The LawPhil Project. Dec 8, 1994. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  119. ^ Tungawan, 1993:
  120. ^ "Antipolo Massacre". 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  121. ^ Maguindanao, 1993:
  122. ^ "Massacre era". PEP.ph. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  123. ^ Ipil, 1995:
  124. ^ a b c d "10 Worst Terrorist Attacks in the Philippines". Pinoy Top Tens. April 5, 2014. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  125. ^ "Kuratong Baleleng massacre revisited". Philstar.com. February 20, 2002. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
  126. ^ "Police probe Philippine massacre". UPI. Sep 10, 1995. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  127. ^ "Ano na ang nangyari sa nag-iisang survivor ng Payumo massacre?". 7 December 2011. Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  128. ^ G.R. Nos. 130078-82. Archived 2019-03-08 at the Wayback Machine Oct 4, 2002. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  129. ^ Porcalla, Delon (Nov 9, 2002). "High Court spares 3 massacre suspects from death". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  130. ^ "Hospital help kills 8 in the Philippines". UPI. Oct 22, 1995. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  131. ^ Sentinel, Orlando (Oct 22, 1995). "Philippine Hospital Orderly Kills 8 With Rifle In Rampage". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  132. ^ "Youth goes on rampage after failing to get RM18 loan". New Straits Times. Oct 22, 1995. Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  133. ^ "Philippine massacre kills 11". United Press International. Dec 29, 1995. Archived from the original on November 8, 2018. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  134. ^ "Philippine Gunmen Kill 14 People Watching Television". Associated Press. Dec 29, 1995. Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  135. ^ "Police Major, 5 more, tagged in Buhi massacre. Some suspects still at large" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Manila Standard. January 12, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  136. ^ Barcia, Rhaydz (Jan 25, 1999). "Suspects in Buhi Massacre nabbed". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved Nov 7, 2018.
  137. ^ "Camarines Sur massacre: Witness names mastermind, cohorts" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Manila Standard. January 3, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  138. ^ "Buhi massacre: Nieva slay suspects surrender to police" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Manila Standard. August 17, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  139. ^ "Murder charges vs. Mindanao cannibal cultists" Philippine Headline News Online (PHNO). July 19, 1998. Retrieved Apr 3, 2022.
  140. ^ "US Peace Corps volunteer, 9 others killed in Iloilo". Aug 14, 1998.
    "Peace Corps killers caught" Aug 19, 1998.
    "Iloilo massacre leader tagged in Bicol crimes" Aug 29, 1998.
    All aforementioned articles are from Philippine Headline News Online (PHNO); retrieved Apr 3, 2022.

    "Ruling on Sara massacre out; victims' kin cry for death" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 20, 2000. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  141. ^ "Baliwag cop chief sacked for salvage of massacre witness" Mar 28, 1999.
    "Baliwag police force sacked, cop chief faces murder charge" Mar 30, 1999.

    All articles are from Philippine Headline News Online (PHNO); retrieved Apr 3, 2022.
  142. ^ "Erap flies to Mindoro, condoles w/ massacre victims’ kin" PHNO. Apr 5, 2000. Retrieved Feb 26, 2022.
  143. ^ "IN THE KNOW: Other government fatalities". Inquirer.net. Oct 21, 2011. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  144. ^ "Philippine Communists Kill 13". AP News. Jun 28, 2000. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  145. ^ "MILF rebels massacre 21 Christians" PHNO. Jul 18, 2000. Retrieved Feb 24, 2022.
  146. ^ "16 dead in Philippines massacre". ABC News. Aug 5, 2000. Retrieved Feb 21, 2022.
    "Cotabato: 16 massacred by suspected MILF group" PHNO. Aug 6, 2000. Retrieved Feb 24, 2022.
  147. ^ "Philippine Rebels Kill 17 Soldiers". APNews. Aug 21, 2000. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  148. ^ a b "Ecleo faces more charges" Philstar.com. June 21, 2002.
    "Ecleo recruiting fellow jailbirds" Philstar.com. June 25, 2002.
    All were retrieved Feb 28, 2022.
  149. ^ "Haciendero family massacred in Negros" PHNO. Dec 18, 2000. Retrieved Feb 26, 2022.
    "'Ghosts' haunt case of Bacolod massacre" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 3, 2001. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
    "Bacolod massacre sad end of year in Visayas" Archived 2021-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 5, 2001. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  150. ^ "Nueva Vizcaya cops eye 2 more massacre suspects". The Philippine Star. April 22, 2001. Retrieved August 30, 2022.
  151. ^ "13 Novaliches massacre suspects face charges". The Philippine Star. July 19, 2001. Retrieved August 30, 2022.
  152. ^ "18 soldiers, 10 NPAs die in Davao ambush". The Philippine Star. November 19, 2001. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
  153. ^ "Nueva Vizcaya pa in jail for killing wife, 2 kids". The Philippine Star. December 24, 2001. Retrieved August 30, 2022.
  154. ^ Parentildeo, Roel (December 20, 2002). "Businesswoman, 3 kids, 3 maids massacred in Zamboanga". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  155. ^ Robles, Raissa (February 21, 2003). "Children, villagers slaughtered and homes burned in Zamboanga". South China Morning Post. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
  156. ^ "MILF ON A RAMPAGE IN LANAO, COTABATO". www.newsflash.org. 25 April 2003. Archived from the original on 27 August 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  157. ^ "MILF apologizes for deaths, vows probe". www.sunstar.com.ph. 26 April 2003. Archived from the original on 29 May 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  158. ^ Unson, John (May 9, 2003). "MILF admits Siocon attack a tactical mistake". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
  159. ^ Laude, Jaime (November 15, 2003). "Woman, six children massacred in Zamboanga del Norte". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
  160. ^ "Activists commemorate Luisita massacre". ABS-CBN. 16 November 2011. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  161. ^ "Philippines: Palace condemns NPA slaying of 10 soldiers on rescue mission in flood--ravaged Bulacan - Philippines". ReliefWeb. 1 December 2004. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  162. ^ "Bullets Rain Over Palo Farmers". Bulatlat. 3 December 2005. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  163. ^ "Farmers Acquitted; Soldiers in Palo Massacre Face Criminal Suit". Bulatlat. 26 November 2006. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  164. ^ "Suspect in Cavite massacre falls in QC". GMA News. 27 November 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  165. ^ "Traffic cop probed over Olongapo killings". GMA News. Mar 16, 2008. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  166. ^ Cantos, Joy (Mar 15, 2008). "Babae utak sa Gapo massacre". The Philippine Star (in Tagalog). Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  167. ^ "Miyembro ng TMG iniimbestigahan kaugnay ng Olongapo massacre". GMA News (in Tagalog). Mar 16, 2008. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  168. ^ Malabanan, Jess (Jul 31, 2008). "Police bag suspects in massacre of Korean family in Olongapo". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  169. ^ "Korean family massacre case in Olongapo solved". SubicBay News. Aug 5, 2008. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  170. ^ "Eight killed in Calamba massacre". ABS-CBN News. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  171. ^ "Un hombre mata a ocho personas con un rifle en Filipinas". El Imparcial (in European Spanish). 19 May 2008. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  172. ^ Laude, Jaime (20 May 2008). "Farmhand, ex-cop tagged in another massacre; 8 killed". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  173. ^ "MILF rebels free 67 hostages from Lanao del Norte raid". Philstar.com. August 20, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  174. ^ "The Ampatuans, State-Backed Militias, and Killings in the Southern Philippines" Human Rights Watch. Nov 16, 2010. Retrieved Feb 28, 2022.
  175. ^ "Philippine Soldiers Killed in Ambush by Marxist Insurgents". VOA News. Oct 30, 2009. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  176. ^ Jorgio, J. & Griffiths, J. (Dec 19, 2019). "Planners of Maguindanao massacre found guilty of murder in Philippines 'trial of the decade'" CNN. Retrieved Feb 28, 2022.
  177. ^ For general details:
    "Timeline: The Maguindanao killings and the struggle for justice" Al Jazeera. Dec 19, 2019.
    —Tomacruz, Sofia (Nov 23, 2017). "TIMELINE: The long road to justice for Maguindanao massacre victims" (Updated) Rappler.
    All were retrieved Feb 28, 2022.
  178. ^ Cinco, Maricar (Oct 13, 2011). "Family of 5 massacred in Laguna, one survives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  179. ^ "Massacre sa Laguna, 4 na magkakapamilya ang patay". GMA News (in Tagalog). Oct 13, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  180. ^ Batallones, Jeck (Oct 13, 2011). "Row over horse leads to massacre in Laguna (video)". ABS-CBN News (in Tagalog). Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  181. ^ "Slain horse behind Laguna massacre?". ABS-CBN News. Oct 13, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  182. ^ Yu Santos, David (Jan 24, 2012). "Attack on fishing boats kills 15 in Basilan". Rappler. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  183. ^ "Gunmen kill 15 fishermen in the Philippines" Associated Press. Jan 24, 2012. Also appeared on The Guardian (link Archived 2018-02-23 at the Wayback Machine) and New York Daily News (link Archived 2018-02-24 at the Wayback Machine). Accessed Feb 23, 2018.
  184. ^ Alipala, Julie (Jan 30, 2012). "2 fishermen's bodies found off Sulu a week after massacre at sea". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  185. ^ Laude, Jaime (April 26, 2012). "11 soldiers killed in Ifugao ambush". Philstar.com. Retrieved Aug 27, 2022.
  186. ^ "Family of four massacred in Bulacan home — police". GMA News. Aug 16, 2012. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  187. ^ Santos, Matikas (Aug 16, 2012). "4 knifed to death in Bulacan robbery". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  188. ^ "'Atimonan massacre' cops granted bail". 3 March 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  189. ^ "Lanao Norte mayor's convoy ambushed; 13 killed". Philippine Daily Inquirer/Agence France-Presse. Apr 26, 2013. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  190. ^ "13 Killed in Lanao massacre". Manila Times (via PressReader). Apr 27, 2013. Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved Feb 23, 2018.
  191. ^ Orejas, Tonette (23 September 2013). "Fatalities in Pampanga slays rise to 7". Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  192. ^ Escandor, Juan Jr. (31 December 2013). "5 dead in CamSur hostage-taking on New Year's eve". Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  193. ^ Picaña, Thom (January 28, 2016). "Baguio massacre suspect found guilty". www.manilatimes.net. The Manila Times. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  194. ^ Casimiro, Queenie (July 28, 2014). "Suspected Abu gunmen kill 21 in Sulu massacre". news.abs-cbn.com. ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  195. ^ "#BigasHindiBala (blog)". Get Real Post. 2 April 2016. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved Feb 22, 2018.
  196. ^ "Suspect in Canlaon killings arrested in San Carlos". SunStar. 9 February 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-07-06. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
  197. ^ Reyes-Estrope, Carmela (Jun 28, 2017). "Massacre in Bulacan". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  198. ^ "5 dead in Bulacan massacre". GMA News. Jun 27, 2017. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved Feb 15, 2018.
  199. ^ "Ambush in Philippines Kills Farmers Occupying Plantation Land". The New York Times. 21 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2018-10-21.
  200. ^ "Farm massacre: gunmen kill 9 people on Philippines sugarcane plantation". 21 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2018-10-21.
  201. ^ Jerusalem, Jigger (28 November 2022). "4 dead, 2 wounded in Bukidnon attack due to land dispute". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  202. ^ "5 dead in Bukidnon massacre". MindaNews. 28 November 2022. Retrieved 2022-11-28.
  203. ^ "Three Arrested Over Killing of Philippine Governor". VOA. 5 March 2023. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  204. ^ "Negros Oriental Governor Roel Degamo killed in shooting attack; wife cries for justice". inquirer.net. 2023-03-04. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  205. ^ Argosino, Faith (May 7, 2023). "Another victim of Pamplona massacre dies; death toll climbs to 10". Inquirer.net. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
  206. ^ Abrina, Dennis (10 March 2023). "4 siblings killed in Trece Martires". The Manila Times. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  207. ^ Alexander Luistro, Marlon (10 March 2023). "Live-in partner of OFW massacres 4 kids to death in Trece Martires before committing suicide". Hong Kong News. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  208. ^ Dela Peña, Kurt (14 March 2023). "Cavite massacre of 4 OFW kids mirrors fears for those left behind, search for solutions". newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  209. ^ Alipala, Julie (9 January 2024). "Slaying of 7 relatives jolts Lanao del Norte village". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  210. ^ Unson, John (9 January 2024). "Illegal recruiters tagged in killing of 7 victims buried together". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 18 February 2024.