Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus

Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus[1] (Greek: Πομπηιανός; c. 125 – 193 AD) was a politician and military commander during the 2nd century in the Roman Empire. A general under Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Pompeianus distinguished himself during Rome's wars against the Parthians and the Marcomanni. He was a member of the imperial family due to his marriage to Lucilla, a daughter of Marcus Aurelius, and was a key figure during the emperor's reign. Pompeianus was offered the imperial throne three times, though he refused to claim the title for himself.

Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus
Marble relief of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus (center right) with Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the Capitoline Museums in Rome
Consul of the Roman Empire
In office
173 AD – 173 AD
Preceded byServius Calpurnius Scipio Orfitus and Sextus Quintilius Maximus
Succeeded byLucius Aurelius Gallus and Quintus Volusius Flaccus Cornelianus
Military Governor of Pannonia Inferior
In office
164 AD – 168 AD
Suffect Consul of the Roman Empire
In office
162 AD – 162 AD
Preceded byJunius Rusticus and Lucius Titius Plautius Aquilinus
Succeeded byMarcus Insteius Bithynicus and ignotus
Personal details
Born125 AD
Antioch, Syria, Roman Empire
(modern-day Antakya, Hatay, Turkey)
Died193 AD (aged 68)
Rome, Roman Empire
(modern-day Rome, Italy)
SpouseLucilla (m. 169; d. 182)
ChildrenLucius Aurelius Commodus Pompeianus

Early life edit

A native of Antioch in Syria, Pompeianus was from relatively humble origins. His father was a member of the equestrian order.[2] As indicated by his name, his family first gained Roman citizenship during the reign of Emperor Claudius. Pompeianus was a novus homo ("new man") as he was the first member of his family to be appointed as a senator.

Much of Pompeianus' early life has been lost to history. He participated in the Roman–Parthian War of 161–166 under the command of Emperor Lucius Verus, likely as a legionary commander. Sometime prior to the Parthian campaign, he was elevated to the rank of senator. He served with distinction during the war, earning him appointment as suffect consul for the remainder of the year 162 AD.[3]

Marcomannic Wars edit

Following the completion the Parthian campaign, Emperor Marcus Aurelius appointed him military governor of Pannonia Inferior on the empire's northern frontier along the Danube River.[I 1][4] He likely served from 164 until 168. In late 166 or early 167, a force of 6,000 Lombards invaded Pannonia. Pompeianus defeated the invasion with relative ease, but it marked the beginning of a larger barbarian invasion.[5]

Late in 167, the Marcomanni tribe invaded the empire by crossing in Pannonia. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus planned a punitive expedition to drive the barbarians back across the Danube River, but due to the effects of the Antonine Plague, the expedition was postponed until early 168. Aided by Pompeianus, the two emperors were able to force the Marcomanni to retreat. Pompeianus' military skills earned him the confidence of Marcus Aurelius and he quickly became one of the Emperor's closest advisors.

As the emperors returned to their winter quarters in Aquileia, Lucius Verus fell ill and died in January 169. Marcus Aurelius arranged for his daughter Lucilla, Verus' widow, to marry Pompeianus.[2][6] As son-in-law to the emperor, Pompeianus became a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. The emperor even offered to name Pompeianus Caesar and his heir, but Pompeianus declined the title. Instead, Pompeianus was promoted and served as the emperor's chief general during the Marcomannic War. Under his guidance, the exiled senator and fellow Parthian war veteran Pertinax was recalled and joined Pompeianus on his military staff.

Pompeianus' successes during the Marcomannic War further distinguished him, with the emperor awarding him a second consulship in 173.[6][7][I 2] He took part in a number of military operations in the Danubian region and was still stationed in the region following the death of Marcus Aurelius.[I 3]

Under Commodus edit

Marcus Aurelius died in 180 AD, and his 18-year-old son Commodus, Pompeianus' brother-in-law, was proclaimed Roman emperor. Pompeianus tried to persuade Commodus to remain on the Danubian frontier to complete the conquest of the Marcomanni, but Commodus returned to Rome in the autumn of 180.[8][9]

The relationship between the young emperor and the experienced officer quickly deteriorated. In 182, Lucilla, Pompeianus' wife and Commodus' sister, organized a failed assassination attempt against the emperor. Though Commodus executed Lucilla and other members of her family, Pompeianus had not participated in the conspiracy and was spared.[10][11] Following the conspiracy, Pompeianus withdrew from public life, citing old age, and retired to his estates in Italy. He spent most of his time in the country away from Rome, claiming age and an ailment of the eyes as an excuse.[12]

Later life edit

Commodus was assassinated in 192 AD by members of the Praetorian Guard. Pompeianus returned to Rome once the plot against Commodus succeeded, resuming his seat in the Senate.[12]

Pertinax, who was the urban prefect at the time, offered the throne to Pompeianus, but he declined.[13] The Praetorian Guard then proclaimed Pertinax the emperor, but they assassinated him after only 87 days for attempting to impose order upon the long-undisciplined unit. Senator Didius Julianus bribed the Praetorian Guard to proclaim him emperor, but had difficulty garnering support within the ranks of his own troops. In a desperate attempt to save himself, Julianus asked Pompeianus to become co-emperor with him. Pompeianus again declined, on the grounds of his advanced years and eye problems. Julianus was executed on the orders of Septimius Severus after ruling for only 66 days.[14]

Pompeianus appears to have died sometime in 193. His children survived and prospered as members of an important family: they were the grandchildren of Marcus Aurelius. This prestige was dangerous because the new dynasty of the Severans could have seen them as possible competition. Aurelius, son of Pompeianus, was consul in 209, but was later assassinated at the instigation of Caracalla.[15] Later descendants of Pompeianus would become consuls in 231 and 241.[16]

In popular culture edit

Russell Crowe's character Maximus Decimus Meridius in the 2000 film Gladiator is loosely based on Pompeianus and others, including Narcissus.

Nerva–Antonine family tree edit

Inscriptions edit

  • CIL VI, 41120 ;
  • CIL XVI, 127 = CIL 03, p 2328,72 = ILSard-01, 00182 = ZPE-133-279 = AE 1898, 00078 = AE 2008, +00022 = AE 2008, +00613;
  • CIL III, 8484 = CIL 03, 01790a (p 2328,121) = CIL 03, 06362a = D 03381 = CINar-01, 00011a;
  • ILTG, 239 (AE 1934, 96) ;
  • Maybe Année Épigraphique AE 1971, 208 ( AE 1974, no. 411)
  • PIR C 973

References edit

  1. ^ PIR, s. v. Claudius, no. 973, Volume 2.
  2. ^ a b Historia Augusta, Life of Marcus Aurelius, 20, 6–7.
  3. ^ (in German) W. Eck, A. Pangerl, "Eine neue Bürgerrechtskonstitution für die Truppen von Pannonia inferior aus dem Jahr 162 mit einem neuen Konsulnpaar", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 173 (2010), pp. 223–236.
  4. ^ Pflaum 1961, p. 32
  5. ^ Cassius Dio Roman History 72.3.2.
  6. ^ a b Geoff W. Adams The Emperor Commodus: Gladiator, Hercules Or a Tyrant? p.111.
  7. ^ Historia Augusta Life of Avidius Cassius 11.8–12.2.
  8. ^ Herodian, Roman History 1.6.4–7.
  9. ^ Michael Grant, The Antonines: The Roman Empire in Transition, pp. 64–65.
  10. ^ Herodian, Roman History 1.8.3–4.
  11. ^ Michael Grant, The Antonines: The Roman Empire in Transition, pp. 69–70.
  12. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History 74.3.
  13. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Pertinax, 4, 10.
  14. ^ Historia Augusta, Life of Didius Julianus, 9, 3.
  15. ^ Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284, 2011, p. 107.
  16. ^ Pflaum, Hans-Georg (1961), "Les gendres de Marc Aurèle", Journal des Savants (in French), 1 (1): 33, doi:10.3406/jds.1961.1005
Military offices
Preceded by
Military Governor of Pannonia Inferior
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded byas suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire
with Tiberius Claudius Paullinus
Succeeded byas suffect consuls
Preceded byas ordinary consuls Consul of the Roman Empire
with Gnaeus Claudius Severus
Succeeded byas ordinary consuls