Thyrotropin receptor

The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as "thyrotropin") and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The TSH receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins[5] and is coupled to the Gs protein.[6]

TSHR
Protein TSHR PDB 1XUM.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesTSHR, CHNG1, LGR3, hTSHR-I, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, Thyrotropin receptor
External IDsOMIM: 603372 MGI: 98849 HomoloGene: 315 GeneCards: TSHR
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_000369
NM_001018036
NM_001142626

NM_001113404
NM_011648

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000360
NP_001018046
NP_001136098

NP_001106875
NP_035778

Location (UCSC)Chr 14: 80.95 – 81.15 MbChr 12: 91.38 – 91.55 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

It is primarily found on the surface of the thyroid epithelial cells, but also found on adipose tissue and fibroblasts. The latter explains the reason of the myxedema finding during Graves disease. In addition, it has also been found to be expressed in the anterior pituitary gland, hypothalamus and kidneys. Its presence in the anterior pituitary gland may be involved in mediating the paracrine signaling feedback inhibition of thyrotropin along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis.[7]

FunctionEdit

Upon binding circulating TSH, a G-protein signal cascade activates adenylyl cyclase and intracellular levels of cAMP rise. cAMP activates all functional aspects of the thyroid cell, including iodine pumping; thyroglobulin synthesis, iodination, endocytosis, and proteolysis; thyroid peroxidase activity; and hormone release.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165409 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020963 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Farid NR, Szkudlinski MW (Sep 2004). "Minireview: structural and functional evolution of the thyrotropin receptor". Endocrinology. 145 (9): 4048–57. doi:10.1210/en.2004-0437. PMID 15231707.
  6. ^ Calebiro D, Nikolaev VO, Lohse MJ (Jul 2010). "Imaging of persistent cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 45 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1677/JME-10-0014. PMID 20378719.
  7. ^ Williams, G. R. (2011-04-01). "Extrathyroidal expression of TSH receptor". Annales d'Endocrinologie. 54es Journees internationales d'Endocrinologie clinique. 72 (2): 68–73. doi:10.1016/j.ando.2011.03.006. ISSN 0003-4266.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit