Three Hundred Tang Poems
The Three Hundred Tang Poems (Chinese: 唐詩三百首) is an anthology of poems from the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907) first compiled around 1763 by Sun Zhu (1722–1778), the Qing Dynasty scholar, also known as Hengtang Tuishi (衡塘退士 "Retired Master of Hengtang"). Various later editions also exist. All editions contain slightly more than 300 total poems: in this case, three hundred means not exactly 300 but refers to an estimative quantification; the ten, twenty, or more extra poems represent a sort of a good luck bonus, analogous to the "baker's dozen" in the West. Even more, the number 300 (or more exactly 305) was a classic number for a poetry collection due to the influence of the Classic of Poetry (Shijing 詩經), which was generally known as The Three Hundred Poems.
|Three Hundred Tang Poems|
Dissatisfied with the anthology Poems by a Thousand Masters (Qianjiashi 千家詩) compiled by Liu Kezhuang in the late Southern Song, and influenced by Ming Dynasty poetry anthologies, Sun selected the poems based on their popularity and educational value. The collection has been popular ever since and can be found in many Chinese households. For centuries, elementary students memorized the poems and used them to learn to read and write. It contains poems by Du Fu, Li Bai, Wang Wei, Li Shangyin, Meng Haoran, Han Yu, Du Mu, Bai Juyi, Liu Changqing, Cen Shen, Wang Changling, Wei Yingwu, and more. Li He is one notable Tang poet absent from the compilation.
Organization of poemsEdit
The original Qing Dynasty version of the 300 Tang Poems was organized by the poem's formal type, of which there were seven:
- Folk song styled verse (yuefu)
- Ancient verse (gushi):
- Five-character ancient verse
- Seven-character ancient verse
- Modern style verse (jintishi):
Out of 317 poems in one edition, 90 were in the gushi form and 227 were in the lüshi or the jueju forms.
The poets of the Tang shi include a number of authors ranging from the well-known and famous to obscure or anonymous poets, and even include at least one emperor. The poet with the most pieces included in this collection is Du Fu, with thirty-nine. Li Bai is a close runner-up, with thirty-four. Wang Wei has twenty-nine poems included in the anthology and Li Shangyin has twenty-four. Meng Haoran has fifteen, Wei Yingwu twelve, Liu Changqing eleven, and Du Mu ten. After that, each of the other poets' included pieces number in the single digits; however, some of these poets are quite important, such as Liu Zongyuan or Bai Juyi. Some important poets, such as Li He, are not represented at all.
|Name||Traditional||Simplified||Pinyin||Wade-Giles[note 1]||Dates[note 2]||Number of included pieces[note 3]|
|Bai Juyi||白居易||白居易||Bái Jūyì||Po Chü-i||772–846||6|
|Cen Shen||岑參||岑参||Cén Shēn||Ts'en Shen||715–770||7|
|Chang Jian||常建||常建||Cháng Jiàn||Ch'ang Chien||708–765?||2|
|Chen Tao||陳陶||陳陶||Chén Táo||Ch'en T'ao||824–882||1|
|Chen Zi'ang||陳子昂||陈子昂||Chén Zĭáng||Ch‛en Tzŭ-ang||661?–702||1|
|Cui Hao||崔顥||崔颢||Cuī Hào||Ts'ui Hao||704?–754||4|
|Cui Shu||崔曙||崔曙||Cuī Shǔ||Ts'ui Shu||704–739||1|
|Cui Tu||崔塗||崔涂||Cuī Tú||Ts'ui T'u||854–?||2|
|Dai Shulun||戴叔倫||戴叔伦||Dài Shūlún||Tai Shu-lun||732–789||1|
|Du Fu||杜甫||杜甫||Dù Fǔ||Tu Fu||712–770||39|
|Du Mu||杜牧||杜牧||Dù Mù||Tu Mu||803–852||10|
|Du Qiuniang (Lady Du Qiu)||杜秋娘||杜秋娘||Dù Qiūniáng||Tu Ch'iu-niang||?–825?||1|
|Du Shenyan||杜審言||杜审言||Dù Shěnyán||Tu Shen-yen||646–708?||1|
|Du Xunhe||杜荀鶴||杜荀鹤||Dù Xúnhè||Tu Hsün-hê||846–904||1|
|Gao Shi||高適||高适||Gāo Shì||Kao Shih||716?–765||2|
|Gu Kuang||顧況||顾况||Gù Kuàng||Ku K'uang||725—814||1|
|Han Hong||韓翃||韩翃||Hán Hóng||Han Hung||mid 8th century||3|
|Han Wo||韓偓||韩偓||Hán Wò||Han Wo||844–923||1|
|Han Yu||韓愈||韩愈||Hán Yù||Han Yü||768–824||4|
|He Zhizhang||賀知章||贺知章||Hè Zhīzhāng||He Chih-chang||659?–744||1|
|Huangfu Ran||皇甫冉||皇甫冉||Huángfǔ Rǎn||Huang-fu Jan||716–769||1|
|Jia Dao||賈島||贾岛||Jiǎ Dǎo||Chia Tao||779–843||1|
|Jin Changxu||金昌緒||金昌绪||Jīn Chāngxù||Chin Ch'ang-hsü||?||1|
|Li Bai (Li Po)||李白||李白||Lǐ Bái (Lǐ Bó)||Li Pai (Li Po)||701–762||34|
|Li Duan||李端||李端||Lǐ Duān||Li Tuan||743–782||1|
|Li Pin||李頻||李频||Lǐ Pín||Li P'in||818–876||1|
|Li Qi||李頎||李颀||Lǐ Qí||Li Ch'i||690–751||7|
|Li Shangyin||李商隱||李商隐||Lǐ Shāngyǐn||Li Shang-yin||813?–858?||24|
|Li Ye (Li Jilan)||李冶||李冶||Lǐ Yě||Li Yeh||?–784||18|
|Li Yi||李益||李益||Lǐ Yì||Li I||748?–827?||3|
|Liu Changqing||劉長卿||刘长卿||Liú Chángqīng||Liu Chang-ch'ing||710?–789?||11|
|Liu Fangping||劉方平||刘方平||Liú Fāngping||Liu Fang-p'ing||mid 8th century||2|
|Liu Jixu||劉脊虛||刘脊虚||Liú Jǐxū||Liu Chi-hsü||?||1|
|Liu Yuxi||劉禹錫||刘禹锡||Liú Yǔxī||Liu Yü-hsi||772–842||4|
|Liu Zhongyong||柳中庸||柳中庸||Liǔ Zhōngyōng||Liu Chung-yung||?–775?||1|
|Liu Zongyuan||柳宗元||柳宗元||Liǔ Zōngyuán||Liu Tsung-yüan||773–819||5|
|Lu Lun||盧綸||卢纶||Lú Lún||Lu Lun||739–799||6|
|Luo Binwang||駱賓王||骆宾王||Luò Bīnwáng||Lo Pin-wang||640?–684?||1|
|Ma Dai||馬戴||马戴||Mǎ Dài||Ma Tai||799–869||2|
|Meng Haoran||孟浩然||孟浩然||Mèng Hàorán||Meng Hao-jan||689?–740||15|
|Meng Jiao||孟郊||孟郊||Mèng Jiāo||Meng Chiao||751–814||2|
|Pei Di||裴迪||裴迪||Péi Dí||Pei Ti||716?–?||1|
|Qian Qi||錢起||钱起||Qián Qǐ||Ch'ien Ch'i||722?–780?||3|
|Qin Taoyu||秦韜玉||秦韬玉||Qín Tāoyù||Ch'in T'ao-yü||late 9th century||1|
|Qiu Wei||邱為||邱为||Qiū Wéi||Ch'iu Wei||694–789?||1|
|Qiwu Qian||綦毋潛||綦毋潜||Qíwú Qián||Ch'i-wu Ch'ien||692?–755?||1|
|Quan Deyu||權德輿||权德舆||Quán Déyú||Ch'uan Tê-yu||759–818||1|
|Shen Quanqi||沈佺期||沈佺期||Shěn Quánqī||Shên Ch'üan-ch'i||650?–713?||2|
|Sikong Shu||司空曙||司空曙||Sīkōng Shǔ||Ssû-k'ung Shu||720?–790?||3|
|Song Zhiwen||宋之問||宋之问||Sòng Zhīwèn||Sung Chih-wên||656?–712?||1|
|Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (Tang Xuanzong)||唐玄宗||唐玄宗||Táng Xuánzōng||T'ang Hsüan-tsung||685–762||1|
|Wang Bo||王勃||王勃||Wáng Bó||Wang Po||649?–676||1|
|Wang Changling||王昌齡||王昌龄||Wáng Chānglíng||Wang Ch'ang-ling||698–756||8|
|Wang Han||王翰||王翰||Wáng Hàn||Wang Han||early 8th century||1|
|Wang Jian||王建||王建||Wáng Jiàn||Wang Chien||?–830?||1|
|Wang Wan||王灣||王灣||Wáng Wān||Wang Wan||693–751||1|
|Wang Wei||王維||王维||Wáng Wéi||Wang Wei||699–759||29|
|Wang Zhihuan||王之渙||王之涣||Wáng Zhīhuàn||Wang Tsu-huan||688–742||2|
|Wei Yingwu (Wei Yinwu)||韋應物||韦应物||Wéi Yìngwù||Wei Ying-wu||737–792||12|
|Wei Zhuang||韋莊||韦庄||Wéi Zhuāng||Wei Chuang||836–910||2|
|Wen Tingyun||溫庭筠||温庭筠||Wēn Tīngyūn||Wen T'ing-yun||812–870||4|
|Xibi Ren (Anonymous)[note 4]||西鄙人||西鄙人||Xībǐ Rén||Hsi-pi Jen||?||1|
|Xu Hun||許渾||许浑||Xǔ Hún||Hsü Hun||791–858||2|
|Xue Feng||薛逢||薛逢||Xuē Féng||Hsueh Feng||mid 9th century||1|
|Yuan Jie||元結||元结||Yuán Jiē||Yüan Chieh||723–772||2|
|Yuan Zhen||元稹||元稹||Yuán Zhěn||Yüan Chen||779–831||4|
|Zhang Hu||張祜||张祜||Zhāng Hù||Chang Hu||785[better source needed]–849?||5|
|Zhang Ji from Hubei||張繼||张继||Zhāng Jì||Chang Chi||715?–779?||1|
|Zhang Ji from Jiangnan||張籍||张籍||Zhāng Jí||Chang Chi||766–830?||1|
|Zhang Jiuling||張九齡||张九龄||Zhāng Jiǔlíng||Chang Chiu-ling||678?–740||5|
|Zhang Mi (Zhang Bi)||張泌||张泌||Zhāng Mì||Chang Mi||late 9th century||1|
|Zhang Qiao||張喬||张喬||Zhāng Qiáo||Chang Ch'iao||?||1|
|Zhang Xu||張旭||张旭||Zhāng Xù||Chang Hsü||658?–747?||1|
|Zhao Luanluan||趙鸞鸞||赵鸾鸾||Zhào Luánluán||Chao Luan-luan||14th century[note 5]|
|Zheng Tian||鄭畋||郑畋||Zhèng Tián||Cheng T'ien||824?–882?||1|
|Zhu Qingyu||朱慶餘||朱慶余||Zhū Qìngyú||Chu Ch'ing-yü||early 9th century||2|
|Zu Yong||祖詠||祖咏||Zǔ Yǒng||Tsu Yung||699–746?||2|
- Lacking tone marks, and may be modified Wade-Giles.
- Birth, death, flourishing, or other as available. All dates Common Era.
- From standard edition(s).
- Xibi Ren is an alias meaning "humble person from the west border". The author is unknown (cf. "The Beauty of Tang Poems and Zhuan Zi Calligraphy", "Xi Bi'ren", by Marie L. Sun and Alex K. Sun)
- Zhao Luanluan was a Yuan dynasty poet mistaken by the compilers as a Tang dynasty courtesan-poet.
The first complete translation of the Three Hundred Tang Poems into English was published as The Jade Mountain, translated by Witter Bynner and Jiang Kanghu. From 1929 through 1972 it went through ten editions. It has also been translated by Peter Harris in 2009.
- Yu, 64–65
- Rexroth, xvi
- Weichang Chan, ed. (1997). "Home of 300 Tang Poems". Chinese Text Initiative (in Chinese and English). Translated by Witter Bynner. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- "Tang Shi – 300 Tang poems". Wengu – Chinese Classics and Translations (in Chinese, English, and French). AFPC. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Watson 127
- Wu, John C. H. (1972). The Four Seasons of Tang Poetry. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle. ISBN 978-0-8048-0197-3
- Watson, Burton (1971). CHINESE LYRICISM: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century. (New York: Columbia University Press). ISBN 0-231-03464-4
- Rexroth, Kenneth (1970). Love and the Turning Year: One Hundred More Poems from the Chinese. New York: New Directions.
- Yu, Pauline (2002). "Chinese Poetry and Its Institutions", in Hsiang Lectures on Chinese Poetry, Volume 2, Grace S. Fong, editor. Montreal: Center for East Asian Research, McGill University.