Thoran (Malayalam: തോരൻ, pronounced [t̪oːɾan]; or upperi in Malabar) is a class of dry vegetable dishes combined with coconut that originated in the Indian state of Kerala. This common dish is usually eaten with rice and curry and is also part of the traditional Keralite sadhya.
Thoran is a dry dish traditionally made of finely chopped vegetables such as cabbage, yardlong bean and other bean varieties, unripe jackfruit, bittergourd (കയ്പ്പക്ക/പാവയ്ക്ക) or elephant foot yam, of leaves such as green or red cheera (ചീര), Moringa oleifera or Ipomoea aquatica, as well as of flowers such as Moringa oleifera or Sesbania grandiflora.
Thoran can be also made with carrots, green beans, cabbage, green tomatoes or spinach, vegetables that were traditionally not available in Kerala. The traditional recipes made in southern Kerala do not use garlic, but in the present day, garlic and onion are also added.
- Robert Bradnock, Roma Bradnock (2000). South India Handbook. Footprint Handbooks.
- Pacha Thakkaali Thoran
- Media related to Thoran at Wikimedia Commons