Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey
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|Died||7 January 1400 (aged around 26)|
|Title||Duke of Surrey|
Earl of Kent
|Spouse(s)||Lady Joan Stafford, daughter of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford|
Early life and familyEdit
He was the son of the 2nd Earl of Kent and Lady Alice FitzAlan. His maternal grandparents were the 10th Earl of Arundel and Lady Eleanor of Lancaster. He was also a nephew of King Richard II, and a Knight of the Garter.
In 1394 he and his father accompanied the king to Ireland.
On his father's death in 1397 he succeeded him as 3rd Earl of Kent and 4th Baron Holland. At that time Kent's uncle King Richard II was removing the Duke of Gloucester and his associates from power, and sent Kent to arrest his own uncle, the Earl of Arundel. In reward he received a share of the forfeited estates, and on 29 September 1397 was created Duke of Surrey. Another uncle, the Earl of Huntingdon, was created Duke of Exeter on that day as well. In 1398 he founded Mount Grace Priory in Yorkshire.
Last years and executionEdit
Surrey, along with many of King Richard II's advisors, was arrested after the King's deposition by King Henry IV in 1399. In the end he had to forfeit the honours and estates he had gained after the arrests of Gloucester and Arundel, in particular the Dukedom of Surrey, although he retained the Earldom of Kent.
Early in 1400, Kent, along with his uncle, the Earl of Huntingdon (no longer Duke of Exeter), plotted to kill King Henry IV and free King Richard II from prison and return him to the throne. This "Epiphany Rising" failed and Kent was captured and executed.
Titles and stylesEdit
- 1st Duke of Surrey (29 September 1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1397 creation
- 3rd Earl of Kent (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1360 creation
- 6th Earl of Kent (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1321 creation
- 3rd Baron Holand (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1353 creation
- 7th Baron Wake of Liddell (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1295 creation
- Archbold, W.A.J. (1891). . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Cokayne, G., ed. (1929). The Complete Peerage. 7. Enlarged by H.A. Doubleday & Lord Howard de Walden (2nd ed.). London: St. Catherine Press. Archived.
- Richardson, D. (2011). Kimball G. Everingham (ed.). Magna Carta Ancestry Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. 2 (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 978-1-4499-6638-6.
- Richardson, D. (2011). Kimball G. Everingham (ed.). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. 3 (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 978-1-4499-6639-3.
- Stansfield, M.M.N. (13 January 1987). The Hollands, Dukes of Exeter, Earls of Kent and Huntingdon, 1352–1475 (PhD). Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Archived.
- Stansfield, M.M.N. (2004). "Holland, Thomas, fifth earl of Kent (1350–1397)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13544. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
The Duke of Norfolk
| Earl Marshal
The Earl of Westmorland
|Peerage of England|
| Earl of Kent