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Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey

Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, 3rd Earl of Kent, 4th Baron Holland, KG, Earl Marshal (1374 – 7 January 1400) was an English nobleman.

Thomas Holland
Born1374
Died(1400-01-07)7 January 1400 (aged around 26)
TitleDuke of Surrey
Earl of Kent
Baron Holland
Spouse(s)Lady Joan Stafford, daughter of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford
Parents

Contents

Early life and familyEdit

He was the son of the 2nd Earl of Kent and Lady Alice FitzAlan. His maternal grandparents were the 10th Earl of Arundel and Lady Eleanor of Lancaster. He was also a nephew of King Richard II, and a Knight of the Garter.

In 1394 he and his father accompanied the king to Ireland.[1]

On his father's death in 1397 he succeeded him as 3rd Earl of Kent and 4th Baron Holland. At that time Kent's uncle King Richard II was removing the Duke of Gloucester and his associates from power, and sent Kent to arrest his own uncle, the Earl of Arundel. In reward he received a share of the forfeited estates, and on 29 September 1397 was created Duke of Surrey. Another uncle, the Earl of Huntingdon, was created Duke of Exeter on that day as well. In 1398 he founded Mount Grace Priory in Yorkshire.

 
Arms of Thomas de Holland KG 1399 [2]

Last years and executionEdit

Surrey, along with many of King Richard II's advisors, was arrested after the King's deposition by King Henry IV in 1399. In the end he had to forfeit the honours and estates he had gained after the arrests of Gloucester and Arundel, in particular the Dukedom of Surrey, although he retained the Earldom of Kent.

Early in 1400, Kent, along with his uncle, the Earl of Huntingdon (no longer Duke of Exeter), plotted to kill King Henry IV and free King Richard II from prison and return him to the throne. This "Epiphany Rising" failed and Kent was captured and executed.

He left no children by his wife, Lady Joan Stafford, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Stafford. He was succeeded as Earl of Kent by his brother Edmund.

AncestryEdit

Titles and stylesEdit

  • 1st Duke of Surrey (29 September 1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1397 creation
  • 3rd Earl of Kent (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1360 creation[3]
  • 6th Earl of Kent (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1321 creation[4]
  • 3rd Baron Holand (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1353 creation[3]
  • 7th Baron Wake of Liddell (1397 – 7 January 1400) of the 1295 creation

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Richardson 2011, p. 497, Vol. 2.
  2. ^ (M.S. Harl. 5805, f. 392) ISBN 0-906223-34-2. The Art of Heraldry by A.C. Fox-Davies. Page 97. Fig 201. (Image by Zorlot).
  3. ^ a b Cokayne 1929, p. 152.
  4. ^ Stansfield 2004.

ReferencesEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Earl Marshal
1398–1399
Succeeded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Holland
Earl of Kent
1397–1400
Succeeded by
Edmund Holland