Thomas Heatherwick
Thomas Heatherwick at Strelka Institute.jpg
Thomas Heatherwick discussing his work at Strelka Institute
Born Thomas Alexander Heatherwick
(1970-02-17) 17 February 1970 (age 47)
London, England
Nationality English
Alma mater Manchester Metropolitan University
Occupation Architect
Website heatherwick.com
Practice Heatherwick Studio
Buildings
Projects
Design

Thomas Alexander Heatherwick, CBE, RDI, HonFREng (born 17 February 1970) is an English designer and the founder of London-based design practice Heatherwick Studio. Since the late 1990s Heatherwick has emerged as one of Britain's most significant designers.[1] Heatherwick works with a team of around 180 architects, designers and makers from a studio and workshop in King's Cross, London.[2]

Heatherwick has been involved in the design of many projects, some controversial, including the Olympic Cauldron, the New Routemaster bus, and the UK pavilion at Expo 2010.[3] Other notable proposed projects include the Garden Bridge, the renovation of Pacific Place, and a plan for a biomass power station in BEI-Teesside.

Contents

Early lifeEdit

 
Bleigiessen, Wellcome Trust, London

Heatherwick was born in London on 17 February 1970. He attended Sevenoaks School in Kent, and studied three-dimensional design at Manchester Polytechnic and at the Royal College of Art.[4] Whilst Heatherwick was at the RCA he met designer Terence Conran. Conran became a mentor to Heatherwick after seeing his plan for a gazebo made of two, 6 m high curved stacks of birch plywood and made its construction possible by inviting Heatherwick to work at his country home.[5]

After graduating from the RCA, Heatherwick founded Heatherwick Studio in 1994.[6]

Key workEdit

Rolling BridgeEdit

Video of the Rolling Bridge in operation

In 2002 Heatherwick Studio designed The Rolling Bridge (also known as "the curling bridge") as part of a redevelopment of Paddington Basin. The bridge unfolds across the Grand Union Canal every Friday at noon. To give access to upcoming water traffic, the bridge curls into an octagon. The bridge consists of eight triangular sections hinged at the walkway level and is connected above by two part links that collapse towards the deck under the control of hydraulic pistons. The Rolling Bridge won the 2005 British Structural Steel Award.[7]

East Beach CafeEdit

In 2005 Heatherwick Studio completed the East Beach Café at Littlehampton, West Sussex. The large steel structure houses a café by daytime and restaurant in the evening. The concept allowed the steel to rust and the colours to develop over time before being fixed with a transparent oil.[8] The café won a RIBA National Award in 2008.[9]

B of the BangEdit

 
B of the Bang, Manchester

Heatherwick's design for B of the Bang, a £1.42 million 56m-high sculpture of 180 giant steel spikes, was unveiled outside the City of Manchester Stadium in 2005. It was the tallest and possibly most dramatic public sculpture ever erected in Britain.[10] The structure was commissioned to commemorate the 2002 Commonwealth Games and was named after a quote from former Olympic sprint champion Linford Christie and meant to symbolise the burst of energy as an athlete shoots out of the blocks.[11]

The B of the Bang however was dismantled after parts of the structure fell off. Manchester City Council responded to the dismantling of the structure by saying, "Thomas Heatherwick's B of the Bang was a magnificent artistic statement and it was regrettable that technical problems undermined that vision."[12] Danny Boyle said it was the inspiration for his asking Heatherwick Studio to design the Olympic Cauldron: “It goes back to the time I spent sitting under his B of the Bang sculpture. I loved it so much; it’s a tragedy they took it down.”[13]

UK Pavilion, Shanghai Expo 2010Edit

 
UK Pavilion at 2010 Expo, Shanghai

Heatherwick Studio designed the UK's Pavilion, "Seed Cathedral", at the Shanghai Expo 2010.

The studio developed the idea for the UK Pavilion by exploring the relationship between nature and cities, and incorporated Kew Gardens' Millennium Seed Bank Partnership, whose mission is to collect the seeds of 25% of the world's plant species by 2020.[14] The structure consisted of over 60,000 25-foot acrylic optic fibres. It housed 60,000 plant seeds at the end of acrylic rods, held in place by geometrically-cut holes with the rods inserted therein.[15]

In the duration of the six-month Expo, more than eight million people went inside, making it the UK's most visited tourist attraction. At a state ceremony, it was announced that the UK Pavilion had won the event's top prize, the gold medal for pavilion design.[16]

The UK Pavilion won a RIBA International Award, the RIBA Lubetkin Prize and the London Design Medal.[17][18][19]

After the Expo the UK Pavilion's acrylic rods were donated to schools and the World Expo Museum, while others were auctioned for charity.

New Routemaster busEdit

In 2010 the Mayor of London Boris Johnson announced that Heatherwick Studio would be designing the New Routemaster. It was the first time in more than 50 years that Transport for London commissioned the development of a bus built specifically for the capital.[20] A long asymmetric front window provided the driver with clear kerbside views, while a wrapped glazing panel reflected passenger circulation – bringing more daylight into the bus and offering views out over London. Initially the bus reinstated one of the features of the 1950s AEC Routemaster, an open platform at its rear, which offered a "hop-on hop-off" service. However, the expense of staffing this feature, to avoid the many accidents that occurred on the original bus, has since led to it being discontinued.[21] The design has three doors and two staircases, making it quicker and easier for passengers to board. In engineering terms, the New Routemaster was claimed to be 15 per cent more fuel efficient than the existing hybrid buses and 40 per cent more efficient than conventional diesel double-deckers.[22]

Designs for the new bus were originally unveiled in May 2010 and a prototype, developed and manufactured by Wrightbus, was launched in December 2011, The first bus entered public service in February 2012 and Transport for London ordered a further 600 buses in September 2012.[23] However no new Routemaster buses will be purchased for London, the funds instead going towards upgrading the city's existing fleet with the latest sustainable technologies.[24]

Critics have pointed to the very large cost and frequent issues caused by the design, including excessive temperatures for passengers in the summer.[25] It is claimed the Routemasters are emitting more harmful particles than the buses they replaced. Prospective London Mayoral candidate Christian Wolmar, who first revealed problems with the new Routemasters, said in July 2015: "This project was misconceived from the start. I have been told that drivers have been complaining about the failed batteries since August last year and yet nothing has been done. It is no surprise the emissions are higher than those on conventional buses as the New Bus for London is not operating as designed. It is supposed to be powered by an electric motor, but instead is using its inefficient diesel engine that should, in normal conditions, be running at constant speed."[26]

2012 Olympic cauldronEdit

Heatherwick Studio was asked by Danny Boyle to design the Summer Olympics and Paralympics cauldron for the London 2012 Olympics, which was lit during the Opening ceremony of the London Olympics on 27 July 2012.

The cauldron was made of 204 pieces, which were brought into the Olympic Stadium by children representing each team as part of the Parade of nations. These pieces were mounted on stems which, once lit by seven torchbearers, were raised to merge into one huge flame, representing the coming together in peace of each of the 204 countries competing in the Olympic Games and the collaborative human spirit at the heart of the Games.[27]

The copper petals, made at Peterborough-based Contour Autocraft were created by craftsmen who had previously made body parts for car makers such as Bentley.[28]

After the close of the Games, the petals were sent to each country as a legacy of their sporting achievements in the Games. In total 204 Olympic petals and 164 Paralympic petals were offered to competing nations. On 26 November 2012 the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson delivered a lasting memento of London's Olympic and Paralympic Games to India's medal-winning athletes in Delhi.[29]

Garden BridgeEdit

Heatherwick designed, in collaboration with the actress Joanna Lumley, a pedestrian bridge across the Thames in London, the "Garden Bridge".[30] The bridge is planned to feature trees and gardens.[30][31]

The project however has been beset with funding issues, criticisms and delays. As of August 2016, the construction of the bridge has yet to proceed.[32]

In April 2017 a report ordered by the Mayor of London concluded that the project should be cancelled and accept the £46 million of public money already lost rather than to risk additional demands if the project proceeds.

Margaret Hodge, the former chair of the Public Accounts Committee, also reported that the appointments of Heatherwick Studio and engineer Arup in 2013 "were not open, fair or competitive … and revealed systematic failures and ineffective control systems" [33]

Learning HubEdit

The Learning Hub opened in 2015.[34] It is a multi-use educational facility built as part of the Nanyang Technological University's campus redevelopment programme for use by 33,000 students.[35] The building is designed to better suit contemporary methods of learning in response to the use of the internet as a primary educational tool.[35] The design challenges the traditional format of university buildings which have box-like lecture rooms linked by long corridors. Instead, learning facilities and social spaces are interwoven to encourage interaction between users across different disciplines.[35] The building consists of 56 rounded tutorial rooms stacked in 12 towers arranged around a full-height, naturally ventilated atrium[36] The tutorial rooms are conceived to break down student-teacher hierarchies and promote interactive group teaching. The spaces are flexible and can be re-configured, encouraging collaboration between students.[36] Concrete was used as the primary construction material to keep costs down and ensure a high level of environmental performance was achieved. Heatherwick Studio created a bespoke method to imprint three-dimensional texture into the façade, interior panels and columns using reusable silicone moulds.[37] 700 commissioned drawings by artist and illustrator Sara Fanelli were cast into the elevator cores and stairs. The drawings reference art, literature and science and are meant to act as ambiguous thought triggers for students and teachers.[37] The various raw treatments of concrete used give the building an almost hand-made quality.[37] In 2014, the Learning Hub achieved BREEAM Green Mark Platinum status, the highest environmental rating in Singapore. It also won the British Precast 'Creativity in Concrete' Award from the Concrete Society in 2015.[38]

Bombay Sapphire DistilleryEdit

Heatherwick Studio led the masterplan and design for the Bombay Sapphire gin distillery in Hampshire, which opened in 2014.[39] The transformation of the five-acre site included the renovation a 300-year-old paper mill and the restoration 23 existing buildings.[40] As part of the modernisation scheme the River Test, which runs through the site, was widened and used as an organisational device.[41] Two curved glasshouses, one with a temperate climate and one with a Mediterranean climate, emerge from the renovated mill building and house the 10 botanicals used in the gin distillation process. Waste heat from the still house is recycled and used to grow the plant species within the glasshouses.[42] Traditional large copper stills are located within the interior, which consists of an educational dry room and bar to accommodate tours and public events.[43] The project was the first facility in the drinks manufacturing industry and the first renovation to achieve BREEAM 'outstanding' accreditation.[40]

Coal Drops YardEdit

Coal Drops Yard will be a new public space and retail destination in King's Cross, London.[44] The project will include the renovation of two buildings built in 1850 and used to receive freight travelling from the north of England.[45] The design stitches the two buildings together by extending the two roofs towards each other until they meet.[46] This will create an additional storey and distinct centre to the linear site. The stretched roofs will shelter the yard below which can be used to host events, whilst the third storey will offer views of King's Cross, the new Francis Crick Institute and Cubitt Square.[46] The project is part of a wider re-development programme for the area by Argent LLP and King's Cross Central Limited Partnership (KCCLP).[47] Planning was approved for Coal Drops Yard in December 2015.[44]

Bund Finance CentreEdit

Heatherwick Studio are working in collaboration with Fosters + Partners on the Bund Finance Centre (BFC) – a new mixed-use complex in Shanghai. The project is situated at the end of the Bund in Shanghai and envisioned as a connection point between the city's old town and the financial district.[48]

The plan includes two 180-metre towers that combine offices, a boutique hotel and retail space. An arts and cultural centre is located at the centre of the scheme. Conceived as a platform for international exchange, the centre will feature art galleries and theatre spaces. The building is surrounded by an adaptable moving veil which reveals the stage on the balcony and views towards Pudong district.[49]

Zeitz MOCAAEdit

Heatherwick Studio are transforming the historic Grain Silo at the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town into a not-for-profit cultural institution. The Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa (Zeitz MOCAA) will house the most significant collection of contemporary art from Africa and its diaspora.[50] The 9,500sqm complex will consist of nine floors with 6,000sqm of dedicated exhibition space.[51] The project aims to celebrate and preserve the structure's industrial heritage, creating a centrepiece for the V&A Waterfront development.[52] Using a variety of concrete-cutting techniques, galleries and a large central atrium will be carved out of the silo's 42 concrete tubes.[53] The concrete shafts will be capped with strengthened glass that can be walked over by visitors. This will draw light into the building from above, aiming to create a cathedral-like interior.

The excavation of this interior space will unify two buildings; the silo and the grading tower.[54] Bisected tubes will contain cylindrical lifts and a spiral staircase. Pillowed glazing panels formed of segments of flat glass have been inserted into the upper floors.[53]

The Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa will open in early 2017.[55]

Current projectsEdit

Heatherwick Studio is currently working on projects including; Zeitz MOCAA, the reinvention of a historic Grain Silo at the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town, the Bund Finance Centre in Shanghai, in partnership with Fosters + Partners and the new Google Headquarters in Mountain View, California – in partnership with Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)[56][57][58]

Other notable worksEdit

 
Paternoster Vents, at Bishops Court near Paternoster Square, London.
 
At the points where this skin reaches a building the slabs curve upwards to create the sensation of a fabric. Replacement tiles show the colour of the original concept.

Approach to designEdit

The Heatherwick Studio has worked with an extensive range of design disciplines, including architecture, engineering, transport and urban planning to furniture, sculpture and product design.[63] According to Heatherwick, the wide range of skill sets found at Heatherwick Studio is a reaction to Heatherwick's frustration at encountering "sliced-up ghettos of thought" of sculpture, architecture, fashion, embroidery, metalwork, product and furniture design all in separate departments. He considers all design in three dimensions, not as multi-disciplinary design, but as a single discipline: three-dimensional design.[5]

Unlike many architecture practices, Heatherwick Studio does not have a fixed style and focuses on problem solving. He has said: “It is more like solving a crime. The answer is there, and your job is to find it. So we go off and do bits of research that essentially eliminate suspects from the enquiry. And then you follow up leads and gradually narrow down the potential solutions. Ultimately what you’re left with is the answer.”[5]

Exhibitions and publicationsEdit

In 2012 the Victoria and Albert Museum put on a major retrospective of the studio's work. The exhibition was titled "Heatherwick Studio: Designing the Extraordinary" and was curated by Abraham Thomas.[64]

The exhibition revealed the creative processes and spirit of curiosity of Heatherwick Studio across two decades of projects, spanning the disciplines of architecture, product design, engineering, sculpture and urban planning.[65]

The British Council hosted the major touring exhibition New British Inventors: Inside Heatherwick Studio, curated by Kate Goodwin Drue Heinz Curator of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Arts, London.[66] In 2015 and 2016 the exhibition travelled to six venues in East Asia and reached over 409,109 visitors. The museums and galleries the exhibition travelled to include; Singapore National Design Centre, CAFA, Beijing, Power Station of Arts, Shanghai, PMQ, Hong Kong, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, and D Museum, Seoul.[67] The first USA exhibition Provocations: The Architecture and Design of Heatherwick Studio travelled to three venues in North America in 2014 and 2015:[68] Nasher Sculpture Centre, Dallas,[69] the Hammer Museum, Los Angeles[70] and the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, New York.

In 2012, Thames and Hudson published Thomas Heatherwick: Making. The book lays out Heatherwick's body of work so far; each of the more than 140 fully illustrated projects included is accompanied by a text explaining, in Heatherwick’s words, the design question it posed and the creative and practical processes used to address it. A second volume was released in 2013 that includes the Olympic Cauldron.[71]

AwardsEdit

Thomas Heatherwick has won numerous design awards including the Prince Philip Designers Prize (2006), the London Design Medal (2010), the RIBA Lubetkin Prize (2010) for the UK Pavilion. In 2004 he became the youngest practitioner to be appointed a Royal Designer for Industry.[72]

Heatherwick has been awarded Honorary Doctorates from University of the Arts London, the Royal College of Art, University of Dundee, University of Brighton, Sheffield Hallam University and Manchester Metropolitan University.[73]

He was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2013 Birthday Honours for services to the design industry.[74]

In September 2016 he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.[75]

In 2015, Thomas Heatherwick was named one of GQ's 50 best dressed British men.[76]

ControversyEdit

Olympic cauldron plagiarism claimEdit

In June 2013, New York design studio Atopia claimed that the design of the Olympics cauldron was identical to something they had presented to the London Olympic committee in 2007. They had not been able to raise the issue until 2013 due to a restrictive non-disclosure agreement that prevented all companies from promoting any work related to the Olympics.[77] However, Heatherwick denied that he had been briefed by the commissioner on Atopia's idea, and was adamant that the cauldron design was his alone, based on a student project he did in 1993.[78] Danny Boyle, artistic director of the opening ceremony, also denied having known about the prior design, while Martin Green, former head of ceremonies of LOCOG, claimed that the idea came out of discussions between Boyle, Heatherwick and himself.[78] The organisers of the London Olympics later reached an out-of-court settlement acknowledging that several key concepts and design features of the cauldron were proposals submitted by Atopia. Heatherwick however maintained that the design was his own and not influenced by Atopia's design.[79]

B of the Bang structural problemsEdit

B of the Bang suffered from structural problems once completed: one of its 180 steel spikes dislodged within two weeks, and a further 22 spikes were removed from the sculpture before Manchester City Council decided to put it into storage.[80] Manchester Council's decision to dismantle of B of the Bang was controversial. Angel of the North creator Anthony Gormley urged council bosses not to scrap the sculpture and wrote a letter to the Chief Executive of Manchester City Council Sir Howard Bernstein, where he described the 150-tonne landmark as "remarkable, dynamic and engaging." He stated that "It is a great tribute to Manchester... and to allow it to disappear would be a loss not just of an inspirational artwork but also of the council's nerve."[81]

Manchester City Council took legal action against Heatherwick studio and their subcontractors, who in November 2008 agreed to pay £1.7 million in damages.[82]

Worth Abbey pew cracksEdit

Thomas Heatherwick was appointed by Worth Abbey in 2009 to redesign its church interior. A modern version of traditional monastic furniture was installed including pews for 700, choir stalls, monastery seats, desks and confession rooms, all of which were fabricated from solid hardwood. Cracks appeared in the pews within months and Church officials put signs on them saying: “Caution: Pew awaiting repair. Please do not sit here.”[83] Heatherwick has denied responsibility for the defects and has blamed the contractor.[84]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Thomas Heatherwick: 'Design is like solving a crime'". London: Telegraph. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Thomas Heatherwick". Global Design Forum. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Icon Magazine, July 2012
  4. ^ "Thomas Heatherwick". Mapolis. 19 July 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Nicholas Wroe (18 May 2012). "Thomas Heatherwick: the new Leonardo of design | Art and design". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  6. ^ "Heatherwick Studio: About the Exhibition – Victoria and Albert Museum". Vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Thornhill, Cher. "London Bridge is rolling up: The spectacular Rolling Bridge that unfolds every Friday at noon". Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 September 2008. 
  8. ^ Wroe, Nicholas (18 May 2012). "Thomas Heatherwick: the new Leonardo of design". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  9. ^ "About us". Architecture.com. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  10. ^ Narain, Jaya (2 July 2009). "Britain's tallest comedown: Iconic 'B of the Bang' sculpture is demolished". Daily Mail. London. 
  11. ^ "B of the Bang ends with a whimper as £2m sculpture is sold for £17k scrap". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  12. ^ "Manchester B of the Bang sculpture core sold for scrap". BBC. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  13. ^ "Danny Boyle: B of the Bang inspired me to Olympic heights of creativity". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  14. ^ Jordana, Sebastian. "UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010 / Heatherwick Studio". ArchDaily. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  15. ^ "UK Pavilion at Shanghai Expo 2010 by Thomas Heatherwick". Dezeen. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  16. ^ "UK Pavilion | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  17. ^ Rose Etherington (30 June 2010). "Thomas Heatherwick's UK Pavilion at Shanghai Expo 2010 awarded RIBA Lubetkin Prize". Dezeen. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  18. ^ "UK Pavilion at World Expo 2010 in Shanghai wins RIBA Lubetkin Prize". Architecture.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  19. ^ "London Design Medal". The London Design Festival. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  21. ^ Hill, Dave (23 June 2015). "Boris's Bus (A Political Journey) Part 43: No More 'Hop On, Hop Off'?" – via The Guardian. 
  22. ^ "A New Bus for London by Heatherwick Studio". Dezeen. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
  23. ^ "600 new buses by 2016". Retrieved 18 September 2012. 
  24. ^ https://www.dezeen.com/2017/01/03/thomas-heatherwick-routemaster-bus-london-mayor-stops-orders-sadiq-khan
  25. ^ Elgot, Jessica (18 September 2015). "Routemaster buses in London to be refitted with windows that open" – via The Guardian. 
  26. ^ "Faulty Routemasters 'emit more harmful particles than old buses'". 24 July 2015. 
  27. ^ Wainwright, Oliver. "The flaming dandelion". BD Online. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  28. ^ "Olympic cauldron represents peace says designer Heatherwick". BBC. 28 July 2012. 
  29. ^ "2012 cauldron petals hand-delivered by Mayor to Indian Olympians". Retrieved 26 November 2012. 
  30. ^ a b "The Unstoppable Thomas Heatherwick". The Culture Show. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  31. ^ O'Ceallaigh, John (14 June 2013). "A 'Garden Bridge' across the Thames – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  32. ^ Peter Walker & Will Hurst (11 July 2016). "London mayor Sadiq Khan blocks extra funds for garden bridge". The Guardian. 
  33. ^ https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/news/breaking-cancel-the-garden-bridge-says-hodge-inquiry/10018946.article
  34. ^ "Learning Hub (The Hive) | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  35. ^ a b c "WAN:: Nanyang Learning Hub by Heatherwick Studio in Nanyang". Worldarchitecturenews.com. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  36. ^ a b "News Detail". Media.ntu.edu.sg. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  37. ^ a b c "thomas heatherwick's learning hub is comprised of 12 towers". Designboom.com. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ "Bombay Sapphire Distillery | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  40. ^ a b Nguma, Samuel (19 October 2016). "Bombay Sapphire Distillery: Heatherwick Studio Give a New Lease of Life to a Derelict Site in Laverstoke". Archute. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  41. ^ "Bombay Sapphire Distillery / Heatherwick Studio". ArchDaily. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  42. ^ "Bombay Sapphire Distillery | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  43. ^ Foundry, Gin (27 September 2014). "Bombay Sapphire Distillery at Laverstoke Mill open for visitors". Ginfoundry.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  44. ^ a b "Coal Drops Yard | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  45. ^ "Coal Drops Yard a unique new shopping quarter at King's Cross". Kingscross.co.uk. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  46. ^ a b Amy Frearson (18 December 2015). "Heatherwick gets go ahead for shopping centre in King's Cross". Dezeen.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  47. ^ "Coal Drops Yard King's Cross by Heatherwick Studio". E-architect.co.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  48. ^ "Foster and Heatherwick Collaborate to Design Shanghai Finance Center". ArchDaily. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  49. ^ "Bund Finance Centre Designs Released | Foster + Partners". Fosterandpartners.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  50. ^ "Zeitz Mocaa". Zeitzmocaa.museum. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  51. ^ "Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa at the V&A Waterfront | Museums, Galleries & Visual Arts Exhibitions MOCAA Cape Town". Capetownmagazine.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  52. ^ "Zeitz MOCAA | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  53. ^ a b Hancock, Colin (31 May 2016). "Zeitz MOCAA: New home for contemporary art? - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  54. ^ "Thomas Heatherwick the new MOCAA by Sue Williamson on 18 March". Artthrob.co.za. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  55. ^ "Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa (Zeitz MOCAA) to open in September 2017 | APTA". Apta.biz. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  56. ^ Amy Frearson (27 February 2014). "Heatherwick unveils gallery inside grain silos for Cape Town's V&A". Dezeen.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  57. ^ "Latest images of Foster and Heatherwick's Shanghai Bund". Architectsjournal.co.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  58. ^ "See BIG & Heatherwick's Design for Google's California Headquarters". ArchDaily. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  59. ^ Kennedy, Maev (26 January 2002). "'Carpet' provokes differing shades of opinion" – via The Guardian. 
  60. ^ "History". Aberystwyth Arts Centre. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  61. ^ "Heatherwick's shining start-ups open in Aberystwyth | News | Building Design". Bdonline.co.uk. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  62. ^ Steve Rose. "Steve Rose meets designer Thomas Heatherwick, creator of the sculpture B of the Bang | Art and design". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  63. ^ "Heatherwick Studio: Designing the Extraordinary" (PDF). Vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  64. ^ "Heatherwick Studio: About the Exhibition". V&A Website. 
  65. ^ "Heatherwick Studio: Designing the Extraordinary". Dezeen. 
  66. ^ "Inside Heatherwick Studio, Seoul | Blog | ADF | British Council". Design.britishcouncil.org. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  67. ^ "Inside Heatherwick Studio". British Council. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  68. ^ "Provocations: The Architecture and Design of Heatherwick Studio, September 2014 to January 2016 | Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  69. ^ "Nasher Sculpture Center Announces Provocations: The Architecture and Design of Heatherwick Studio | News & Press – Press Release". Nashersculpturecenter.org. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  70. ^ "Provocations: The Architecture and Design of Heatherwick Studio – Hammer Museum". Hammer.ucla.edu. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  71. ^ "Essential illustrated art books | Thomas Heatherwick". Thames & Hudson Publishers. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  72. ^ "Heatherwick Studio: Designing the Extraordinary at the V&A". Dezeen. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  73. ^ "About " Heatherwick Studio". Heatherwick.com. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  74. ^ "(Supplement) no. 60534". The London Gazette. 15 June 2013. p. 8. 
  75. ^ "Academy elects top engineers as Fellows at its 40th anniversary AGM". Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  76. ^ "50 Best Dressed Men in Britain 2015". GQ. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. 
  77. ^ Oliver Wainwright (19 June 2013). "How Olympic cauldron fanned flames of fury at American design studio". The Guardian. London. 
  78. ^ a b Oliver Wainwright (20 June 2013). "Designers of London Olympic cauldron deny copying claims". The Guardian. 
  79. ^ Oliver Wainwright (23 July 2014). "Row over Olympic cauldron design settled out of court". The Guardian. 
  80. ^ "'Bang' sculpture to be taken down". BBC. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
  81. ^ "Gormley's plea on 'bang' landmark". BBC. 22 January 2009. 
  82. ^ Grant, Len (2 September 2009). "Last Legs". East. Retrieved 30 March 2010. 
  83. ^ "'Faulty' church pews spark unholy row". Crawley Observer. 30 March 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  84. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 

External linksEdit