Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormond
Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormonde, 3rd Earl of Ossory, Viscount Thurles Irish: Tomás Dubh de Buitléir, Iarla Urmhamhan; c. 1531 – 22 November 1614), was an Irish peer and the son of James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond and Lady Joan Fitzgerald daughter and heiress-general of James FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Desmond. He was Lord Treasurer of Ireland and a very prominent personage during the latter part of the 16th century.(
|Earl of Ormond|
Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormonde, by Steven van der Meulen
|10th Earl of Ormond; 3rd Earl of Ossory|
|Predecessor||James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond|
|Successor||Walter Butler, 11th Earl of Ormond|
|Died||22 November 1614|
|Buried||St Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny|
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Berkeley, Elizabeth Sheffield, & Helena Barry|
Elizabeth, only surviving child
Birth and originsEdit
Thomas was born about February 1531. He was the eldest son of James Butler and his wife Joan FitzGerald. His father was the 9th Earl of Ormond. Thomas's mother was the only child of James FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Desmond.
Thomas was one of seven sons:
|Thomas listed among his brothers|
|He heads the list of brothers as the eldest:
He built the Tudor Manor House extension to Ormonde Castle on his estates in Carrick-on-Suir, County Tipperary. Much of his life was taken up with a fierce feud with his hereditary foe, Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond, son of James FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond. The two sides fought a pitched battle in 1565, the Battle of Affane. Butler's victory, not only in the field but also in the handling the political fallout, helped to spark the Desmond Rebellions. This struggle (1569–1573) and 1579–1583) desolated Munster for many years. Ormond was a Protestant belonging to the Church of Ireland and threw his great influence on the side of Queen Elizabeth I and her ministers in their efforts to crush the rebels, although he was motivated as much by factional rivalry with the Desmond dynasty as by religion. He had command of the Royal Irish Army tasked with the suppression of the rebellions, which he eventually accomplished.
Ormond and Elizabeth I met in London as children. Thomas, the "son of an Irish Earl", and Elizabeth, the "illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII", shared a common experience: Neither was well-treated by the other young nobles at court. They were cousins as well through her mother, Anne Boleyn; Boleyn's paternal grandmother, Lady Margaret Butler, was a daughter of the Ormond dynasty in Ireland. Elizabeth called him her "black husband." In 1588, the Queen bestowed on Ormond what a poet described as áirdchéim Ridireacht Gáirtéir, / ainm nár ghnáth é ar Éirionnach ("the high honour of the Knighthood of the Garter, a title unusual for an Irishman").
Ormond built a Tudor-style castle (Carrick-on-Suir) along the river Suir, which he decorated lavishly and even had red brick chimneys built on, which, at the time, were very expensive. All of this was to provide Elizabeth with a suitable palace at which to stay when she travelled to Ireland. Elizabeth planned twice to visit the castle: once in 1602 (which visit was canceled by her illness); and again in 1603. She died, however, before the visit. It is known that Elizabeth appreciated Thomas' effort, and was - as she was with all of her maternal cousins - very fond of him. Thomas survived Elizabeth by 11 years.
Marriage and childrenEdit
He then married Elizabeth Sheffield on 9 November 1582 at London. She was the daughter of John Sheffield, 2nd Baron Sheffield and Douglas, daughter of William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham. They had three children:
- John (1584–1589), died young;
- Elizabeth (before 1593 – 1628), married, firstly, her first cousin Theobald, son of Thomas's brother Edmund, but Theobald died childless in 1613; she married, secondly, Richard Preston, 1st Earl of Desmond, and had one daughter, Elizabeth Preston;
- Thomas (before 1601 – 1606), died young.
In 1601 he married Helena Barry, daughter of David Fitz-James de Barry, 5th Viscount Buttevant, without issue.
Lord Ormond died on 22 November 1614. As the Earl died without legally recognised male issue, the Earldom reverted in the male line, to the junior branch of the family through his brother John Butler of Kilcash.
- Treasurer of Ireland (1559–1614)
- Lieutenant of County Tipperary (1575)
- Lieutenant of County Kilkenny (1575)
- Lord General of the Forces in Munster (1582–1583)
- General of the Forces in Leinster (1594–1596)
- Lieutenant-General of the all Forces in Ireland (1597)
- Vice-Admiral of Leinster (1602)
|Ancestors of Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormond|
- Edwards 2004, p. 220: "... was born about February 1531"
- Carte 1851, p. cxviii"I had almost forgot to observe that this earl Thomas was a protestant ..."
- Chisholm 1911. sfn error: no target: CITEREFChisholm1911 (help)
- Dunboyne 1968, pp. 16–17: "Butler Family Tree condensed"
- Cokayne 1895, p. 148, line 33: "JOHN BUTLER, styled VISCOUNT THURLES, 1st s. and h. ap., b. 1684, d. an infant and was bur. in Westm. Abbey."
- Cokayne 1895, p. 148, line 35: "THOMAS BUTLER, styled VISCOUNT THURLES, 2nd but only surviving s. and h. ap., sheriff of co. Tipperary 1605; d. unm. and v.p. 12 Jan. 1605/6 and was bur. at Carrick, M.I."
- Cokayne 1895, p. 148, line 30: "He d. at Carrick, 22 Nov. 1614, aged 82, having been 15 years blind."
- Lundy, Darryl. "Person Page:Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormonde". www.thepeerage.com. The Peerage. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- Carte, Thomas (1851), The Life of James Duke of Ormond, 1 (new ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press – 1613 to 1641
- Cokayne, George Edward (1895), The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant, 6 (1st ed.), London: George Bell and Sons – N to R (for Ormond)
- Dunboyne, Patrick Theobald Tower Butler, Baron (1968), Butler Family History (2nd ed.), Kilkenny: Rothe House
- Edwards, David (2004), "Butler, Thomas, tenth earl of Ormond and third earl of Ossory (1531–1558)", in Matthew, Henry Colin Gray.; Harrison, Brian (eds.), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 9, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 220–225, ISBN 0-19-861359-8
|Peerage of Ireland|
| Earl of Ormonde