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The Third Rutte cabinet has been the cabinet of the Netherlands since 26 October 2017. It was formed by a coalition government of the political parties People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Democrats 66 (D66) and Christian Union (CU) after the Dutch general election of 2017.

Third Rutte cabinet
Rutte–De Jonge–Ollongren–Schouten cabinet
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70th cabinet of the Netherlands
Mark Rutte 2015 (1) (cropped).jpg
Mark Rutte
Date formed26 October 2017 (2017-10-26)
People and organisations
MonarchWillem-Alexander
Prime MinisterMark Rutte
Deputy Prime MinisterHugo de Jonge
Kajsa Ollongren
Carola Schouten
Total no. of ministers16
Member partyPeople's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD)
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA)
Democrats 66 (D66)
Christian Union (CU)
Status in legislatureCentre to Centre-right coalition government
History
Election(s)2017 election
Legislature term(s)2017–
PredecessorRutte II

Contents

FormationEdit

The 2017 general election resulted in a House of Representatives where at least four parties would be required to form a coalition with a majority (76 seats). Media sources speculated that incumbent Prime Minister Mark Rutte of the VVD would seek to form a government with the support of the centre-right CDA and liberal D66. The CU was thought to be the most likely candidate to be the fourth member of the coalition.[1] Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport, Edith Schippers, was selected by the VVD to serve as the party's informateur on 16 March and appointed by Speaker of the House Khadija Arib, seeking to determine whether Jesse Klaver of GroenLinks (GL) solely desired a left-wing government, or instead simply viewed the VVD as an unlikely coalition partner. Similarly, talks with Emile Roemer of the Socialist Party (SP), who repeatedly stated during the campaign that his party would not govern with the VVD, remained a possibility.[2]

The leaders of D66, the CDA, the PvdA, the VVD, the SP, GL, and the CU stated that they would not enter a coalition with the PVV;[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Roemer also said that the SP would not join a coalition with the VVD.[10]

The first proposed coalition was one involving the VVD-CDA-D66 and GroenLinks. This was the preferred coalition of Alexander Pechtold, Lodewijk Asscher and Gert-Jan Segers, while Jesse Klaver continued to argue that the major policy differences between GL and the VVD would make a coalition difficult.[11] Nevertheless, the four parties began more serious negotiations toward a coalition agreement. Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS) reported that "labour market reform, investment in law enforcement and additional money for nursing homes" would be areas of agreement between the parties, while "refugee policy, income distribution, climate and medical ethics issues are potential stumbling blocks".[12]

On 15 May, talks on the proposed four-way VVD-CDA-D66-GL coalition failed. It was reported that the main dispute concerned immigration, but GL leader Jesse Klaver cited climate issues and income differences as other issues where the parties disagreed. The end of the talks was reported to be a consensus decision, with no party blaming any others.[13][14]

Coalition talks were reported to be at an impasse, with the VVD and CDA favouring a coalition with the CU, D66 favouring a coalition with either the PvdA or the SP, the SP being absolutely opposed to a coalition with the VVD, the CDA being opposed to a coalition without the VVD, the PvdA rejecting any coalition, and all parties with more than five seats rejecting a coalition with the PVV. D66 said that it would consider a coalition with the CU very difficult due to disagreements on medical-ethical issues such as doctor-assisted suicide, due to the lack of representation of the political left within that coalition, and due to the small majority of one seat in both chambers, which could make for an unstable coalition.[15][16]

In late June 2017, discussions began again between the VVD, D66, the CDA and the CU under the lead of new informateur Herman Tjeenk Willink. After a three-week summer break, talks resumed on 9 August 2017, and were reported to be close to a conclusion due to representatives of unions and employers' organizations joining the discussions, which typically happens near the end of such negotiations.[17][18] In September 2017, a budget deal compromise was reached allowing the coalition talks to continue. While still 'close to conclusion', it appeared likely that the talks about government formation would exceed the record since World War II of 208 days set in 1977.[19] After 208 days of negotiations, the VVD, D66, CDA and CU agreed to a coalition under a third informateur, Gerrit Zalm,[20][21][22] and all members of the House of Representatives of the involved parties approved the agreement on 9 October 2017.[23] On 26 October the new cabinet was formally installed, 225 days after the elections, setting a record for the longest cabinet formation in Dutch history.

PolicyEdit

Government

The third Rutte cabinet repealed the referendum act, stating the act has not delivered what was expected. The cabinet also deconstitutionalised the method of appointment of mayors and King's Commissioners, thus allowing the method to be changed by law.[24]

Finance

The cabinet plans to simplify income tax, reducing the number of tax brackets to two. Income below 68,600 would be taxed at 36.9%, and income from 68,600 onward at 49.5%. There are also plans to increase the lower VAT rate from 6 to 9%.[24] A plan to abolish dividend tax proved so controversial that it was discarded in October 2018.[25] Instead, the cabinet will now lower corporation tax more than was initially planned; the higher rate will be lowered from 25 to 20.5%, and the lower rate from 20 to 15%.[24]

Justice

In judicial matters, the cabinet intends to end the automatic conditional release of prisoners after two thirds of their sentence, and to shorten asylum permits from five to three years, after which refugees can request an extension of another two years.[24]

Labour

The cabinet intends to reform the labour market and pension system. Laws around the termination of employment will be relaxed, while paid sick leave will be shortened. The cabinet initially planned to allow employers to pay handicapped people below the minimum wage, which would then be supplemented by local government. However, this proposal was later retracted.[24]

Environment

The cabinet pledged to ban the sale of non-emission-free cars by 2030. There are also plans to introduce a flight tax by 2021.[24] In March 2018, the cabinet also pledged to end gas extraction from the Groningen gas field within twelve years.[26]

CompositionEdit

Appointee Title Ministry Term of office Party
  Mark Rutte
(born 1967)
Prime Minister General Affairs 14 October 2010 –
Incumbent
[Retained]
VVD
  Hugo de Jonge
(born 1977)
Deputy Prime Minister

Minister
Health, Welfare
and Sport
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CDA
  Jonkvrouw
Kajsa Ollongren
(born 1967)
Deputy Prime Minister

Minister
Interior and Kingdom
Relations
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
D66
  Carola Schouten
(born 1977)
Deputy Prime Minister

Minister
Agriculture, Nature
and Food Quality
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CU
  Halbe Zijlstra
(born 1969)
Minister Foreign Affairs 26 October 2017 –
13 February 2018
[Res]
VVD
  Sigrid Kaag
(born 1961)
13 February 2018 –
7 March 2018
[Ad interim]
D66
  Stef Blok
(born 1964)
7 March 2018 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Wopke Hoekstra
(born 1975)
Minister Finance 26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CDA
  Dr.
Ferdinand Grapperhaus
(born 1959)
Minister Justice and Security 26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CDA
  Eric Wiebes
(born 1963)
Minister Economic Affairs and
Climate Policy
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Ank Bijleveld
(born 1962)
Minister Defence 26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CDA
  Wouter Koolmees
(born 1977)
Minister Social Affairs and
Employment
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
D66
  Ingrid van Engelshoven
(born 1966)
Minister Education, Culture
and Science
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
D66
  Cora van Nieuwenhuizen
(born 1963)
Minister Infrastructure and
Water Management
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
VVD
Appointee without portfolio Title Portfolio/Ministry Term of office Party
  Sigrid Kaag
(born 1961)
Minister Foreign Trade and Development
Cooperation

(within Foreign Affairs)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
D66
  Sander Dekker
(born 1975)
Minister Legal Protection

(within Justice and Security)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Bruno Bruins
(born 1963)
Minister Medical Care

(within Health, Welfare
and Sport
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Arie Slob
(born 1961)
Minister Primary and Secondary
Education and Media

(within Education, Culture
and Science
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CU
Junior appointee Title Portfolio/Ministry Term of office Party
  Raymond Knops
(born 1971)
State Secretary • Privatization Policy
• Government Real Estate
• Kingdom Relations

(within Interior and Kingdom
Relations
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CDA
  Menno Snel
(born 1970)
State Secretary • Fiscal Affairs
• Tax and Customs Administration
• Local Government Finances
• National Mint
• Gambling Policy
• State Lottery

(within Finance)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
D66
  Mark Harbers
(born 1969)
State Secretary
[Title]
• Integration
• Immigration
• Asylum Affairs
• Minority Affairs

(within Justice and Security)
26 October 2017 –
21 May 2019
[Res]
VVD
  Ankie Broekers-Knol
(born 1946)
11 July 2019 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Mona Keijzer
(born 1968)
State Secretary • Small Business Policy
• Retail Policy
• Regional Development
• Consumer Protection
• Digital Infrastructure
• Postal Service
• Tourism Affairs

(within Economic Affairs
and Climate Policy
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CDA
  Barbara Visser
(born 1977)
State Secretary • Personnel Affairs
• Equipment Policy
• Special Ops Policy

(within Defence)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Paul Blokhuis
(born 1963)
State Secretary • Elderly Policy
• Disability Affairs
• Veteran Affairs

(within Health, Welfare
and Sport
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
CU
  Tamara van Ark
(born 1974)
State Secretary • Social Security
• Unemployment Affairs
• Occupational Safety
• Youth Policy
• Poverty Policy
• Equality
• Emancipation

(within Social Affairs
and Employment
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
VVD
  Stientje van Veldhoven
(born 1973)
State Secretary • Transport Infrastructure
• Public Transport
• Energy Policy
• Weather Forecasting Service

(within Infrastructure and
Water Management
)
26 October 2017 –
Incumbent
D66
Source: (in English) Members of the government Rijksoverheid
Retained this position from the previous cabinet.
Resigned.
Served ad interim.
Allowed to use the title of Minister while on foreign business.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Dutch election: Wilders defeat celebrated by PM Rutte". BBC News. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  2. ^ "Nederland Kiest: 'formatie wordt moeilijk, moeilijk, moeilijk'". NOS. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  3. ^ "Wilders: liever een coalitie dan een revolte". NOS. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  4. ^ "Buma weigert regeren met PVV nog steeds". De Telegraaf. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  5. ^ "PvdA-voorzitter Spekman: Henk en Mark, zeg nee tegen de PVV". NOS. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  6. ^ "Rutte: kans op regering VVD met PVV is nul". NOS. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  7. ^ Sasha Kester (14 January 2017). "Roemer sluit samenwerking met VVD uit en roept PvdA op hetzelfde te doen". Volkskrant. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  8. ^ "ChristenUnie sluit samenwerking met PVV uit". Groot Nieuws Radio. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  9. ^ Edwin van der Aa; Hans van Soest (14 January 2017). "Emile Roemer sluit VVD uit". Algemeen Dagblad. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  10. ^ Vries, Joost de (20 March 2017). "Van middenkabinet tot 'christelijk progressief', alle formatiewensen op een rij - Binnenland - Voor nieuws, achtergronden en columns". De Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  11. ^ "Formatie dag 8: de onderhandelingen gaan beginnen". NOS (in Dutch). 23 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  12. ^ Dutch coalition talks failed say officials, (in English) politico.eu.
  13. ^ BBC News, Europe.
  14. ^ Geen kans op slagen met CU (in Dutch), telegraaf.nl.
  15. ^ Formatie in impassie: D66 nog geen zin in CU (in Dutch), nrc.nl, 2017.05.18.
  16. ^ Dutch government talks near finish line Politico, 4 August 2017.
  17. ^ Talks to form Dutch govt kick off again after break Yahoo News 9 August 2017.
  18. ^ "Dutch budget deal prevents collapse of shaky coalition". The Irish Times. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  19. ^ "208 Days to Forge Four-Party Coalition Dutch Government". The Australian. 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  20. ^ Kroet, Cynthia (9 October 2017). "Dutch Coalition Partners Agree on Government Deal, Seek Party Backing". Politico. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  21. ^ Henley, Jon (9 October 2017). "Dutch Parties Agree Coalition Government After a Record 208 Days". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  22. ^ Kroet, Cynthia (10 October 2017). "Dutch Government Coalition Deal Receives Parliamentary Backing". Politico. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Volg hier de wetgeving van Rutte III". NRC (in Dutch). 15 January 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Kabinet en coalitie schaffen dividendbelasting definitief niet af". NU.nl (in Dutch). 15 October 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  25. ^ "Kabinet: binnen 12 jaar einde aan gaswinning in Groningen". NOS (in Dutch). 29 March 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.

External linksEdit

Official